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l>iH*iriifi'- o.' hi'iiM- 11' ii)ipiMili«>ir iir Ht>II-f!o^ •iniiiH^nt — Siif:(:«Hiii nr Jamefi 
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Ktiutif! l.iMli^.iUni 'JUfUiiiT ^ Jfini<>r<;dllipt> — Bl2VBrd> pKtiticm, - - - - 

r*H>V}'Ti:K XI. 

Jlii4Uii(it'> II. ^iii«*ri«ii. iiii*%«i!iirt!iinf!iii^ til** jiear:«p dvlarad in Euritpe 
Ail.iirr- iif f iiii.idii \J»'<rufUini of r>t[*ii»*ii«f*':adr. Jaonarr. J69(i — Otber 
^tfitt'i- tiiii! hidiiui «%ttr» — 'j*iii tipHi! oppoHiiiou to Lc'iidpr put down^ 
1.1 iHtff «iii<i flit i:i<tt'riiuiir of ^ 'ftitii*-*'ii'-uT pluu an expedition apainfitCa> 
iici4l4 . wiijt'ii iaiuk — <. ui)M.'»-'W lUuuij l'ill]«p^. ---------- 


<#ii ■•• 'iiwt 4iii'.i*ii' 1(1 '\»'» V»«rk itti<d r'yuu*!'."ij'.'ut— AjTTTal of Captain In- 
!>.... ,^i., \% -M. •l•.•••.^- JI* •..■»ip Ml*- yaity of Bayard. Van Cnrdaadt, 
I. . i.a;^''.!*- ••:• H f • M- "»> ;'f*i;t*r V <;»*u»»-d k.'V I>r!*>i*'f — Hip outra ^ O M 
l'f.1 ,,.; iijcfi . ^...llJE■.^■.t'» !•('■«•>- -J>'i»>ri» Ntriz^d. aodafibr a modE trial. 

|<>'i-.«|f' .| f«» *>i ». ..*'.•»'•»'*'" ijf*j'*-r"»fov*mia*iiT^-dinvJ^anaffairi 

.".-.j.-.i . . . ■. |. y. ..» 1 X' \' r:.:'.r \ff' >::. — ^<rfi:jyler attacks 

• ■ ■ I M '.'.•. *■ I. I'». » » --I'l.; 1.'. A 1/---K 'f >f'i f#r P*-y<^r — Flrtchipr. 

ir-«tit'if ••'*#■••.•..'.» ■/»••/*/?•.'* ' '/'irx".« --'."'ii^-^* H^Athrote-— His 

r ■• • H ■• :t f.'rf f.f r-i X '."J" ►I'-f **•* on L/>nc Maud — 

I «'•!.«# « !(-• ''-••1 '■» l'»'»r ^'h>ji:fr -f'r>riat FronrignK — H'an witfa 
«*»• If— , I" * -(fit*! *x{>«-'2;!.Qn •jumt Uifttm. - - 



Pinrr — Lord BeUunont, coTemour— Robert LiTin^ston — William Kidd 
cooapletM his crew at New York — Tunu ptnte — Returns to America 
and IS secured by Bellamont — Treasure — BeUamont at the bead of the 
democrarv — His cousciK at the time of his arrival — Proj^ress of the city. 
— New Vixr Hall, in Wall street — French plan* of conquest in .\merica 
- B4*tlamont claims the Iroquois as subjects to England and New York — 
Canadian a&irs — Death of BeUamont, 


Continuation of Kidd*s affair*— Persecution of Robert Livin|r!<on — Rever- 
wal of the attainder of Jacob Leisier. and restoration of property to the 
&milT — Lord Comburj's family and character — Bayard** trial and con- 
demnation — Reprieve — Relief by the arrival of Cornburv, and reversal 
of the judgment against him — Nanfan, and the assembly of I7(hi, ... 245 


Colonial covemment — Combury relieves Bayard, and arows himself 
leader of the aristocracy — YeUow fever of l"7l>2 — Combury a zealoos 
Episcopalian — Affairs of the Iroquois and Canada-- Peter Schuyler's 
enorts- -Queen Anne appoints Combury to the iroveminent of New Jer» 
sey. with New York — His instruetioBs to promote reli|rion» and the in- 
crease of A6rican slavery— En^ish navi^tion act — Combury unites both 
parties in a detestation of himseU — He is superseded, and thrown into 
jail by his creditors— Becomes Earl of Clarendon, and a peer of Great 
BntaiD — Lovelacef goTemoar — His death, 


Preparations for subduing Canada — ^Alacritv of New York — The Iroquois 
join — ^Troops halt at Wood Creek — En|;lish armament goes to Portugal 
— The provincials are led back — Discontent — Expedition from Canada — 
Schuyler's plan for engaging England in the conquest of Canada — He 
goes to England with five Indian chiefs — Produces another English at- 
tempt, which fails as before — Govemour Hunter— His Council — Arrival 
of Germans --Lew is Morris— Jacobus Van Cortlandt — Hunter's demands 
upon the assembly — Detaib of the &ilure of the attack upon Ci 
Treaty of Utrecht—Piratea, 


Court of Chancery — By the treaty of Utrecht, the Iroquois considered sub- 
jects of Englanci — Peter Schuyler — Govemour Burnet — Doctor C Col- 
den — Oswego— Congress at Albany — Spotteswode — French plan of 
extending forts from St. Lawrence to Mississippi — Chevalier de Joncaire 
— Burnet's plan, in opposition to France — French at Niagara — Govemour 
Bamet's dimculties and final removal to Massachusetts-— Character, > - - 280 


Montgomerie, govemour — Burnet in Massachusetts— Nature of colonial 
government — Military govemours — Members of the council at this time 
— Death of Montgomerie — Rip Van Dam — (^olonel Cosby, govemour 
— Dispute with Van Dam — Bradford and Zenger — Smith and .Alexander 
— The aristocratick and democratick parties, azid their leaders— De Lancey 
and Phillipso—Zenger's thai, S91 


Co^o^nttA hi u ii arf of %*!W T^fir: wli^ x^hubAe — Citj: devriptiov of— 3CaB- 
A^r^ (/ 4fe^ t>tif w» Lord Aay a i ^B t Frtzror : kin receptioo, and the rotMe 
4|iM'fKtA« — {M«Ch nf Of>vemoar Co»Aij. anJpromai^mtion of the MupeiiaoB 
tff V«ii |>»m — ^AtrB|jjfU» for pow^r Uttweea Clarke and Van Dam, tenni- 
Mit#!d l*j M iiHftMUii^ Irtnn f^fUftd — Morrw — Difdhmduaemcxii of the Jewi 
'll«iM|«n^'at aadaiMlitiea of Clarke, 311 


JfodffiMw of Ib^ p^opU of 5(ew York, in what it* called the Ne«To Plot — 
Moy<*ia«d»i > ' WiHrtM>o« and famifj — Pej^ifJ Carr — Kane — Price — Jirfin 
f/r/ -fySO'-vtMma — ^Trtal of Vry, aind kia execmioti — Seward of Marj 


ArrtTol ^ Admiral Clinton, a* f or^moar of New York — Capture of Lonia> 
boMfC— 'flfnt/f-Mi of the frootirr*— |>#>*troetioii oflioo^ick and Saratoga — 
Htr Pmtmr Warreo— ^tfovernoar Clinton at Albany — Failare of Enftend 
U> iwroaid the pro)4trtfid ronc|uet< of Canada— <»ovemoor Clinton's iBfolent 
lanf ua^e to the hoiMe nf umntMy, and their apirited reply — Darid Brai- 
iMird«— Murder Inr a Mbot from a nan^Awar in the harboar of Xew York 
— Hir Uaiivera O^horae— Coafreat at Albaaj, ' 


TV eonf r^M of |7r>4'— Prof reap of the Frearh — Debaaement of 

hy tlie Knfti^i fovernrnent afid by Bnti«h otfirers — ^AfTaim at 0»we^. 
BitA «Hl»rr part* of f^ke C>ntario— f^xpedition of General William John- 
M»n afaiinH Crown Point 'lf«>ridrirk-^i<*neral Lvuian — Fort Edward — 
iohn«on arrive* al f^k*; Hforzf — Lyman, leaving a /garrison at Fort 
Kdward. join* him— Baron f>i«'«kau— Defeat of Williams — Attack upon 
ProvineiaU -iohnMin wonmM — li,yman rommand.^ — Diestkan wounded, 
and Ilia Iroop* drfeal^'d — Afliiir of MrCiinnip — C«n;paifn of MTJy — Lord 
l^omUm -M. MouU:alm take* 0#wego and Fort WiAiam lieniy, ... 373 


Port William IfeMry— fnwno'u — l/>rd l^ondon — I»ui4>onrf — ^Abercromhie, 
hi« defeat : ami lh«* drath of fx»rd Howe— Ch»rl«*« l>^e — Bradrtreet take* 
Fort Froniicnaf -l^iruteoiint-cotfrnoiir De l^nrcy me<>tM the lefida- 
liiie Mr Piii'a re«|ui*iii«ma for ihi* rompai^n of |.Vi!»l-Wo!fe and Qnebec 
■ Amheral TMondern^a — Crown Point — l«le aux Noix — Prideaux — 
Niajiari Uken by iohnMin. 380 


|«i»tiaUil%e enarfmenl*— Death and funeral of Lieutetumt-fovemour De 
lAnt*y -Amiiervi'a ran4|ueM of Canada. 401 


f ieneial Amher«l amviw at Vew York : i« inTr«ti>d with the Order of the 
tUriet ht Monrlkion. al the enmmpini>nt on Statf^n l«bnd — Monrkton 
an«l «iw« Mil Ibi M«r«inM|iie^TrfH«p« r4i«ed for the re^lar •erriee of 
tittHii niiiam- t*t«tiitHlr of FnjiUnd— Stamp An — It* retrospect and 
tv«^p«mn IN Ainern^M in feneral. ami X«*w York inpartimku- — Arottfreee 
km S^m \ ««tk Staittp««tr)%e— Rioi*->Pnideiii mettMire« — l^ord Chathaai 

Rep<Mil «r Ihv Hiamp Art. 406 



New Hampshire grants — Unanimity in opposing the stamp act — Triumph 
at its repeal--Liberty-pole8 — Englitih project for raising a revenue from 
the colonies — Charles Townsend, 429 


Some causes of the war of the revolution — The Gaspee —Informers — 
Impressment, --.------------ 439 


Refusal to grant more than £200 — Philip Schuyler, George Clinton, and N. 
Woodhull— The Tea— Committee of ni\y>one— Congress of 1774, - - -447 


Lieutenant>govemour Colden — Appointment of Washington— Lee — Gates 
— Washington's reception by the Provincial Congress at New York, - - 456 


The congress of 1774 — Articles of confederation during the war of the revo- 
lution— The history of Vermont — New York in 1775 — The Asia — 
Charles Lee, 460 

Chatham — Rivington— Christopher CoUes— Washington — Schuyler, - - - 473 

Churches and Clergy — Lawyers and Physicians, 482 



Dutch claims — Ditcorenj of America and New Netherland — Ver- 
razzano'^Camada— Indians of New Netherland-^ Gallatinr^ 
American Antiquities, 

Tub territory claimed bj the t)utch, aod by them called the 
New Netherlands, extended, in the first instance, from Cape Cod 
to Delaware Ba}' on the Atlantic/ including the islands of the 
sea coast : the riveF St. Lawrence se^nis to have bounded it on 
the north : on the south, some undefined line beyond Delaware 
Bay ; and west, it was boundless. But for tlie purpose I have in 
view, at present, which is to lay before my readers all that I know 
respecting the inhabitants of this territory when our Dutch ances- 
tors first visited it, I must bound the New Netherlands to the west 
by a line drawn from the upper part of Lake Erie to the Ohio 
River. I shall have heresifter to speak of other Khes and boun- 
daries, when we are called to consider the conflicting claims of 
the various nations of Europe. That such ckdms, and the hetero- 
geneous and hostile colonies resulting from them, should ever have 
combined to form one great nation, such as we now see in the 
United States of America, is what muB( make the modt nfttbinking 
seriously ponder on the future 

In the year 1497, (five years after Columbus disco- 

1497 vered, San Salvador,) Gabotti. or Cabot, saw the island 
of Newfoundland, winch the Northmen had already dfaoo- 

vered long before, and called Vinland.t Columbus, a Geaoesey 

* Vuderdonck, writing in the New Netherianda previous (o 1658. givas the extent 
thai : ** Bafniuiiiig north of the equinoctial, 38 degreei and 53 nibutes, extendrng 
oorth-eaaterly along the sea-coast te the 42nd degree/* 

t Homboldt, the great pbiloeophieal timveller, haa ghr«i it as his opinion ^t the 
Northmen, or ScaodinaTiana, were the first discoTerers of America. Others hare 
aasoted that Colombas, m 1477, when he visited Iceland, obuined each knowledge 
respectingthese early discoveries as resnlted in his ever memorable voyage to the West 
Indies, liie Royal'Society of Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen have already 

VOL. I. 2 


in the service of Spain, cave to tbat kingdom a claim to all Am 
rica« because he, in 1492, arrived ai ^an .Salvador: snd Cabor 
Venetian, in tiie emplo}inent ot' Henry VII.. of England, co 
ferred a supposed riziit upon that monarch to half, or the nonr.e 
portion of tiiat new world, the whole of v^hich Columbus aj 
the Bishop of Home had already i^iven to Spain. 

Those inlands called the West Indies, were, probably, at son 

distant period, a part of our continent ; and uhen Christoph 

Colon, or Co!un:^bu>. feii in with them, in bis search for ti.e £a 

Indies, he called the inhabitants Indians, supposing: that he h; 

arrived at the land of his desires. It was soon, however, believe 

tbat this discovert' of Columbus was a new world : and as ! 

was in the employment of Spain, this new world, wiih all its i 

habitants, was claimed bv that kingdom, and the claim was coi 

firmed by the Bishop of Rome,* to whom all the earth and i 

inhabitants belonged. As the Genoese Columbus had give 

Spain a rijrht to all the new world in 1492, so the Venetian G 

botti, or Cabot, gave the same kind of right to England in 149'S 

but England had no ecclesiastical confirmation of her claims, as 

relied solely on her power to enforce them. The Norwegia 

discovery was already forgotten. Cabot touched a: Vinland i 

1497, and called the counir}' Newfoundlaad ; he then sailed aloi 

tarowB much !:?:.: o'.^Ke !:»::» of :i£;r ancesion :o A'rirrca. and iiitle doab: nm»ii 

thfti iac«e eariv d4t ^arors iOicic<i o'lt coas*. at ur to-Ah as Massachasctta ar 

Rhode Island . * but I snaU. at far as p^Mi^le. or euz ^>< co:;5ce mvaelf ;o tac Nc 

Ncthcriaadi. real u, Deia-Aare. N^« Jenej. New Von. ar.d pan of CocoectKci 

Mod tae tni r.aT.^a*.or «ao giret :.» a.ijrarcn .n: of :be coasi, or tbe i 

aav morion of ;ais re;:oii. :« Gioracn: Verrazzir'> (See Hack?uTt i In cuoai 

qoeoce of l.s voTaz^s vt^ tD^y aot/potc :3a: Herifr IV . of France, zra&tcd I 

M. de« Mi>cu. a!l A3;cri<;a. frocn lot 40;n !) :ie 46th degree of Ia:/.ui2e. and < 

co>^ne. tie ^re««r.: futc of New Vor< ; b^: Ja!x«e« I . of EoglauL Iike«;a 

S\tt :C a It at. a* a urt of V;ri^r.ia. in coRtec^:e':ce of fJaboft Torage. Bat befiM 

Co^im^a•, if we rie..eve the rariO'ss cla;.'nar.'3 for lot oocMcr of d.acoTeniig Aau 

rica. lae Arahs of i^^ain. 7hm Weiia. tne;ff. acd che Danea. besides t^ 

NortLi3»e3 aaove m^r.v.^n^. had Men the r.ew world ; certain it :«. boihi&g resahe 

froii :iie:r d:KOTer.e« Va: oit di-e« are g.xen to toe Tojagea : the Spaoiah Arabian 

lllO : Madoe*9. 1170 : ar.d Ventce. noeo m:«:rets of commerce anid the m«, wbn 

profpenty ca::sed a-.^ z^M, m^x hite teen Amcrca and called :t Aobil 

before the map of 1436 . ar.d toe ttorr of the nfocmac aod the Zeni maj be northji 

bebef From these taadowr talcs f free m^ psget, and hope to bnng Uma resI;Uf 

esioogh aad prove :ne:r :r.::h. 

* Aiesasder VI. Tae nuural par^ of hJ VsU frantin; the New Worid 10 Feid 
Band aod laaVUa« the aorereigca of Spain, w:Il be fbood id Vaitel's law of NatiocH 
Book 1. Cb. 18. Note. 

* CoHsetiea respecting American aat^oiiies. pabUthed hr the Royal Society • 
Aatiqaaries of the North . 

t86 — Ent.. tae red. formed a teulemcnt tn Grcenlaad, ke eniigrating from Icetaad 
1000.— Toe SOB of Ere. m a Toyage of dneovciT, saw vanoaa bade and aamm 

; be fiaalij bcilt hots on a put of the coss(, and hanng dJscoTered frapaa 

d tkt Uad VicUnd. 

DI8C0TBRBB8. 11 

the coastf aometimea Uoding* but generally kept aome leaguea out 
at aety aa iar perhaps as the capes of Chesapeake Bay and having 
occasionally visited the shore during this voyage, he brought 
back to bb employer a cock and hen-turkey, and three Neiv^ 
foandland savages. 

King Henr}' V'lL, of England, seems not to have believed that 
the Pope, or Bishop of Rome, had a legal or divine right to be- 
%tow the whole of the new world upon the King of Spain ; be 
therefore sent out Cabot again, with inscruciions lo plant his 
standard on the walls of all *' the cities and casdes,'' (which the 
inhabitanis of this newlv discovered world had built for their 
own convenience or pleasure, witliout consulting his majesty,) 
and to take possession of all the countries ** unappropriated by 
ckristian aorrmgiu." 

Thus we see that if the people of these countries should have 
happened to be governed by a monarch not a christian, or to have 
been so silly as to govern themselves, then they and their country 
were to be taken possession of ** in tlie name of Henry'* King 
of England ; and the Venetian Cabot was instructed ^ to maintain 
with the inhabitants a traffic exclusive of all competitors, and ex* 
empied from all customs, under the condition of paying a fifth of 
the free profit of every voyage to the crown." The Veneuan 
brought back two turkeys. But England claimed, in conse- 
quence of his voyage, the whole of North America not already 
taken possession of by Spain. The Spaniards had really found 
cities and castles, on which to plant the standard of their king ; 
mnd as the Bbhop of Rome had given to them all they could find, 
they took all, and murdered such of the previous possessors aa 
resisted the will of the Pope : those who submitted and became 
christians, were only made slaves. 

Bat the English had not been sufficiently allured by the pro-* 
ducts of America, which Cabot brought to them as a return for 

1006. — In lOOS hU brother Thorward went to Vinland, tnd proteeiittBg disco- 
west e«*t and north : taw Esquimaux — attacked them — nurdtred many, and 

• himwlf killed. 

1006. — Other advemoTert found a country more aoutherly, where the winter wm 
without anow : apent a winter there — taw and had intercourse with the inhabiiaiita, 
called Skrrllings, as were those I call Esquimaux. 

1013. — Another voyage to Vinland is given. 

1015. — An adventurer and trader settled there, and an American bom ton. Tbo 
records of these discoreriet are supported by nautical and geogiaphical facta, ttc. 
The intercourse between Greenland and Vmland long kept up. 

in* — Bishop Eric went to Vinland. 

lt(>6 — Voyage» of discovery |ro$ecuted 

1347 — A vofascfrom Greenland to Marklsnd. 

Resnii, that in the tenth and eleventh centuries the Northmen discovered Ame- 
rica — Ro^mI Soeuiy of yortkem AuttquMniM on tkt cslc-Co^vrnKca Histmy ^ 



Sucli dempnatn lions of nclcornc ajipcnr lo linve 
erever he approached the shoresi of Nen* Noiherhml. 
f had peaeirated beyond half a lua^ue itiio ilie beau- 
('Bellissiniolago,') and while the inhabitanls of each 
hastening "to catch a sight ofllie strangers," a violent 
1 faini to return to hU ship, and he put to sea aguin, 
1 his way northward and castivatd. Thus Verraz- 
■Iven by stress of weatlier from the great bay between 
J and Sandy Hook (or the siiore of !\ew J crsev,) he- 
explored iNew York harbour, or (he inouihs of the 
Raritan. He passed the island subsequently visited 
■lock, the Dutch navigator, and which still bears hi.i 
Verraxsano called h Louitu, that being the name 
ocis's mother. Fifteen leagues more brought him 
, Tof Newport; his description of which has been 
New York harbour, erroneously by Belknap and 
_^ irom the shores of New Jersey, and from Long and 
Is, BO here, the navigator nas visited by tlie hos- 
dmiriog natives ; and a* the de!:cription of these 
by the Italian, may be supposed in some measure, 
^4 with (hat which suited the inhabitants of our coast, 
lently colonized, I will give it nearly in his 
those who visited the sliip, were two kings, a 
thly bestowed by Europeans of that time, on the 
Items of the countr}'. One seemed to be about 40, 
years of age : the older was arrayed in a robe of 
ilfully wrought with rich embroider}' ; his head was 
hair carefully tied behind; his neck was adorned 
I, set off with various coloured stones. " The 
dressed somewhat after tlie manner ofilie first." 
c-f the people is described as being clear, 
we may suppose, that they had not adopted the 
iibin^ themselves with earth and grease, but were 
> waters of the Atlantic ocean. Their features ap- 
r in <he Italiao. and their colour not much derkei 
" Tlieir eyes black and lively." "Their hair 
■I ^^ iih no ordinary degree of care." Their whole 
resemblance to the busts or statues of ihe 
remind the reader of the exclamation of £en- 
when be was first shown tlie statue of the Apollo Bel- 
likea young Mohawk warrior!" 
were not permitted to approach the strangers ; 

DM which ■re giTen by Dt Bfj/. ■ml miv hr acrn iii llie Nilimial 
huiBton. irr ihoac of ihc luiirci nf Vi'oiiiia, t'nt- CaioUniit, tnd M> i- 
- laitnd h; Vcnwi^no u be csmnion imoug ili^ m-ajfi he itiv. 


but flMsir features and forms, as fiv a« tfaer could be diaceroed, 
were do \em admirable in the eres of the marioers. **LIke the 
men, iUf.y were in part naked, and in part aitired in hicrlilj orna- 
m^:nied rtkirirt ; tlieir hair was studiousJr decked with ornamental 
braid X. wtiich were left free to fall upon the breast.^' This de*- 
cription corresponds with Guido's picture of ^* Venus adorned 
by thf* GraceF." Jt nay be remarked of the paintin^<by the old 
tiiHHtpri*, and •^mtue^ by the Grecian sculptors, that the hair of the 
ferriHl^K i« eiihf r braided, or, if flowing, loose and dishevelled, it 
hai« the criH^ied appearance, or wavings, which is given by pre- 
vtouM f'.onfinenient in bra id j*. 

7*he riarivef^ seen by Verrazzano more to the south, wore 
head dre^s^^ of featlier^. Manv of die tribes to the south-west 
at thift firnf' (irrorate their liead^ with crowns of feathers, which 
are singularly irr;tceful and eminently beautiful, imposing aod be- 
cornin;^. rorrihiried with their robes, decorations and arms. The 
embr(iid«:r('d and decorated robes prepared from the .^ kins of the 
buffalo »nd mountain goat, which are brought from the yet free 
tribes of (he went and south, correspond to the de-^ription of 
the dreit^e?* m;en bv Verrazzano, on the vet uncontarninated oa- 
liven, boih nialp and female, thronging the shores of Aew Jersey. 
Nor in (hr niiiiilarify of that careful attention which they paid to 
ihr loiii; and flowing, or braided hair, less remarkable, as we see 
ji in tf)f; |>aintin£n( recently made by artists, who have visited the 
«outh weKtrrn Indiani*. 

Siirh, arid so gentle, kind and hospitable were the natives of the 
aett'^irt iKlandx we now inhabit, and the neighbouring banks of our 
rontifiental «hore]>, wlien first visited by Europeans inibe sixteenth 
crntury. 'J^he dei^ription of the same people in the seventeenth 
rciitury i« notnewhat «iiffereni. Between the two periods the mar- 
tial Iroipioin may hive extended their conquests from the inland 
fu*»< to till* Junkn of flic Hudson and the shores of the Atlantic, 
and |i-ft tlir barfurous traits of deteriorating war upon the inhabi- 
tNn(i«. Kvf>r. at the time of Verrazzano's visit, he found m his 
pmi^rrns north and cast, that the natives and their soil were more 
rrpuUivr. f 'nfortunately, the description left by the navigator is 
licit fiiiflirirntly minute or accurate, to leave no doubt with his rea- 
(IcTM ilmi iIm* bfly he vifiited was a part of New Netherland. 

\Vt* c^in little knowledirc from the slight view Verrazzano gives 
iiA. of tlint wliirli ought to be the object of history, men, manners, 
fMiMiHiiH and opiiiifins ; but the little he saw and has described, 
tniiM iinprt*<« ii« with tin* conviction that the inhabitants of the coast, 
wjii'thrr III Nrw Jrrvv, New York or elsewhere, in our neieh- 
liiiurJMHML \Vf TV ail aniiablo people, and had made some progress 
ill the ari5, uliirli tomi to ameliorate the savage. The natives of 
otir ^linr«9 wore not hostile to visiters ; they bad some knowledge 


of igricuhure ; were stimngeis to the debasing practices of war ; 
aad to the prefMuatioos for deienoe agaiost those whom war, or tiie 
lUrsi tor tlominioo^ had rendered barbarous ; but wheji Cbamplain 
penetrated into New York from the St. Lawrence^ be fouiid a 
people of warriors, fierce and cruel: somewhat ad\aoccd io policy, 
ans« and apioulture* but placing tlieir delight in conquest acd the 
Okteosion of (x^wer. Such were the Iitiquois. These \rarlike 
sa^-agies, known to the English by ihe appellation of the five oatioDs, 
l»d, k>ng before they encountered Champlain on tbe lake which 
bears his name, or on Lake George, and saw in him the ibreruooef 
of those who were destined to destroy them — L c. Europeans^ 
long befere they knew the power or the art of the white roan— 
fanned a confederacy of five independent nations, and instituted 
a congress and federal government, which enabled them to attain a 
^iegree of perfection in policy and the arts, both of civilised life 
9md warlike achievements, that bad rendered them tenible to all 
tbe nations around them. 

Aiter the transient glance which Verraziano gives us of that 
pan of the American coast he visited, we must look ior our next 
inibnnaiion frooi Champlain and his countn men, who penetrated 
ibe northern boundaries of what the Dutch subsequently claimed. 
Champlain met the Iroquois about the time that the Half^moon en- 
lerMl Iludson^s river. It therelore becomes mv dutv to examine 
by what steps the French adventurers advanced from the Atlantic 
Old tbe G ulf of St. Lawrence, to the beautiful lake now dividing 
tbe state of New York from her sister state of Vermont : a lovely 
dieet of xrater. which, after being the scene of hostile strife be* 
tween Indians with Indians, and Europeans with Europeans, for 
centuries, is now the peaceful and pleasurable pathway from the 
United States of America to the English |>rovioces of Canada. 

1 cannot foibear to remark (before noticing the discovery and 
colonisation of the Canadas^) upon the difference^ not to say con- 
trast, beixreen tbe conduct and success of the cokMiiiera of New 
York and New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Delaware, and New Eng- 
Immj. on ti)e one haod« and that of tbe French and Spaniards, 
on the otiier, in South America* Mexico, Florida, LcHiisiana, 
Acadia, and Canada. Virginia forms, in some degree* an cxcep- 
tioD to tiie prosperous commencexnenis of the Dutch and English 
(or protestani) colonies. The whole subject is full of iostrnc- 
Qoa to the contemplative and philosopluc mind. 

We see the Dutch and the Swedes peaceably pun^uing their 
commercial transactions, and purchasing soil from tbe natives on 
ibe Delawaie. the Hudson, and the Connecticut rivers ; and ge- 
nerally w iih prudence cultix^ating the friendship of the savages, 
and guarding carefully against the edects of their passions ; 
or their apprehensioDs of the designs and power ol tlie 

16 CAN ABA. 

strao^erft. We see the Piuitao exiles from tbeir belored home, 
pursuins a coune of coiucieDtioiis conduct towards the aboh- 
sioe$, and when, in the natural course of events assailed br the 
natives (too latp seebg that they must melt awar in the presence 
of European power and civilization,) ready to repel force by forces 
and invariabiv holding their onward wav to the establishment of 
a government, suited to their pre-conceived wishes and design?. 
yS^e see the quaker3 in New Jersey laying the foundation of a re- 
public ; and Penn creating an empire without strife, and proclaim- 
ing liberty, peace and good will, to the red man and the white. 

13ut if we look lo South America. Mexico, and Florida; or 
north to Acadia or Canada ; we see only a succession of injustice, 
failures and disasters. Strife and bloodshed between Europeans 
—oppression, cruelty, and a war of extirpation against the nativei 
in the south, and in the north a succession of abortive anempis at 
colonization, tijat :^em one to be a copy from the other. The 
prote&iant and papisiicai mode of colonization stand in obvious 
contrast to each other. 

The ficinity of Canada to ourselves, and the frequent wars upoo 
our frontiers, both before and aHer the FVench had gained a firm 
footing io that great countn-, make it necessary for the historian 
of New York to dwell upon the progress of adventure and colooi- 
latjon under the French goverament, in connexion with the setde- 
ment and growth of this province and state, as well as of those of 
New Jeriev and New Eedand. 


150S Claims have been made to the discovery of New found- 
land, as early as the beeinnine of the eleventh centorv. and 
the vojagesof tlie northmen to America appear now to be credited. 
In the year 150S and perhaps before, the French sent tbeir fishin? 
vessels to the Banks of Newfoundland. We have seen thai 
Verrazzaoo in the employ of Francis of France, was on our 
coasc in lod3. It is said that he was lost in a third voyage, 
when taking out a colonv from France to the new world. 

In 1534, Jaques Canier, under the patronage of Philip 
1634 Chaboi, admiral of France, coasted Newibundland. and to 
the south entered the '' Bay of the Spaniards,"' which he 
called *« Aiye des ChaUunr He had passed the Gulf of St. 
Lavienoe without noticing iu Already the Spaniards had siven 
a name to the great country Canier had passed by, and the ap- 
pellation bestowed upon it by them, has been adopted by the 
civilixed world. The Spanish discoverers, disgusted with the 
appearance of the land forming the entrance of the guif into 


viiicb tbe river St. Lawrence pours the waters of the inland 
sets of Noith America, exclaimed, as Charlevoix has it, *'Aca 
nada/' **Xothin*; there.'* or "'Good for nothing;" from which 
comes Canada. Thus '* good for nothing" is the Established 
appellation of a vast country, destined to become a great, inde- 
pendent, and dourishing empire. 

Jacques Cartier returned home after a fruidess voyage; and 
having received a more ample commission from the government, 
and the benediction of a bishop ^* dressed in his ponufical ha- 
bits** sailed on a second voyage, (1535) and found his way into 
the great Canadian Gull* on St. Lawrence's day; to which cir- 
cumstance we owe the name, so sonorous, and now so familiar, 
which is attached to the bay and the river that for so many miles 
forms the boundary of the state of New York. This was seventy- 
four years before Hudson entered our harbour, or Champlain 
the country of the Iroquois. The navi^tor sailed up the stream 
which he liad called, for die first time, '* St. Lawrence," as far as 
the island of Hochelaga, now Montreal. He named the place 
Mount Roval, after visitlns: die mountain or hill, vrhich 
towers over die populous city and beautiful island, so lamous in 
American history. Cartier passed the winter in this place, and al 
the Island of Orleans. The French were received with hospi- 
laUtT bv the Indians, and the sailors communicated their vices 
and diseases to them in return. The commander suffered severely 
bj the scurvy, and many of his followers died. Having lost roost 
of his crew, he returned to France, after enticing away, and car- 
rying into a miserable captivity the chief who had received him 
as a friend and benefactor. Tliis was a common return made 
by Europeans for the kindness of the natives of tbe American 
islands and conunent. 

Iq 1540 Francis the first commissioned M. de Roberval as 
his viceroy over Canada, Newfoundland, and all their depen- 
dencies, and the next year he sailed with Carder as his pilot to 
tdke possession of his dominions. All Roberval accomplished 
ir«s to build a fort at Cape Breton, which he victualled and gar- 
risoned. This done, the viceroy placed Cartier in the fort as 
conmiander, and returned home. The natives and owners of 
the soil, not being paid for the land occupied by the colonists, or 
eren consulted in the disposidon made by the Fiench, gave after 
a ume such indications of their displeasure, that Carder, and 
tbe whole population embarked in a vessel left behind by Rober\^, 
and were gladly leaving the country- when they were met by the 
viceroy, with a reinforcement from France, and much to their 
chagrin were forced to return to the scene of their sufferings. 
After re-establishing the fort, the colony, and Cartier as command- 
ant, the king's lieutenant sailed to the St. Lawrence. Shordy after 

VOL. I. 3 


or by the way of Behrings Straits, another and a nriorc civilized 
people occupied America. Indications are supposed to exist of 
such a people even in the western parts of New York, still more 
in Ohio and the valley of the Mississippi. We look with admi- 
ration at the wonders disclosed by the discovery of Palenque and 
other ruins in Mexico ; and our attention is drawn to the anti- 
quities of more southern nations ; but my researches must be bound- 
ed as much as possible at this time, within lines diawn from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence and Delaware bay, on the Atlantic, to a 
moderate distance westward towards the Pacific Ocean, keeping 
(as much as possible) east of the Rocky Mountains. Indeed we 
shall find that the Algonkins, Delawares and Iroquois will occupy 
most of our attention. 

Mr. Jefferson in his Notes on Virginia, written in 1781, and pub- 
lished six years after, says, that the best proof of the affinity of 
nations is their language. Mr. Gallatin has recentl}>, 1836, pub- 
lished a luminous essay on this subject, comprehending in his re- 
searches the American tribes, as known in the year 1492, as well 
as at the time of his writing ; nations spread from Patagonia to 
the Arctic sea, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. I 
know no better guide than this learnecf and sagacious author and 

Although the language of the Indians of America is from one root, 
the branches appear to have no affinity, if we may believe travellers 
and agents who have been years among this people, and have at- 
tended to the subject. They have found that the attainment of 
the language of one nation is useless in the attempt at intercourse 
with another. Adair, and many who have wished to find the lost 
ten tribes of Israel in America, think that they have heard tlie 
word Jehovah made use of by the Indians in their addresses to 
xhe Great Spirit. Other travellers have sought for it in vain. 
The nearest resemblance they could find, was that during the songs 
and dances of most of the western tribes, they uttered a sound or 
ytlly in which was a continued repetition of " yeh, yah, yeh, yah," 
ending in a shrill, short, yelping shout. 

The 'North American Review, (No. 64) gives from the Chip- 
pewa dialect, a branch of the Algonkin, the words ** jah," and 
** atta," as ** indicating respectively *tobe' an animate and inani- 
mate nature." And these words are said to " run like two prin- 
cipal arteries, through the whole language." Jah is said to be part 
of the name of the supreme Being, and when used in the sacred 
or mystic songs of the Indians, " excites a strong feeling of fear 
and dread." The " yah" above mentioned, as given by travellers, 
I take to be the same word, or sound, as is used in all their 
songs, and commonly accompanied by their dances. PiX the same 


time, it is :=aid that the words used in their songs arc? not generally 
understood by those who repeat them. 

The reviewers say, that " Monedo," which is frequently writieo 
Manilo, is '^ the modern name for the supreme Being, of Greit 
Spirit," and ii '' a personal form of the verb ' to take,' derived 
from tlie supposed abstraction of the food placed as an offering, 
to the supreme ^Spirit ui>on the rude altar-stone." Yah, is one o[ 
the Hebrew titles of Jehovah. They further say that when the 
Indians endeavour to recollect the name of a person, or of a for- 
gotten circumstance, they repeat the words '* jah, jah," meaning 
**It is — it is." They give examples of the use of "jah," thus, 
"jab-e-men." •* He is there," "Monedo-jah." ** He is a spiriL" 

But to return to our history of the Indians within the bounds ctf 
New iNetherland, and those immediately connected with them 
either by relationship, or friendship, or war, (much the most fertile 
source of intimacy or interchani:;e of communion ;) these were the 
five great divisions or families, y/r^/, the Algonkins ; under which 
name we may include the Chippewas, (or according; to modern or- 
thography, Ojibbawas,) the Ottowas, KnLstanaux, Pottawattamies, 
and Missi^sagues. ScconJj The Iroquois, under which appellation 
I include the five great confederate nations of.iSenecas, Cayugas, 
Onandagas, Oncidas, and Mohawks,* (called likewise Mangius, 
Mingues, and Mingoes,) with, when called the six nations, the Tus- 
caroras. There were other nations of Iroquois origin, but they 
were enemies of the confederates. Thirdly^ The Delawares; 
including the Minsies, Nanticoks, Susquehannocks, Conoys and 
Pamlicoes. Fourthly^ The Mohicans ; including probably the 
Pequods, certainly the Manhattans, Montauks and other Long 
Island tribes, with the River Indians under various names ; and 
^Jlhty, the New England Indians, such as perhaps the Pequods, 
certainly the Narragansets, Wampanoags, Massachusetts, Paw- 
tuckets and some others. 

The Delawares first received Verrazzano and his French crew, 
as they did afterwards the Dutch under Henry Hudson, on the 
shores of New Jersey and within Sandy Hook. The Manhattan- 
Mohicans, were the second people who had intercourse with the 
crew of the Half-moon : and soon after the river Indians were as- 
tonished at the si^ht of the monster of the great deep, the float- 
ing Wigwam, bearing white-skinned maniioes. Before this visit 
from Europeans, the Mohicans and river Indians had been ren- 

* The 6Te froquoi* nations were each co.-nposcd of three tribes, desij^ted hj 
sfMiie snimal, a« the Mohawk nation, (wbow three cables occupied the Valley of the 
Mohtwk.) coHMrcd of the Tortoise, the Bear and the Wolf. 

MR. Gallatin's map. 23 

dered tributary to the redoubted confederacy of the Iroquois^ with 
whom theDutchy and after them the English of New York, had the 
most intimate and profitable intercourse. They were a sheltering 
frontier of warriors opposed to the French and Indians of Canada* 
I shall have much to say of the Algoiikim^ as the allies of France 
and enemies of the Iroquois, and of the Europeans of New York. 

By the annexed sheet (for which I am indebted to Mr. Gal- 
latin's larger map of the situation of all the Indian nations of North 
America,) the student of the history of New York will see th^ 
abodes of the savage nations, wilh whom it is most necessary 
for him to become acquainted, as their friendly intercourse or 
hostile aggressions formed important parts of our annals, until after 
the war of the revolution. 

The Algonkin territory extends north and west from New York 
to the Mississippi, and a river falling into Hudson's Bay. We 
are told that the word '' Missi," in the Algonkin tongue, means 
'*all," or the u'AoZc, perhaps greats and " nissi" is water. Whereas 
" sippi" means rirer, and joined to " missi" gives " the whole," 
or the great river — the Mississippi. The southern boundary of the 
Algonkins may be considered as the north shore of the St. Law- 
rence and the lakes, including the tract lying between lakes Erie 
and Michigan, and^ between a line drawn from the latter to the 
river Missouri. 

The northern Iroquois in the year 1600, possessed land on both 
shores of the St. Lawrence and of the Lakes^ to the head of 
Lake Erie ; and thence their territory extended beyond the Miami 
river to the Ohio, which last river, with such land as the Dela- 
wares and Mohicans could withhold from them, was their boun- 
dary on that part. Mr. Gallatin says, '* The Iroquois nations 
consisted of two distinct groups," which when they were first 
known to the Europeans, were separated from each other by 
several intervening, but now extinct Lenape, i. c. Delaware 
tribes. It is in the northern group that we are most interested. 
The same writer says, " when Jaques Cariier entered and ascended 
the river St. Lawrence in 1635, he found the site of Montreal, 
then called Hochelaga, occupied by an Iroquois tribe," and " we 
have no further account till the year 1608, when Champlain 
founded Quebec ; and the Island of Montreal was then inhabited 
by the Algonkins." So we have reason to believe that the latter 
people sometimes repulsed the Iroquois, notwithstanding their 
general superiority both in civilization and arms. 

The intelligent and philosophic writer above mentioned, gives 
the boundaries of the northern Iroquois thus, " on the north, the 
height of land which separates the waters of the Ottawa river 
from those which fall into the Lakes Huron and Ontario, and the 
river St. Lawrence. But the country north of the lakes was a 


debatable ground, oo which the IroqucHS had no pennaoeal 
esublbbmeat, and at least one Algonkin tribe called Missiaagoes 
was settled. On the west. Lake Huron was the bound of the 
five nations ; and south of Lake Erie, a line not far from the 
Sciota, extending to the Ohio, was the boundary between the 
Wyandots, or other, now (1S-3G) extinct Iroquois tribes, and 
the Miamies and Illinois. On the east. Lake Champlain,and fur- 
thei south, tlie Hudson river as far down as the Kaatskill Mounlaim 
belonged to the confederates. Tiiese mountains separated the 
Mohawks, (a tribe of Iroquois) from the Lenape Wappingen of 
Esopus. The southern boundar}' cannot be accurately defined. 
The five nations were then (I60S) carr}~ing on their war of 
subjugation and extermination, against all the Lenape tribes,*' (tbe 
Delawares) " west of tlie river Delaware. Their war parties were 
already seen at the mouth of the river Susquehannab ; and it is 
impossible to distinguish between what they held in consequence 
of recent conquests, and their original limits. These did not 
probably extend beyond the range of mountains, which foim 
southwesterly the continuation of the Kaatskill chain. West of 
the Alleghany mountains they are not known to have had any 
setdement south of the Ohio : though the Wyandots^' ( once an 
Iroquois tribe by language,) ^* have left their names to a southern 
tributan' of that river — the Guvandot." 

The Tuscaroras are the only portion of the southern Iroquois 
which I have to notice as the hbtorian of New York, and that 
only, because when driven from North Carolina, they were re- 
ceived bv the Iroquois of the five nations, and constituted a sixth 
in 1712.' 

The situation of the five nations in this State, is still marked 
by names familiar to the citizens of New York : the riyer 
Afohawk winds from the hi^h irround on which fort Stanwix 
once stood, and falls into the greater Hudson amidst islets ; while 
another stream from the same height runs into Ontario through 
tbe Oneida Lake and Onondaga river. Counties and towns 
likewise bear die names of these nations ; Cayuga Lake 
and river remind the traveller of a fourth, and the village of 
Seneca Falls with other vestio^es, fast fadinor, show the residence 
of tbe fifth of this once great confederacy.* 

* 1^ remaining (^nondo^s. :n 1815. residiog neir the coancil grosnd of the onioo. 
wtfvfober. hone»t, and somewhat agricultunl. Thej obstinately rejected teacbtn 
fnNB ibe whites. aoswenn2 in respect to clergrmeo. as the chief of the Namganaetts 
rapbtd to the odiers of Mr. May hew. woo asked pennissiou to preach to his people 
**Go, and make the English good first :" adding, " as long as the Engiiah caimoc 
agrte aaoog themsclTes, xehat relifion i$, it ill becomes them to teach othen ** 
The tribe of Algonkms. said by the French to be converted to tbe chnmiaD religioo, wcrt 
called Abcnakis these and the New England Indians, of the fir east, vrcre be t w csn 


The Iroquoisof New York were the terror of all the nations that 
Mirrounded them. By their advancement in civilization, attention 
to agriculture, (although committed in the practice to their women 
and slaves,) conduct as statesmen and warriors, general superiority 
in all the arts of destrucuon, and above all by their union into one 
confederated body of free and independent nations governed by a 
great council or congress, they had become the acknowledged 
lords of many tributar}- tribes, and appear to have pursued their 
course of vengeance or thirst for conquest in the persecution of 
those whom they chose to account enemies, witli a relentless pur- 
pose, and with a subtlety and courage that distinguished them as 
braves above all others of the red-skin species, and mie:ht entide 
theui to comparison with the states and heroes of ancient, or in 
some respects, modern Europe. 

In the year 1600, the seal of the confederated Iroquob, or 
five nations,* was south of the river St. Lawrence and Lake On- 
tario, and extended from the Hudson to die upper branches of the 
river Alleghany, and to Lake Erie; Hochelaga, now Montreal, was 
founded in 1535, and the island was inhabited by Indians speak- 
ing a dialect of the Iroquois tongue, they were Hurons, and be- 
tween Montreal and Quebec the Iroquois had resided and planted. 

Keoabec and the river PiscaUquii. The Indians were foand more populous in the 
▼icinity of the Atlantic Ocean and its rivers ihaii in the interior, owing to the greater 
■IkoiMiaDee of food within a given district to be attained <svithoot labour. The Pb- 
fBods (a part of the Mohicsns) of New England were reputed to amount in farmtr 
times to 4000 warriors; but in 1674, Gookin sutes them to amount to only 300. 
Durmg the intennediate time thrv had been subjupited by the whites. T^e Nar- 
ngansetu in 1S74, counted 1000 wsrriors; the Wapanoags. MasstehuseUa and 
Fawtockctls, had, it is said in former timet, an aggregate of 9000 men ; but at the 
date aboTe mentioned they had less that 1000 warriors sitogether. In 1680 Coo- 
oecticut contained 500 Indian warriors of all the tribes within her borders. !■ 
1774. bw an actual census, there were still remaining, Indisns of all agea asdaezta 
1363 ; and m Rhode Island 1483. 

* It IS asserted by a writer in 1741. that the confederscy of the five nationa was 
catablisbrd, as the Indians say, one age, or one man*s life before the white people 
settled at *AIbany, or before white men came to the countnr : and be givea tha 
Mimit of the chiefs who formed the confederacy . viz : the Mohawk was TsuraiM- 
wi/c .- the Oneida Otatstherhtis ; the Onandago Tatctarpa ; the Cayuga, Togm- 
kmjom: the Senecas had two chiefs present, f^annta/anVo and Satatrantrt^es, And 
ftinfaer, that the Mohawks made thettirs step towards the confederacy, and for that 
reasoa bore the name of Tfrarikoi:a, m council. The destruction ot the greater part 
of the Hurons or Wvandots, (who it must be remembered were of Iroquois origin, 
bnt DDK part of the Iroquois confederacy > took place m 1549. and the dispersion of 
tbe residue, with that of the Ali^onkins of the Ottowa river, was acbeived by the con- 
fisderatcd Iroquois in 1650. The Dcla wares, who had resisted until this time, then 
•obmiUed, and the victorious Iroquois evacuated fort Cbrisiins on the Delaware, and 
sold ibe adjacent lands to tho Dutch m \6M. The neutral nations were annihilated nr 
incoq»oated with the Iroquois at this lime, i. e. about 1651. From 1651 to 1653, thsM 
conquerors destroyed the Eries : and in 1672 the AmiattcM, During all these wars, 
the Iroquois carried on hostilities against the Algonkins and the Freiwk. I owe these 
to the researches of Mr. Gallatin, and they give a lively idea of the power and 

p^asions of the confederated Iroquois of the seventeenth century. 

VOL. I. 4 


yet it i3 certain that the Mohicans and Iroquoisi were at war 
with each other after the settlement of die Dutch in New Nether- 
land. Golden states that tlieir war continued until 1673; at 
which time the Dutch succeeded as mediators, and produced a 
state of peace between the belligerents. 

It is worthy of remark, and has been stated by a writer of great 
p)iilosophic research, that Indians, however they may have to com- 
plain of evils introduced by the Europeans, have, since the exis- 
tence of the United States as a free republic, been ameliorated 
in their manners. 

Mn Gallatin, the writer I allude to, remarks that for the last 
forty years, we know of no instance of any Indian tribes torturing 
and burning their prisoners. 

Strange as it may now appear, we know that the French, in 
tbeur Canadian wars, encouraged this abominable custom. 

It is truly asserted that our prosperity has been attained at the 
expense of the Indian tribes ; and that we owe them a great debt, 
which it is from many various circumstances very difficult to pay ; 
but it should never be forgotten. If they had not in the first place 
received the Dutch and English with kindness, their colonies 
could not have been planted. When they found that by selling, 
or giving their lands, they had deprived themselves of territory 
necessary for their subsistence ; and that those received as gods 
were rapacious or encroaching men, addicted to vices and familiar 
with blood, men who treated them always as inferiors and often as 
slaves, they in vain endeavoured to regain the territory without which 
they could not exist in that state, and with the customs they pre- 
ferred. Then began wars, which resulted in defeat, loss, subju- 
gation and extermination, inflicted upon them for endeavouring to 
regain that which they had thoughtlessly parted with, or to prevent 
further encroachments. 

The whites increased in numbers ; forests gave way to culti- 
vated fields ; marshes and swamps to gardens and orchards ; 
mud built huts and pallisadoed castles, to palaces* cities and 
churches. This is not to be lamented — ^it could not be otherwise 
— it was to be wished. Men in the hunter state, who were in- 
cessantly stimulated to barbarous and loathsome acts of revenge, 
against any neighbour who crowded upon the territory necessary 
or imagined to be necessary, for their hunting grounds ; men 
whose principle as well as practice was to return tenfold, evil for 
evil ; who inculcated as a duty revenge for injury and insult ; are 
happily more than replaced by those who look to agriculture for 
subsistence, and to forgiveness for happiness ; a race, whose reli- 
gion teaches them to return good for evil, (however feebly they 
may practise the lessons of divine wisdom) are infinitely prefer- 
rable to that whose morality was vengeance, and whose delight 


w«u» blooii. The agriculturLst loves peace, the hunter delights in 
war; the first is io a state of improvement; for in peace alone 
mankind can progress to the pert'ection they are capable of ; the 
second cannot improve, for war deteriorates all who are engaged in 
it. It would be follv or worse, to reirret that thousands, nav mil- 
lion3, of comparatively civilized beings constantly improving, and 
more and more influenced bv the love and charitv their reliirioD 
inculcates, should have taken the place once occupied by a few 
hundreds of barbarians, wht^se pride made them detect that labour 
which is the only true foundation for improvement. 

It may perhaps be expected that I should say something fur- 
ther of the people who preceded the red men, now roeltine 
away before the European race — those nations who, perhaps, 
have succeeded each odier, varvini; in degrees of civilization, in 
arts, science, manners and morals, who may have occupied this 
vast continent, ages before the Esquimaux, Knistinaux, Alson- 
kins, Lenape, Iroquois, or any other of the barbarous tribes we 
know, or have heard of— even before the half civilized Mexi- 
cans and Peruvians ; but I know nothing of them except that 
remains and monuments are found which excite the imagination, 
and leave us, after every effort to penetrate into the past* in 
a dreamy and unsatisfactory state, thirstine for knowledge of 
we know not what. This we mav be certain of — however far 
these nations had advanced in improvement, they had not attained 
the art of printing. 

I acknowledge that no one can read the accounts we have re- 

■■■* ^^ 

ceiFed of the ruins of Palanque or Copan in Mexico, or of 
the remains of empire in Peru, or of the mounds, vesti^res 
of fortifications and other tokens of ancient power, found in 
the valley of the Mississippi, and elsewhere, without conjurins: 
up ideas which are rather fitting: for the writers of romance than 
history. I have visited some of the remains of fortifications in 
the state of New York : of ihem I shall say more when speaking 
of the military operations of the French. Mr. Gallatin remarks 
tbatall Indian works for defence were of the same kind ; that is, 
palisades. By Indians, roeanins: the race of red men now exist- 
ing and passing away. He further obser\'es, that they were pro- 
portioned to the population of an Indian village. The regular for^ 
tifications of earth found in this state, or to the west, indicate the 
work of Europeans, or of people in a more adi'anced state of civi- 
lisation, than the Indians of the New Netherlands had arrived at 
when first known to Europeans, not even cxceptin^r the Iroquois. 
The Mississippi monuments indicate a populous, and of course an 
nffrimhunil people : the probability is that they were destroyed by 

• Sre Apff.idix A 


wbo decreased iu aumbers in consequence of their 
of extermirvitioiK and desolating tlie counuv thev had over* 
run. But all this is conjecture, not history.* 

It has so happened that 1 have seen aihi conversed widi three 
laJian InterprecerSf men who had been carried away captive in 
rhJMhnod and adopted amon^ the Iroquois, when all the western 
pmn o( this state was uninhabited except by Indians. These 
nea had all returned to civilized life, were possessed of hnded 
property* and were employed by ^ovemmenc, as qualified by their 
koowled^ of lan£ua^,and their reputation for honesty and intelii- 
ceoce, to be the channels oi communication between the red and 
white men. Their names were Jones, Parish, and Webster. With 
the last 1 had most frequent communication ; but a friend says that 
in IS 19 he heard Mr. Parish te:i>tifv^ that it was then forty* two 
Tears since he first saw the i^euesee river, and mv friend re- 
Barked that of 70,000 people then in Ontario, not one other eoaU 
sav the same. Mr. Webster was most conversant with the Oft- 
oodajcas* and when I knew him in ISlo cultivated land in i>aoD- 
daca Hollow, and was looked up to by the Indians as a friend and 
father. He testified to the arts ot* iioveruor Simcoe and the EI»- 
ebh in stimulating the Indians to that war and chose tnurdeis 
which were ocdv tenuinated bv Wavne's vidorv. and the trcmt%' 
of Greenville. 

The Indian tradition of the ori^n of the confederacy as given 
by him* was as follows : He said that the happy thought of tinioo 
fijr d efen c e ori^iuated with an inferior chief of the Ooonda^as, 
who perveivin^ that alkhou^^ the five tribes were alike in language* 
and had by co-operation cotiquereil a ^rreat extent of country, yet 
that they bad frequent quarrels and oo head or sreat council, lo re- 
coQcUe them ; and that while divideii. the western Indians attacked 
and destroyed them : seeing this, he conceived the bright idea of 
unioa. and of a ^at council of the chie& of the Five Nations : 
this, he said* and perhaps thought, came to him m a dream ; and 
it was afterward coasidered as comio:: from the Great Spirit. He 
proposed thb plan in a council of his tribe, but the principal chief 
opposed it. He was a ::reat warrior, and feared to lose his in- 
iueoce as head man of the Onondagas, This was a selfish man. 
The youn;cer chief, who we wiil call (>inri»*. was silenced : but he 
detennined in secret to attempt the ^at political work. Thb 

IS a man who loved the welfare of others. To make long 

•\~s and be absent tor several days while huutiog^ would cause 

sifi^icion. because it was common. He leii home as if to 

hunt ; but taking a circuitous path thrvm;;h the woods, for all this 

neat covitrv was then a wilderness, he made his wav to the viK 

la^ or castle of the Mohawks. He consulted some of the leaders 

Js?«? Appir'ni I B 


of that tribe, and they received tlie schenie favorably ; he visited 
the Oneidas, and gained the assent of their chief; he then returned 
, home. A fter a. time he made another pretended hunt, and another; 
tlius, by degrees, visiting the Cayugas and Senecas, and gained 
the assent of all to a great council to be held at Onondaga. With 
consummate art he then gained over his own chief, by conviDciDg 
him of the advantages of the confederacy, and agreeing that be 
should be considered as the autlior of the plan. The great council 
met, and tlie chief of the Onondagas made use of a ^^rative ai^ 
gument, taught him by Oweko, which was the same that we read 
of in the fable, where a father teaches his sons the value of union 
by taking one stick from a bundle, and showing how feeble it 
was, and easily broken, and that when bound togetlier tlie bundle 
resisted his utmost strength. 

I have mentioned the defeat of the war party of the Iroquois* on 
Lake George by the effect of the fire-arms of Champlain and hit 
companions, who accompanied the Algonkins at the time. We 
cannot but imagine the astonishment, and perhaps incrednliQrt 
which would be manifested by the chiefs of the Iroquois when 
assembled in council at Onondaga Hollow, they received the ac- 
count which the fugitives gave of the white men's thunder and 
lightning proceeding from the ranks of their enemies, and destroy- 
ing without hope the leaders and warriors who had always beCm 
returned as triumphant conquerors. They could not but assent 
— for an Iroquois, at that time, could not tell a falsehood — ^yet 
the tale must have appeared incomprehensible. They soon would 
learn the circumstances attending the visit of the French to Ca- 
nada, and their alliance with the Algonkins. They never forgave 
the aggression of Champlain, and many hundreds of Frenchmen 
were sacrificed to atone for the thundering of that day on Lake 


Diicavtrtj of Manhaitoes — Henry Hudsani — CommenctmaU of' 
New Netherland — Christianse and Block. 

1679 To Holland, a peninsula protruding into the sea, with sofl 

only protected from the waves by embankments, we owe 

the germ of New York. Holland had erected the standard of 

* Mr. Muullon givei Irocowa as the ntm^ of the country of the Froqnoit. He 
Mjs tniiy, their territoriil dominion embraced an empire that mijrfat be compared 
to that of incieni Rome. I have elsewhere given ;hc boundaries of their territOTf . 
Where snd what arc thej now ! 

t See Apppcndix C. 

■ - 


freedom in Zetkndt the first place of the United Netherlands 
which de6ed the power of Spain ; they owed to a province com- 
posed of islands, and depending- upon the ocean for subsistence, 
the creation of an empire. Other dependent provbces followed 
the glorious example, and the foundation of a great republic wis 
ferroed. It was essentially and necessarily commercol. Even 
while straggling for libert}', the States created a nary which traded 
with all the world, and established the fame of Dutchmen for na* 
vmlpiowess wherever a sail was unfurled. 

The failure of those who had anticipated a short road by which 
to gain the riches of the East ; the disappointment of the eminent 
narigaiors Cabot, Frobisher, Willoughby, Davis and others, in 
ererr attempt to find the much-desired passage by the north-west 
to the Indies, could not allay the thirst of English merchants, 
who, still excited by hope, en^ged Henry Hudson, a man who 
had already acquired reputation as a mariner of sagacity and ex- 
pericHice, to undertake the discovery of this short road to wealth. 

Hudson coasted the shores of Greenland, renewed the discoT- 
eries of Spitzbergen ; came within eight degrees of the pole, but 
found himself baffled by ice, and returned discomfited but not 

In the mean time the States of Holland had formed a 
1608 company for traffic and colonization in Africa and Amer- 
ica, called the East India Company. Europe was alive 
to find the predicted short passage to the East, the seat of wealth 
and land of wonders. It was in 1606 that Hudson first sailed.* 
In 1608 he again found men in England whose hope he could 
re-«nimate, and whose prospects of future gain led tliem to fit out 

^ Ib 1C03 Banholomew Gosnold sailed (Murh tGih) with thtrtT cokmntt for 
AvMric*, and made land. May 14th, near Cape Cod. He coinineDced i aea lew a at 
whKk iiUed. In 1606 John RobiDson went to Holland. TjranDj in Earope was 
tbe priHW caoae of coionixation in America. It wat during the reign ef James the 
let #f Eaglaiid that the eqoalit? of rixhu (without which man ia a slave) he^ to 
raviTc from a lonir torpor in that island. But it waa found to flooriah hotter in the 
ookniea of the New WorM than in any pan of the Old. " Those,** says Huma, 
** «ho were discontented with the e»uhlished church and monarchy, bad sought for 
friijim aoudst those savage deserts,'* meaning North America. Jstaes 1st, with 
that f eiici o aity which is pleasantly exercised at the cost of others, garr, knr pataoi, 
Acadaa and Long Island to the first Esrl of Sterling ; but the nsiire s snd original 
knew nothing of it. Feeble attempts at colonisation were made by tht 
at Port Royal, and by the English on Jsmes River. As 1 hive to locord 
_ of men at the suke in the city of New York. I will here remind the 
r, that, in the year 1613. three %rktte christian men — learned and pious men — 
w«« acBtescod in England to be burned as hcreticks, thst is, for not believing as 
km^ Jamca tbo 1st and his bishops believed, or. becoming hypocrites. TWo of 
chase men, as aenUoced, were burned alive at the stake, and the thiid, for fear of 
ftfmimr opinion, was hid in a dungeon until death released him from tyranny. When 
m Now Yoflu m cantunr after, negroaa were burnt at the atake, it was not ki coM 
hiao^ hot oadsr the indaeoca of paaie tenor. 


anotlier expedition for the same purpose as the first, and again be 
exerted his skill and periled his life in vain among the regions of 
snow and mountains of ice. His employers were disheartened : not 
so the dauntless mariner. He offered his services, made more valu- 
able by expeiience, to the Dutch East India Company; they were 
accepted, and on the 1th of April, 1G09, he made his thirij voyage 
of discovery. He was accompanied by his son, in tlie Dutch 
ship, the Half-moon, with a crew of eighteen men, half English 
and half Dutch, and sailed on that vovasre which has rendered 
bis name immortal, and which gave to the Dutch, according to 
received notions, a just title over an empire in the New 
1609 World. Again, with a perseverance worthy of his em- 
ployers, he sought the passage to India by the north, and 
again he was turned back from Nova Zembla by icebergs and in- 
terminable fields of frozen sea : he shaped his course to the west, 
and passing Greenland and Newfoundland, coasted imtil he saw 
the promontory of Cape Cod. He called this land, and the region 
beyond it, New NetherJand, and Cape Cod was long considered 
by the Dutch as the boundar}' of their territory to the north-east 
Hudson supposed tliat he was the discoverer of the promontory. 
He is believed to have anchored in the mouth of the Penobscot 
river. Sailing south, Hudson found himself opposite the bay of 
Chesapeake, and knowing this was an already occupied region by 
his countrymen, the English, claimed by them and named from 
their virgin queen, he again turned to the north, and discovered 
Delaware bay and river, called by the Dutch South river, and 
considered by them as the boundary of New Netherland in that 
direction. Continuing his course, Hudson saw on the second of 
September, the highlands of Navesink or Neversink. He sup- 
posed, and mankind generally considered, that he was the first 
European who had viewed tliis prominent land-mark, so familiar 
now to navigators. The voyage of Verrazzano was unknown to 
him. The next day he entered the great bay between Sandy 
Hook, Long Island, St aten Islan d and Perdi Amboy ; into which 
flows the Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, and part of the mighty 
stream which bears tlie navigator's name. Well might he linger a 
week in admiration of this beautiful lake-like water, with the un- 
dulating hills of New Jersey on his left, and on his right those 
islands, to one of which he gave the name it still bears, of'* Staten." 
Hudson and his Half-moon were no less objects of admiration 
to the natives, than they and their countr)' were to him. The re- 
cords of the Indians gave them no reminiscence of Verrazzano, 
his ship, or his crew ; and the savages saw a moving and floating 
palace in the Half-moon — a Manito in Henr)- Hudson. He, how- 
ever, was not so fortunate in all his intercourse with die Indians 
as Verrazzano bad been. One of his boats, when on an expio- 


ring expeditioo, perhaps gave ofience to some of the natives, and 
bj a discharge of arrows a seaman of the name of Coleman, was 
skin. Happily the commander of the ship did not undertake to 
chastise the savages for an act which probably bad been provoked 
by the strangers. Coleman was carried to the ship, and next day 
buried. The Indians generally seem to have been ignorant of 
ihb mishap, for they visited the Half-moon as before, bringing 
fruits, tobacco and maize for the much-admired sirans:ers. 

The journal of the voyage tells us that some of the crew landed, 
and rambled into the woods of Monmouth county without impe- 
diment. Many of the natives visited the ship, bringing, among 
other fruits of their countn*, dried currants. Some were clothed 
in furs, some in dressed skins, and some in feather mandes ; 
wearing round their necks copper ornaments, and bearing pipes of 
copper in their hands. 

On the twelfth of September, Hudson passed into the harboar 
of New York, and entered the mouth of De Groofe riricre. If he 
explored the East river, it was done by sending: his boats for the 
purpose. De Groote riricre was likewise called the Sorth^ as 
distinguishing it from the waters on the eastern side of the island. 
During this ume, and before sailing up the North rircr, the natives 
brought " Indian wheat,'* tobacco, oysters, and whatever they 
thought would be acceptable to the strangers ; and the Indians 
were observed to have *^ pots of earth to cook their meat in.'' 

The harbour of New York after passing the Narrows^ is bounded 
on the west bv the shore of New Jersev, has the inland of Man- 
hattan in front* or north, and on the east the shore of Long Is- 
land. A reef near the entrance was called after the seal seen on 
it, RobyiCs ri/ty from the Dutch name for the animal : Ciovemor^s 
Island being covered with nut trees, was named Sutuii (or Nooten.) 
The two small blands of Ellis and Bedlow do not st-em to have 
r^cei%*ed names at this time, nor long after. 

Taming frcfm Ambov bav, the Raritan river, and the 
1609 invitins: channel west of Staten Island, the discoverer 
pissed the Narrows, and found himself in one of the 
finest harbours of the world.* He must have i^een that the 
south point of Manhattan was by nature intended for a great 
commercial city ; but he at the same time hoped that he saw 
in one or the other of the broad waters which flowed on either 

* WbeD HsdMMi entered ku river, it was ctlicd by the natiret Mokicaniiiick. or 
ShttiBicat. or Cabohatmtea. According, as I suppose, to the tribe who irsre the mfbr. 
11 inn. And the neichbounnf natioos, he wss told, were the ^nehkiecsni, VTabsDJe. 
■ai Mohawks : the Utter being shore the Ksatskili. All wert on the western bank. 
wmi so were the frap|nn|[er«. (Wspiogm* or Wsnbingi.) a name which HcckeweUer 
is n t m fiua the opoMvin. Ebeling c^ls the Esopos lodians Wappinfees. 

TOI- I. 5 


side of this land, die raucb-desired passage to India.* Tboagk 
deli£:bted with the realities he saw — the goodly oaks and luxumm 
soil promisiDg a refuge to the oppressed of £urope*-a home fer 
ihe liberty of the world — still the object of his search was fore> 
iDost in his mind ; and it was not untU be had explored the Nonh 
rirer, that be relinquished the hope of finding here a north- west pas- 
sage to the Indian Ocean. When he had carried tlie HalPmoon np 
to the site of the present city of Hudson, and found himself in 
fresh water, and among islets and sand bars, the risions of easieni 
riches must have sriren place to the reality of beine the first nan- 
gator of this noble river, and conferring on his employers a title, 
as he supposed, to a country unrivalled on the globe. After ex- 
ploring in his boat, perhaps in his ship, as far as the situation at 
present of the city of Albany, and holding intercourse in his pro- 
gress with the friendly natives, Hudson returned to the 3JaD- 
hattoes about the fourth of October ; not far from the time when 
the famous Captain Smith sailed for England from Jaroestowo, 
and Champlain was invading the Iroquois from Canada, by the 
wav of the Jake which bears his name.* 

From September tenth to tlie twenty-second, Hudson had 
felt bis wav, witli line and lead, through the Highlands to the site 
of Albanv, and a^ain descended to Spikende\ il creek and the 
Copsey rocks, on which our southern promenade, once a bai- 
icTv. now resis.t To himself, and bis crew, all was a scene of de- 
light and wonder, as he explored his own great stream. But I am 
grieved to say, that the lives of eleven of the natives were sacri- 
ficed in his visit to the beautiful river. The untamed wilderoess 
and the untamed men, were equally objects of admiration. All 
was free to grow, luxuriate, enjoy, and decay as nature dictated. 
In one of the pleasantest months of our many pleasant months, 
did Europeans first see this noble river ; and Hudson returned to 
the island of the Manhattoes, with ideas of the stream that bean 
his name, and the countr\' throu<rh which it rolls, that cannot 
easily be imagined by an inhabitant of the present day. 

* In 'fie l::»niT of ibe New York Hisioncal Socjctt. m a MS. br ibe late R*t 
Mr. Atir«:, :a «&:ch he My», that at ibe joint of Marbatun isIauS. HodKn fouoda 
fierce ar^l Lo»i.!-e {leopie. but t::i« i» cor.:raCic:f «i by otber Maiemt nts : od tbc ct»- 
trarr. Mr. ASer 1 >aT». ibe Irtdran* on the west »:(3e of tbe harbour, aboct Commiifiav. 
came <ia;lT en t*otui the H«l:-troor:. and brought ojaiert. ina:ze. arxi fruila: aad 
hfeie HuidtOQ larded. Sec Ai'pe;>d:x D. 

* ^^"te•l HjJsor.. ir; descend r.g :h^ river, was aiiout the H;£Lhr»ds, some of tbe 
Da'.iTes c»nie at>oard t:.e Tessei. who were piven n,m to dr irk. and made drock bv 
tbe crew. 1 Lo?e. tsoirn I ftar. r^o: wiihor: t:* ptrtTci^atino of tr;e Captam. It is 
said ibat tbe effect of t£is f.oisoQ ** astonished ibe Indues, and filled tbem wiib frets 
fear." Happv would it bave beea if tbis dread of tbe lK;ix>r and iu eflccts. bad bcea 
accompaucd bj a disfiut tbat coold bare miibstood tbe aedoctioD of Eaiopcu 

AUkm^Ii Hnnr HiidsoQ laoded oq the ishnd of Manhattan, 
he<bce be ascendf^ the treat rirer* and had his first intenriew 
with the a:s$embled Sachems of the adjotniof countn% as the 
Indbos ha%-e inlbrmed Heckewelder» he certainlT did not 
1609 £iii to seek the northwest passsa^e throu^ the North rnrer, 
and when he opened the sea of Tappan^ might hare 
ima^iiiied that the road to riches was found. 

Loax after the davs of the discoverv of Manhatttn. Hndsoo 
aad the Dutch ^nerally. as well as the Indians* supposed that the 
Hil^HXiooa was the first ship that had been seen by the natires of 
this port of the continent. Of this we hare the testimony of 
Vaaderdonck* who wrote in 16*30. The Indians appear to hare 
l«j«t all knowted^ of Vemzzano*s visit to Sandy Hook, and the 
soores within : or those who saw him had* in the lapse of yearsi 
been replaced by other tribes.* 

There can be no doubt thjit the Delaware Indians had preserved 
the tnditioQ which the n?veread Mr. Heckewt^Ider communicated 
a;> Doctor Samuel Miller, and which is deposited in the Librarr 
of the Xew York Historical Society*. They described the ap- 

■maws *'«i!tl :*oc kn*9Jt :!)«: iher* were ^nv ofaer people ta cae woHii taaa r!h>M 
wnj vcre .*ii« t3ie3fe>«ire«;" ttie «iV9 m-uiv ol*!!i«m were »c:ii liv:n^ ac trie ume of hu 
-vrco^ "vita wfMcn** ae aaa cuav«r$«f%l. N\ 3cn ijnty nmi di«:oTef««l Huaitoa** 
»a:ii. vaeir •- itcoou ::? Ci*ep jrc soiema «!ziJ2eri:«« :/'rot *iso«:Lsf »b*cber it ««««& 
** ipp«nc:tm froai tiie wi^it «m' «pir:s. or i mor:>:er ot tb^ sea ; anU wbea Ihev mm 
'!M mn Uheir Mttom^omnftxl was »c:ii icreater :** bvoa wixica tote actsor coociuiIeK "- chat 
an Xecaeraniiers were ::ie d»; dritlenordx;Kov«rer»a::aptf«<i««Mni** or :a«couoCrr. 
It >jii«ttr» ui«: :n 'ae e»e» mi £:%*(?*«.•:» ;he rjatir** were not con»:iiere*i as cichier 
ix jLJ we rg '-a or wosmrsMrs. Bjt althco^ Verruzaco fmd mad^ his aDu«^tfaDee auraai^ 
*Jhn« l3ti;A3s :'i IJi-k eijcricv-ivv TeAry deiore ue «m««l of xine UAil'-awook dmiumv 
a« CHitci Tovi^rvrs cor ue L^^iuc:5 Liev coRTer^vi lukd acy k30wi««i|j[« ot dMi 
trent*. Tbo« nai-.Tea wao rev-r'.T-\i 'Jje Itala^* ami bis Frenca crew, were an iKMi||tr 
:» uxaiOitaBC» or i:i» toore^ ot New Jenev cr New York : proomoJe no l«mi{er ift ts-. 
,s&i«3Ctf . an«i 3tf cnce wouui nrmj;R o: Lie ereaL aowog IM piKi|ii« aeeo b« Hiiiiw 
ji lS»t^. or 3^ VaaiienioRci .a lGo«\ 

A 'JhM!^ IXKrtoc VAficerionck srtres as the txni^s or Xew Netherbaii oorfh aad 
seuu. *a* «eft omsc trout It^ dearm 33 m'n ices anctii to 43 degrees «Kt:li« ▼«( h» 
«::a««t:ixcnCiT wvs :c :s boiimie^ " jv New E«i^^ii ami riie Fcesfi rtver." iawsAinijc tfai 
■roimec'.-c'j: r¥«?r irc .2 ^a:^ b« i!itf nver c? Canj«ia or New France :ae St. tdiww 
•^Q^rt iTti 5» Virrrjm. A-c i^ain . *• 3cr.a e«*t ne New NerjeHan»f» hurt agauist 
\«w Eairanii, winfrv laere are vi ,*fereTces oc tie w.^^ect of boosOartes waicb we w^ 
■mtsTK weii On '-se norta tj*? rv.ver of Caraca streicaes a coti:».iierible «2i»> 
taoce. lut .n ■■ix«" Torj-west :: ;s sti't vi-iufCrec iJti ur*::o«:* Mi-t* o«'oor Xethv> 
aiiutfr» 'lavv been far roco ;h« countrr. mere iban TV or^} ir::es 'roox cbe nverand 
«e« «Mre we :'7e^.:en;.T traae «;ia lnviua» «::o come mace Uau KO an4 91 
UT^ uurwT from Ue T::;*rof. wbo .Vive ?e«irfi v-r^e." oif u? cilca beaten, aoii 
aev 4::ow or" 70 .;-nr» !o :iie cou-rrr*.** •Jieret».re be cone! jces* Utat. ** we kaew not 
bow iet-a or mw r'ar wi» extemi m-arrvi '* Sued w«re lae iiieas 01 0)« Leante«i aawn^ 
ta« D*irca as 'j3 tie ^ou scares 01 New NeueH%r;a. A: ihe CisM Vaoiienhiaek 
«roce :3«r« appesr *o aave beea naar on o«tr co«sc ; some occasio ailT 
{r*nimxmi a *jm saosl wvers. woes too eerier a ^rsiuc ot pleasure or tooii. I an 
niihi lit tor TiiMhufiim li'a Hi*CQrr« to a MS- trualacim be Jmouih 

96 Fimhl TA&T£ OF Kt'M. 

pearaiice of the Hail-moon wheo first descried approacbuiz £*oEa 
sea ai tiia: of a wonderful marine raonster ; then thev imagined tec 
ship was a floating hou*e of uncommon magnitude ; at last dsej 
compared her to a gre^iC canoe £i!ed w ith god.-, and cirectec bv the 
great Spirit nimseif, dres^d in sc«riet. TLey &aid tiiai tnose 
Indians who first saw this awful virion approach, sent rkKrert, 
and Rieseenrers iu canoes u> ^pread the news^ and inform the 
chiefs of the adjacent ^ijorea and islandif : and in consequebc^? 
a council of Sachem? cocreaed oo the point of land, afierwaxcs iz^e 
'site of the city of New York, who awaited the approach, and re- 
ceived wiixi propitiator}' ouerin^;^ the ^reat iLini:o in red. Tber 
said noihinz of the death of John Coiernany or of any untoward 
occurrence. They described the piep3r«.tion« which were ic^de 
for sacrificini :o t::e great Spirit who r*<xA cesirned to vifit them ; 
tnd lie 'ui\\nz !%.iGr:d with L\s aicendant ?tiir\u, ordered a caiitosk 
to be brouga: from n:* rnovinz noiLse, frofTi which he poured a 
liquid into a smaller trarispareot recepucje, and crank it osl 
As:ain filling the small caiioash, he oSered it to the Sachem who 
7as nearest to him. and he, after sn.eiiing the liquor, pas^d i: u> 
anotheri who did tr.e san*^, a! I refiL-iog to drink. At i^^nzth the 
&tal cup came to the bst in the circle, and was stiil untassed. A 
bold warrior however at last accepted fhe pledse for fear of c:- 
iendinz the beiiiznant Manito by rejecting hi* onerisz* and rathef 
than draw down the wrath of heaven upon the red men, he re- 
solved to ri^k his o'^n life. He disnk the rum. Tr.e de!e:e- 
rious poison sewn be^ran it:^ operation upon one i;naccu£toir«ed to 
any stimulants; and while hb companions anxiously looked at him 
he bezan to reel, and soon su^eered and fell. Tr.ev eacftered 
about hir£i in sorrow and wonder, and he recovering, described the 
pleasure he received from the inroxicatin? excite:n»rnt. All the a5- 
aembly then desired to experience the bounty of the red-coa:ed 
itamii^t and all became drunk. In this state of madness, which 
has been the bane of their race, the navi^tor left them ; and as 
the narraiors informed Mr. Heckewelder, the island was called 
bj the Indians, Manhattan, or the place of drunkenness, or mad* 
aess by intoxicauon. An ominous name.* 

The story of the Dutch gaininz iand for their first establishmecL 
mdio^ bouse, or fort, by cutting the ox-hide into strips, and thus 
snrrounding a space sufficient for their purpose? is likewise a tra- 
dition told by the Delaware Indians to Mr. Heckewelder : and 
if applicable at all. can only be supposed to have happened at a 
subsequent period, when in I6I0 Christianse visited America. 
■Dd commenced a post for trading. The tradition is. that the Dutch 


PORTS. 87 

ftsked, ia like manner as did Queen Dido, for as much land as 
vouU fill vridiin the circumrerence of an os-hide ; which being 
CiiBied, they cut the hide carefully into one continuous strip not 
larger than the Utile finfi:er« and thus encircled a large piece of 
grrmndf iirhich the admiring savages willingly gave, pleased with 
tlie ingenuity displayed by their visiters. All that renders tliis 
probable is« that tlie Dutch traders, rather than the Indian narrator, 
should have been familiar with lite original story of the foundation 

of Carthage. The fact is, that until 1615 die Dutch had 
1G15 made no purchase, nor obtained any permanent footing 

on the island of Maniiattan, but at that time, probably under 
ibe guidance of Christianse, they purchased a piece of land on the 
bank of the Hudson, and obtained pennission to erect a trading 
house, which being guarded by a palisade fence, was called the 
first kuu The situation of iliis fort was near or on the site of 
what is now Bunker*s hotel or boarding house, and immediately 
ig down to the beach. The first real fort, as we shall see, 
erected in 16^3 or 4, and was a square, and on the bank of 
the river where the west wall of Trinity Church buiying-ground is 
now. The first piece of soil purchased, extended from the pali- 
sadoed tradinir-house alons: the bank, to Rector street, and was 
cultivated and used as a garden. I am aware that in the controversy 
between Massachusetts and New York, in 1667, respecdng bounds, 
the commissioners of New York admitted that there existed a town 
and tort at New Amsterdam in 1612. when Ar<:al received the 
sobmission of the man he called governor. But in 1612 the Dutch 
goremment had neither town nor fort here. Some huts sheltered a 
few unlicensed traders, who probably had a stockade round their 
dwellings to protect them from the savages with whom they 

New Amsterdam (or New York) was begun by traders, and 
it now flourishes bv trade : but what a difiference 1 Then a stock- 
ade fen, or a stone wall, a few huts, a single ship, (to which an 
Albany sloop is a floating palace,) beads and shells for money, 
and otter skins and green tobacco for merchandise ! Now, thou- 
sands of palaces, and thousands of vessels, whose long-boats might 
Tie with the half-decked shallop of Columbus, banks, mints, bills 
of credit, and specie ; with the manufactures of both hemispheres 
as the aiticles of commerce. 

To return to Henry Hudson. Sailing back to Europe, 
1610 be brought the Half-moon into the harbour of Dartmouth 

in England, (compelled so to do by his mutinous English 
a3ors«) and sent his Dutch employers an account of his discoveries. 
Again the English merchants had their hopes revived of finding the 
mocb-desired passage by a short road to India, and Hudson was 
atain employed by his countrymen for the purpose. On the 17th 



first exclu^iTe risht vested in the ciiiieDs of New Amsterdam br 
t^e ivpuMic, tnd was the fouiukitioQ of the Dutch West India 
CotDpuir hereafter mentioned. 

Adrian Block arri^-ed at Manhattan Island for the purpose of 
truin; with the Indians for skins^ and making further discoveries 
jbr the Dutch East India Company. By some accident his vesssel 
WIS burned, and he built another : certainly the 6i^t sea vessel, how- 
ever snull hef tonna^« ever built here. W ith this sea-boat he ex* 
plore^ the East river and :>oimd. betneen the main land and Long 
isUnd« which tlie Ind'ans called the Island of Shells. Christianse, 
wbo WIS on similar service for the company, met Block somewhere 
about Cape Cod, and they in com|>any explored the coast, and it 
k supposetl that diey discovered ^^ewJH*rt harbour, wliere Ver- 
raixiix> had been ion<r before, and die whole of Narrasansett 
bav, to w!iich thev ^ve the name of Nassau, Thev then re- 
tarsed to Manhattan after entering: Connecticut river. 

For the voyages of Christianse and Block, and the first settle- 
Dent near Albanv* we are indebted to the Aihrtt^ iffo'-n:*.* 
Cr^ristiaase sailed up to tiie neighbourhood of Albany and erected 
Foct Oraa^, further than this he considered the navi^tion fit 
kdr sloops only.^ Block and Christianse brought out traders 
wbo built on Manhattan Island. Block when he sailed through 
Hell-^te (the appelbtion now fixed on this pass) left hk name 
peamaDently on Block lsland4 

The various distractions in Holland prevented any recti* 
16:^1 lar attempt at colonixing New Netherland imtil 16^1, and 
Hudson's river was for a time called Mauritius, in com- 
pSfoent to pnnce Maurice. 

On the third of June 16^1, the States General of Holland 
gnaied a charter to the Dutch We*t India Company, (to which 
addidoas w^n? made two veai^ after,) and in Februarv 1693 an 
act of amplification was siven. By this charter and amendment 
a company was aatfaoriied to trade with the West Indies, Africa 
and ocber places ; and all other inhabitants of the United Nether- 

* S<-^to«cf»cr w;a» csMnncoce^ s^otCt a::er Cbn9UAB»» pUcted » c«1oct «t Fdrt 

WKis z^ «M t^Wt iM tbe >lo^«k lo Cac^cAw t^^^ But i&e =;uDe of t^ G^raua 
Pa-** r«.arv« uie «ks>«m«i oi abmS^t »ce. la ibe rrxn o: Co««» Acae aboot 

S«« Yoot :i*-.- h»>rs<, tt*; w*jif>2 i: E**: Cassv. ,■.-. i>* c»-r:¥ cf Co'saaK*'* 
svT .V -awa *-tci*il l>*:r d«r. .:^ rrar Scobirr* Cnrek ; ini := 17^20 ir<5 
fvv*£ »ivr :.^ IrKflMa i*.A::4w lae 3K«:irf o:' \Vr-»: Cii^a Ore*^ «:ai uie 

: .'A£fr B««««c das >3j:;p»tcc Um: :3s:eftJ of i:>c c:.:r«ac« lo E.Vmv tite Dcsch 
tat >assa^ 5< i a neQ Las; a&i Ma aM:; i - Iwaaii«. Ht^t-f*i. cr beav. 


lands were prohibited from trade with those places for twenty-four 
years under certain penalties. Articles were agreed upon between 
the Dutch West India Company and the States General, and 
approved by the Prince of Orange. In consequence of the above, 
the city of Amsterdam and the West India Company entered 
into articles of agreement with all colonists wishing to go to the New 
Netlier lands, by which the burgomasters of the city bound them- 
selves to find shipping on reasonable terms for the colonists, and 
whatever they may carry with them ; to send a schoolmaster and 
religious reader ; to make advances for clotliing and other purposes; 
to erect public buildings and fortifications ; to establish a go- 
vernment, wherein the citizens shall choose tlieir burgomasters, 
their magistrates, and (when there shall be 200 families) a repre- 
sentative council of twenty delegates to be chosen annually. 
Courts of justice were provided, agriculturists were warranted as 
much cultivable land as they could till, free from certain taxes for 
ten years, and from others for twenty.* 

Thus we see that the first government of New York was repre- 
sentative in part : the colonisU« governed themselves by magistntes 
elected annually, except as the Director General, or as the agent 
of the Weat India Company had a supreme control, and the 
common law of the Netherlands was in force. Such was the gov^ 
ernment, until overthrow^n by the English, when the colony was 
subjected to a Governor, appointed by James Duke of York, and 
to the laws called the Duke's Laws. The colony had by this 
time increased, and many English families had mingled with the 
Dutch in New Amsterdam and on Long Island, where townships of 
English from Connecticut, and other parts of New England, had 
been formed. The Duke's government, while he remained a sub- 
ject, was mild : when he ascended the throne of England, it was 
tyrannical. Chancellor Kent, in his anniversary discourse before 
the New York Historical .Societv, (to whose librarvl am indebted 
for much information relative to this work,) says, *' If I do not 
greatly deceive myself, there is no portion of the history of this 
countrv, which is more instructive or calculated to embellish oar 
national character, than the domestic history of diis state," speak- 
ing of the Slate of New York. Again he says, "Our history will 
be found, upon examination, as fruitful as the records of any other 
people, in recitals of heroic actions, and in images of resplendant 
virtue. It is equally well fitted (o elevate the pride of ancestry, 
to awaken deep feeling, and enkindle generous emulation." 

In pursuing the histor}' of New York it will be necessary to 
note the colonization and progress of other provinces on this con- 

* See Appendix F. 



tiiMot, and particularly those of New Englandy whose descendants 
form at tliis time so great a portion of the population of the state. 
Tne oriiriual settlers of New York were such as may be boasted 
of by ilieir descendants ; and the second race tiiat flowed rn upon 
them, and mingled with them, was such as is now remembered 
u-ich just pride : they brouirht fiom their native country an equal 
|H>rtion of tlie germs which form our present prosperity. 

The causes which produced emigration to the dilfeient colonies 
of America, and the \'arious classes of people, as well as moti^'es 
which induced men to leave their European homes, are snbjects 
of curious inquir}', and edifying speculation. The ptn'itans, or 
pilgrims, who sought a new home, for conscience sake, were peo- 
ple o( property and education ; and although some among them 
were men who had attained a degree of eminence, equality of 
n::his was llie distin!;:uishin:; feature of their sc?cietv. The first 
eastern colonists had the advantas^ over all the others in thoee 
qualities which form a republican government, or democracy, 
except the companions of William Penn, who settled Penn- 
svlvania and West Jersev. The first visiters, and settlers of New 
York, those brought out by Block and Christianse, were mere 
tnuler» ; colonization was not their object. Traffic alone induced 
them to build huts and store-houses, with a fort to piotect the 
£:oods they brought from home, or those procured by barter from 
the natives. That spirit, which now fills our streets with ware- 
houses that emulate castles, and dwellings that are palaces ; 
which encumbers our pavements with the most costly fabrics of 
Europe and the Indies; which has produced banking-houses 
whose raults overfiow witli the precious metals, and send forth 
bills of credit that can onlv be counted bv millions and billions ; 
began its operations here, at the south-west extremity of Pearl 
street, (so cdled as if by inspiration,) and on the banks of the 
North river, conducting its bargains with strings of wampum cut 
tVom mussel and clam shells. 

Commerce (the parent of national prosperity, both here and in 
the fatherland, Holland ; the root of that prosperity which has creat- 
ed nnies, not to destroy but bless mankind,) began its operations 
here, at the point of the island of Manhattan : it has covered the 
black rocks with pleasure-walks and groves, tlie whole island and 
its surrounding waters with fixed or floating palaces, and no lon- 
^r confined to the Copseif^poinft extends its influence to ever}- 
regioo of the globe. 

TOL. 1. 



Colonization of'Sar Knsrland — Intimate connection vrith the Dutch 
of Sew York — Massachuscttf — Permanent settlement of Sne 
SctJicrland — Silas Wood — Long Island — The Patroom — 
Peter Mimrks — Van Twiller — The Swedes — Gttstanu 

We will now turn to ihe east, and note the colonization 
1610 of New ^Jnirland. The rojal and ecclesiastica] tvranny 

in England, drove Mr. Robinson and his congregaiioo lo 
Ley den, where iliey found an asylum with the Dutch protestant 
republicans. Cardinal Bentevoglio denominates these pious and 
exemplary people, " a body of English hereticks, called Puritans, 
who had resorted to Holland for tlie purposes of commerce." 
The intention of many puritans of England was to seek a refuge 
in Virginia ; but a royal proclamation forbade any of the king^s 
subjects to settle in that country without express permission from 
their master, James the first. 

Tlie Mayflower arrived at Plymouth in tlie year 1620. 
1620 The puritan colony saw in the land of their exile nothing 

to cheer them ; but the} luid that wiihin which supported 
them under all trials, and ^' passeth show.*' 

On the eleventh of November the pilgrims had landed some 
men at Cape Cod, but relinquishing this as the place of settle- 
uientt ihev, on the eighth of December, set foot on Plvmouth 
Rock. Of one hundred and one who then arrived, only fift}-^ve 
sunived to the following March.* 

* There it ■ hIot\ told by J. Grehame, and bihm. that ihc Doich captau vhi 
eamrd the nuniant from Ley dm. had boon hrib<'d hy the (^ovrmmcnt of Nether- 
land or the %\*Mi India ComjMny. to carry thr pilffrinis, contrary to their intention, lo 
thenonh of Nev Amaterdam. They pivc a* aiithontiea. Mather. Neal, HachmMa. 
and Oidmiion. Out the fiatent of the pilcrim» contradict* the falsehood ; aa docs 
Iheir declaration to the eneoy aeni ironi Nem* Xethcrland to con^iratulate ihem on 
iheir arrival. There are many aiwertioii* in MSS . and in print, a^rainat my opinion, 
which my readers may examine, ait *' MorionV Memorial.^* *' Hiciory of Uie Pvi- 
wn*." "New Lri(vland Chronoloo'." '• liiirhinson'st MaaMchuaeiin.''* •• Holmea* An- 
nala," **MaMachuf«'ti» Histnr\." Su But I \m\A to mv a5.'<eriion both aa roneooin: 
to the Dutch rhararirr, am! i«i the truth. Maiiv ot iheiie tablet were propagated a: 
a time mhen the Dcirh and Enfflifch r!alUl^ lo New Nrihfrland were aubieclt of 
bitier com rove rtv Sec tike wine. •• I'Hi^lrtjrr runerale de« VoyupcK torn 21. p 280," 
where the reader wdl find it taid tiiai the pununahad rhoten for themteWet between 
Conoecticat mer and the Hodaon, near the coontv of Fairfield 



The wcoiid vessel* tlie Fc«iuiie, arriTed id 16:^« wad 
KS:} oalv bitMfltrhi mouths lo be fed bv those who hid no bread. 
On heuine thai three hunched and fortr-seTeii of the Vir- 
nva cxUooisis bad been cot odT bv the natives at Jamestown, the 
ptlcra» built themsieiTes a Ion. the lower pan of which w«s a 
piaceofww^p: therpmspeied through all difficuhies: thev were 
I A nxKja c y : their eoTexnment. the whole people assembled. 
Scasdisii wifes elected their militair chief.* Bradlord wis chosen 

The piUrims came to find a place of refute from European 
pypwi Mo is : h> Kve and be free« The oristnal compact had been 
nsped on the deci: of the Mavllower. br all the males of aduk 
ice« and the first signer was the chosen j^>Temor« Carrer : this 
natjjued kw: to be the constitmion of l^inouth cokaiT4 

TVp Dutch of New Netherland sent an honourable aceni, 
<hMtlji aner the am%^ of their tnends at Plymouth, to conj^ttt* 
hae them, br speech ami letters, on their happy estahhshroent, 
wmi odered them assistance, eood will and brotherlr intercourse. 
asetH was nrceiveil with hoiKNir and cordiatit^'. the English 
retufned a tnendly answer, and expressed their s^^titude 
the hiWfiitalitT experiencetl from the Dutch when recetred* 
paaicuJ and employed by them in their natire biwl. Thb alone 
ii flAcient to contradict the notion of the pilsrims having: been 
bf aifd and misled t^i a country at a distance troro New Nether- 
ImdL a storr repeated even by the historian Kobertson : but Mr. 
B4ob«Mon, and all his tnteUijrent people, knew full well the extent 
af the Dutch chums in America* and the state of their colonv« and 
Mia£ht tor themselTes a place of refa^. in which to establish a 
aril and reiicious govern m ent acc^ordiniT to their own notions, 
lad dMnrt 6\vn anr then existing. Thev solicited, and obtained 
l» saaction of Encland to their intended colony, and they pro- 
raved a patent from the Plymouth Company of a place under 
EvSsJi jurisdiction. A few ^^ears alter, an association of puri- 


■tvM «id*:Md :s 1^S3 iSe ana 

A jc<Mb»£:^ itiwirtT iar iT, tW r.TaiM:li u»«ra* «» k^U a 1C3T. 1b 

Ml or coftM«i»cv <4 :W N*« Eldfiuiiil i«««» «r cii V i Mw > 

1^ mA »xU9d<^ ur «« ibe •i>=*^ T^ ww M am K^ >» «)m 

la 1611 ibe OH«i fctinKUMs; of RrmMsk a i m.t J at «1m 

■t «( Tl s»e tW OMMY of Mmftc^ttartts. TIm N«v NcttekaAt WA •• wm^ m 
a vd X«v Ei^siii tSat lo sadcntuid ii» ioitorr of NtnrTnk. tkr ^ 

44 PlRITAXf*. 


laiis ivas formed bv il»c reverend Mr. White, a noncoi}- 
1C27 foriiiiiig cler^ryman of Dorchester, who applied to the same 

coinpanv froiri which the Aettier?$ of Ply i south had r/btaine>; 
their patent, and purchased a tract of land (not on HuiUon'i river 
or near it) lyini; from tiiree miie.^ nortii of the river Meirimack, to 
nine milcs south of Charle.s river in Massachusetts bay, ^*and ev 
tcndinir from the Atlantic to the I'aciGc Dcean."' The^e men evi- 
dently avoided, and meant to avoid interference with the Dutch of 
New Nctherland. John Endicot led them safely to Massachu- 
setts, where other? joined them, and a charter was obtained fron 
Charles the first, so liberal as only to be accounted for by suppos- 
ing that at this period he wi.-rhed to 2et rid of troublesome enemier 
to his ecclesin.^tical pretensions. Thi.-- policy was not subserjuentij 
followed bv Chark'!':, or he woidd not have retained to iiis conX. 
Cromwell, llarnpden, Hazel ri:rz and Pym. Another company o: 
puritans settled at rSalem, and adopted the rules for civil and reli- 
gious government of their bretiiren of Plymouth; but two of the 
emigranu dissented from the rest and were sent back to England. 
It was at thi« time believed possible tiiat all the meml>er9 of a 
community could tiiink alikf; ; and diiferences of opinion were not 

It is to be remembered that in 1629 the English took 
1C29 Quebec,* and almost immediately restored it to France by 

the treaty of St. Germains. Thus Charles, by confirm- 
ing the French power in Canada, planted the tree of e\\\ whose 
fruits were shed liberally over New Endand anrl New York. 

In 1G30 the general court of Massachusetts chose their 
1630 own governor and council. Boston and the neisrhUiuring 

towns were settled by emigrants from Enidand. The smalr 
pox swept off the natives, and made room for the strangers who 
had purchased their lands, and introduced pestilence amoni; them 
without any ill design in either. 

• Kirk WM ih^ Enzii'h eommar.dfr that at '.hi time took Q»:rV*c. ChawpV" 
proposed to surreiider on inc nincie'.-nrh of J';ty 162'>.«id«'i. t'lr&t. that Kirk sr^onfd 
nil commisa:oru second, that a rasM-i •.*»>•} id be ^ircn to the French to go home ; 
Dot onlv for the garrison, !>u: for the pr^e»ts. le^iia and ivro •^■^•^ivm ir.%: had mcp 
given to Mr. Champlasn two years before by the Ir.diar.9. TmrH. that the". 
^loald go out wiih vms and every kind of move»n\en vtifnout r.:ridrancc Fo.:r».. 
*l»t pfonaions ihoiild be fum:thed for the voyage lo France :n i»2char:re for fi::» 
Kirkraplicdibat hii cofnmif»:on was at Tado!]P«ac.a trading port lower down the S:. 

> -^ — — ---ij r -' — 

tAwiMKe. where tbc French were to embark for E»srof/«j. and there hia brotiicr »ooid 
Jow^il ; Umi becoald r>ot give the French a Tns^^l. b'j! they conld engage one at Ta- 
oooene. for their parpot^, firat to carry them to Englat.d and then to Frar.c'c ; •• Aa !o;^.« 

•*>• nil dotbes. with one rohe tif roMtnr and nofh:r.7 el-c : z* to tr.e fathcrf. t-.cT 
■iBtl be coDteot with ihtnt caiMKkf and their hook*." 


The freedom of the colony was denied to all who were not re- 
ceived into the church : thus the ministers were vested with power 
not purely spiritual. The amiable Kobinson had admonished his 
people that wore tntth would cume. He did not think that ir, or 
the bearers o/*tV, should be rejected : yet Koger Williams, the good, 
the liberal, the charitable, could not be endured. Williams had 
found more truth, and brought it to the puritans ; but they could 
not receive it, (or could not see it,) and he became the bene- 
factor of Rhode Island. He planted the tree of toleration, whose 
fruits have blessed the land which drove him forth. By rapid 
pn^ress the English spread until they encountered the Dutch 
settlers on Fresh river, (now the Connecticut) Long Island and 
New Haven. 

This brief notice of the progress of New England is far from 
being foreign to my main subject, before returning to which I must 
notice that in 1630 the inhabitants of Massachusetts yet struggling 
for bread, devoted 400 pounds sterling to the establishment of 
the University of Cambridge. But ten years had passed from 
the arrival of the Mayflower and first settlement of Plymouth, when 
the puritaots amidst every difficulty that surrounded them, remem- 
bered that education could alone be tlie foundation of a republic. 
Tbey proved that they deserved, and tliey were determined, to he 

To return to the Manhattoes. In the same year that 
1610 Hudson sailed on his last voyage, some of the merchants 
of Amsterdam sent out a ship for traffic, to the country 
claimed by Holland in virtue of the great navigator's discover}'- in 
1609. The trade for peltries was profitable, and other adven- 
turers followed. Next year Block and Christianse brought out 
more adventurers protected by an edict of the States-ge- 
1614* neral, and shortly after the settlement on the island called 
V sometimes Castle Island in the Hudson, (which led to 

the beginning of Albany t on the main land a little further north,) 
was commenced. 

The year 1623, as already remarked, may be consi- 

1623 dered as the era of permanent settlement in the New Ne- 

therland, Peter Minuits, the agent of the Dutch West 

* 1614. When Block** ve»tel was burnt by accident tt Manhattan, Im built a 
Jiteh* 38 feet kecK 44^ feet on deck and 11^ feet beam ; and wiih tbia veaael De 
LMt Mys, **be aailed through Hdle-gat into the (rrcat bay," the Sound. He waa 
joiM4 by Cbriatianae off Cape Cod, they diacovered as they thought, Rhode laland- 

t TIm lite of Albany was called by the Iroquois Scaghneghtady. Castle Island 
WIS abandoned in 1617. when found to be subjected to the floods of the river. 
Ab impoiunt event now took place, which was a solemn league of friendship between 
tlie Netherlanders and the Iroquois. The latter gained the use of fire-arms to re- 
pioee their Canadian enemies, and the French ; the Utter, besides the adyantagcs of 
Cnde, made friend*, who were long a rampart to the New Netherlands and New York. 


India Company was governor, or Director-general for bik year 
under the grant from the States-general in the year 1621. Corn> 
Hus Mey (who has left his name on one of the capes) visit! 
South river, since known as the Delaware, the same year th 
Minuits came out, and Mey built fort Nassau on Timber Cree 
whicli enters the river a few miles below Cambden. 

The colony of New Netherland increased under tl 
1625 government of Minuits ; and the city of New Amsterda 
grew under the government established, which was as r 
publican as could be where the chief executive magistrate w 
appointed by others. After the Dutch under the West Ifidia Coi 
pany, had permission from the natives to build a fort on the islai 
of Manhattan, which I presume to have been under the gover 
ment of Minuits, they erected a regular square, as the reverei 
Mr. Abeel tells us in his MS. which 1 6nd in the New York Hi 
torical Library. This corresponds with my opinion that the wa 
or foundation which was discovered near the bank of the riv 
on the site of the present cemetery of Trinity church, was ps 
of the fort erected about the year 1623. But it is not like 
that the first traders were altogether without defence, and I fii 
that they had a stockade enclosure on the bank between the abot 
square fort and the point of the island ; for the idea of fortifyii 
the bluff was not suggested unUt the time when Van Twill 
erected the permanent fortress called Fort Amsterdam. Tl 
government under Minuits was according to the plan proposed I 
the city of Amsterdam.* The people, that is, the freeholder 
chose the schepen and the council of twenty, and it was only tl 
Director-general who was appointed, independent of their will I 
the authorities in Europe; but his powers were so great that wfac 
the English conquest took place, and the colony was transferrc 
to James Duke of York, the people willingly underwent the chanff 
But under Minuits none of the inhabitants of New Netherlac 
had cause to complain except the beaver and others whose skii 
enriched^the Dutch merchants : the slaughter of these increasi 
rapidly, notwithstanding which the Dutch West India Compai 
failed in about ten years after taking charge of New Ainsterdac 
Few agriculturists yet came to the new colony, but ainoi 
them was, in 1625, a colony of Walloons who took up lam 
and began to cultivate at the Wallabout on Long Island * ai 
from them the name is derived {WaaU boght.i) Thus, at tb 
time was the city of Brooklyn begun ; and the same year tl 
Jirst white child bom in New Netherland saw the light, at the Waa 

♦ Sea Appendii F. 

t Het-itiudt Boffktt metning the W«]Iooni bay. 


Boght ; this was Sarah Rapelye* the daughter of John ; the sectmd 
was given to the same Walloon family at the same place, and 
from her is descended the present worthy mayor (1839) of the city 
of Brooklyn.t , 

The Honorable Silas Wood, whose authority is unquestionable^ 
tells us, that when Europeans first saw Long Island it was very 
clear from wood, in coosequenee of the Indian custom of burning 
off the brush and underwood. 

I find from another record a memorandum of the manner in 
which agricultural^ or farming transactions were carried on in 
these primitive times. " Wouter Van T wilier let George Jansen 
de Rapelye have two cows for four years, and then to be returned 
with half the increase."! 

The Dutch colonists of New Netherland sent the second in 
command as their envoy to the Plymouth colony with congratu- 
lations, and friendly ofifers of intercourse and assistance. M. De 
Razier was received with honour by the pilgrims, who acknow- 
ledged their former obligations to the Dutch, and professed their 
gratitude. The courteous envoy invited the English to a better 
soil than they were cultivating, denoting that of Hartford ; and 
the English advised their neighbours to secure their claim to the 
Hudson, by application to England and a purchase or treaty, for 
they were not ignorant that their country claimed the Dutch pos- 
sessions, pn the ground of first discovery by Cabot. Every 
friendly demonstration attended the visit of De Razier ; but the 
pilgrijns requeste<l the Dutcli not to send their skiffs into the Nar- 
agansetts (or beaver skins.^ 

* Peter Vroom of Raritan, in a letter to Egbert Benson, dated November 
tbe eighieentb 1813 says, **your Society (the Historical of New York,) have pub- 
lished the day of the birth of Sarah Rapelye, the first white child born in the vicinity 
of New York. An account not otily of her birth and marriages, but also of the num- 
ber and names of her immediate descendants, with other particulars, having been 
found among the papers of my father-in-law, Guysbert Boeart, decease^i a great 
grandson of the said Sarah Rapelye by her second marriage, 1 apprehend it might af- 
ford the society some pteasore to have a few of the particulars, I oave therefore made 
the following eitract from the same. Sarah Rapelye was bom on the seventh of 
June 1625, (differing two days from the account published) and was twice married. 
The first husband was Itanv Hanse Bergen, by whom she had six children, named 
Michael Hanser, Jan Hanse, Jacob Hanse, Brechje Hanse and Marytje Hanse. Her 
second husband was Teunis Guysbertse Bogart, by whom she had also six children, 
named Aurtia Bogart, Antje Bogart, Neelje Bogart, Aultje Bogart, Catelynije Bogart 
and Guysbert Bogart, who was the grandfather of my father-in-law Guysbert Bogart. 
The account also contains the names of the persons to whom eleven of her children 
were married, and where they settled, and states that the twelfth, namely, Brechje 
Hanse, removed to Holland.** In the Dutch records, letter P. or Vol. eleven, at Al- 
bany, it is stated that this same Sarah the first, was a widow by tho name of Forey. 
with seven children ; and at the age of thirty-one in consideration of her situation 
and births. Governor Stuyvesaut granted to her the valley adjoining her patent. 

f General Jeremiah Johnson. 

t See Appendix Q. /X Cj 

45 THK 

The Dutch West India Company, bj autbority of the States, 
znnied to certain peraocu, on condition that anj one of them 
ihoulfi, within tour yeariy plant a colony of filty persoi» over fif- 
tet*n vear^ ot'a^e. witiiia tiie New Netherland, lands to the extent 
of ^Lxteea iniie-) ia leainht or W on a river, ei^ht miles on each 
bank, (the uidth in the interior undedned,) the Indian ri^ht to 
be pure hasted from them by the i^rantee ; and the Island of Man- 
hacLin rvr:^er\ed co the company. These leaders of colonies were 
called Fntr'jtjHi,^ 

Trie tour dr:»t irreat Painx^ns were Samuel Godvn, Samuel 
Bloc mart, M. Pau\r, and KiJian Van Rensselaer. Godyn and 
Bloemart united, and obtained the first deed for land in Dela- 
ware, (yoilyn purchased from the natives the soil from Cape 
Uenlopen to the Delaware river ; a territory of more than thirty 
mite.^. which purchase was ratided and duly recorded. This now 
coii-^titiitej the two lower counties of the state of Delaware. The 
patroons likewise boUifht the opposite shore of New Jersey ; and 
one of them, ^[. Pauw, purchased the soil on the west bank of 
HudsonV river and of New Amsterdam bay, behind Hobokeo, 
extend inir on the shore lo the kills, with all Staten island, and the 
whole territorj- was called Panmhu The agent of Mr. Van 
Ren<&:«elaer pitched his tents on the Hudson from Fort Orania (or 
Albany,) to the mouth of the Mohawk river. Of the four pairooiB 
the name of Van Rensselaer is the only one now known, and that 
is known in the most advantageous manner as the name of men, 
patriots, and true pliilanthropists. 

The?e four original patroons, in the first place, sent out agents 
to secure* places tor dieir colonists, in consequence of a de- 
cree, or reijuldtion, made bv a council of nine, who were entrust- 
ed with the management of colonizing New Netherland, which 
decree granted privileges to those who as patroons, or private in- 
dividuals, should carr}' out and plant bodies of settlers. 

By this decree the agent of the patroon, having selected the land 
for the colony, four years were granted for perfecting the setde- 
roent. The patroon might bold his land as an eternal heritage, 
devisable by testament, with certain other provisions ; araoQ^ 
which, he might, if he founded a city, appoint officers and magis- 
trates. The services of the colonists, or servants of the patroons, 
were assured to them by the government. 

It was provided, that as the company intended to people the 
island of Manhattoes first, all colonial productions intended for 
exportation, should be brought thither, the patroons having pri- 
vileges of trade, by paying five per cent on goods brought to Man- 

See Appendii H 


fcr ex(Miff«Mm ID Hoihad. TheiMuiooiislwld oiMHts 
HttM^ ktt ui ^tpp^ hr to the Dtnertor-c^paefmi for all 

^om^ ow^er £ny pftlUers^ ^tv^cnr Jolsu^ tr^fatr-iliKe cents.) 
la&riABEib visbiii^ Ki 5<aie hads mklit tike up m$ niocli » 

11K7 <^MUd C9iinriie« lad they bid a Tmecr of pnYtk^es for 

M3Uft£« SMMiiiit* nrauif « jre* 

^ ^ <Nfc 

k «;fe«> ftipa&tied t&nt coihNusts^ not <mi MuikttEaia isliiid* sbo«U 
frcsftrBK^ tlie InduB citiiR$« lad tint tber $lMMid« ^ silNMi » 
If y'nVrahhi» efCtJbJiih a nuni^diT ukI a jrhoohntsier. Womer Vui 
r«:i&er caMie fMtt » tiie mreM lor the imr pmvooss. and htTiog 
tfnwei ibf i«iKii$ tnet$ far ht$ emploTers^ leturned to Hi3liiiid» 
i: vQB «Mi die dtstgie em e a t h^fween IVter Minoits and the cooi* 
iiftrr. «nB Via IViikfr retunied ;fe$ the IKieetiiM'-tcetKffal or 
Cwptm^or «rfr Nev Netherlind. 

la c&e Teiir 16:^ IV Laet. a dureetur tW the West lodn Cook 
:iftrr« ?dbi&<K>i hfts bodk oa the Nev Worii. He eodMTooied 
i> 3i«^e c^vabts bv d«>enbi:!:£ the New Netherhmb as a pan* 
dise« w h g ii e oothuir «:t$ w^taciac hut vrbat ic ii;fes tbe metest of 
ii» ^efsSerio mKpMrt thither : hut it w«5 oci^r bv the ucioo of tht 
v«h Ki&iii ViQ Ke£k«;5eii;:r aod oihet^ thit ONOCuntMi 
tJMir io wd ahmtt Nev .Viu^terduEL 

Bt MiN^ dep»«^i ill the Nev Toit Htstoiml Soden 
I'idil »kI hr oiber^ sobomtKd to Mr. MouIioq the hetoriuu il 
j£<c^nrs ui: Ki^3 Vaq Kecss^sefier rurcbt^ed trom the 
Ib^hb i iwiiij > the liaJs e^Lteoduu: oo both $&de$ of the nTer« 
nuB Foet Oniaxe or Albtmr, to a $»nU t4ieid « the oioutfa of die 
MtMun mer. aad loki ui roods. 

F:feHie CRUI puivi«ise$ br the psttrooi^ were not &TiiiunMe lo 
si^e jigTBkfi ol^the eouctnr b% iodeoeadaLzrt cuhirators^ Thef« 
vK fiui giiNTw iwm anKWir the punrhwrs : and the colongt? $ent» 
<9r hmai h i over, veie wor def^mdaats. vImi bec m ie teavMs l» 
» ij«qyiii>mi of the $oiL TlMse irest hadbtdders were dirar-* 
lon'of the West ladu OoamsT, uid Ki!sui Vui R cMpeher in 

» UI opulest laefckiat of Aniksieffdim. Ther as!$9> 
fcrsMMsd beoedt: uidOodTQ htrior bees infennjed thui 
viahs TCie [^eatr a£N>ut Debv^tee bir. aitd bcxb vfaodes jod sedb 
nifant Kar Xev Acttscetdast. the «$$iciicitte:s deted oot aa expe* 
iffiim Mr mbiiiB^ aud eotowaatkvsk acd iud«pce«ii I>irki Petetsos 
Dir Vims loi ber«ne cocneoaader. aad sttadrr odier penoas lo 

De Vne* ([who is soneciaies calVd P ttitiwa aad 
Darkl Pewrsea Via H<v«i.^ irrixed ia De>Kwai« 
farrr ia 16;SK aod ereccod a foct ta c:»i: i^iTt ctUed Hoor» KjI» 
or Saiataiiei^ Ho«»e5 were buis: s!70 irncalture becva in the 
^qmiat- Ttes fCiasatioGi wits wia^;^ i»odva*5 puirhaBew aad (la» 
Fon Xainaa kid deea abaadoaed.) wa$ the oahr Eufofeaa settle- 
ia Dabaaiew Mr. Moahoa hai laiir aaih priMred ikit the 



did not settle there luitil 163S, (whicli agiees with Ih' 
poHceaMj) ovriog to the engagemeots and death of GiuUTfli 

Tbe pleaeaot Muoding name of Pavonia no longer designaics 
the territory of patroon Pauw, but perhaps bis name is fbond in 
that of a towasiijp or village on the border of our fanri where the 
primitire Dutch dress and manners, have continued with the lan- 
guage little ctianged, to this time. Tbe often, without cause, ridi- 
culed, name of Communipauw, seems to mark tbe Coaunmc, 
or communitr, planted tbere by the patroon Pauw. R ea gs c lacfwrt, 
and the venerable ColonUf are never mentioned without soggestinr 
the virtues of one patroon ; and perhaps Communipanw maj be 
entitled to tbe respectful attention of tbe New York antiiuarv. 

Messrs. Godyn. Bloeman, and Van Itensselaer cade the fint 
settlement in Delaware, and the bistorian Do Laet ^as one of tbe 
proprietors under tnem. This colony was 2.ntececent to any is 
Pennsylvania or New Jersey, and was led by De Vries. who Las 
written an account of the voyage, ubieb is to be found in the 
Philadelphia librar\-. By this voyage, the Netberlanders were the 
first occupants of Dela%vare. De Vries left the Texel on tbe 
12tb December. 1030 : ascended tbe river as hizb as the site of 
Pbiladelpbia ; and as Fort Nassau, mentioned above, l^d been 
previously abandoned, all ihb covntiy was in possession of the 

De \'nes. aner re/ifiiiii' a year with hi*? coionists, re- 
1632 turned hooie, and again cf^r.Anz u* visit tiiem. foucd m> 
remains but the bones of bis eountryroen. In the accoum 
of bis vo^aee^ as irausiaied by Dr. G« Troo!4 of Philadelphia, the 
navigator i^xz^ •' We sounded at thirty-nine decrees, i^ad fifrv- 
seven fathoms — sand— and smelied laixi, (tlie wind being N. W.) 
ofcasioned by the odour of the underwood, which at this time oi 
the year,'* December, '* is burned by the Indians in order to be 
less hindered in their bunting. Tije 3d, we saw the opening of 
the south bav or sc*uth river. We went the oth in the bav. We 
had a whale near the vessel. W e promised ourselves ereat things 
— plenty of whaj^s, and good land for cultivation.'* Tbey found the 
onburied remains of liieir former comrades ! A quarrel had oc- 
curred betueen them and the Indians, vi ho, repenting their fint 
bospitalitv, flew Uy anas and massacred the intruder^ before thev 
had become strong enough to become masters of both natives and 
ioiL As the Europeans tell tbe siory, the natives purioiocd a 
pfaue of metal on which the arms of the States-ceiieral were en- 
graved, and affixed it to- a cc«lt;m.i, as a token that they had cectain 
cUims to tbe soil stccordinj lo European usaee. It l« more pro- 
bable that the Indiana, by tLL* inscription and coiuran, bad their 
suspicions awakened, that the country was claimed aa bemg tmder 


tke Jowwnww of fereignet^ when the iiitires« bv selling the land^ 
w ef w owtnt lo re^tcn tbemselres or their country to vir foreign 
asdnriiT wbtterer* The re$uh was the destniction of the in- 

In the nien»liine« Peter Minnits« who had been the first Direc- 
tor-t^psenl at New Ankstenfam* and had superintended the coionr 
lormd tipon the plan of 1691, baring some disngreetnent with the 
Dndh \% e»t India Company^ returned to Holland* and the se- 
eond Direcior>ceneraI« Wonter Van Twiller* arrived in 
I<SS3* this yemr« De Vries finding only the mins of his colony 
in Delaware* and narrowly e^cnping what is called the 
lyvMr of the naure^, sailed north, after visiting Mrs:iiiia, and ar- 
rrned at New Amsterdam shortly after Goreroor Van Twiller, 
nder wh»« administTat:on« this year* the fort or trading^bouse of 
CfaW Hfipe was buih on Fresh rirer* within the precinctsV>f the 
present city of Hartford.^ The Netherfamdets bad not only dis* 


A H«t «if t&» ifcvn* 

BWB Nt^W \c€nC3vll3d<. 



OOMV G«iU««. 






463 d&fiSS 



S5T 4^050 



910 SM90 



734 «io:s 



«si etids 



liHtS 69013 



S4$ 9I9SS 


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1393 913T5 



1413 t94SSS 

Dme^ W«t Mm Okumv iidirf a 1«34 ; aM fwm > nmu ii i •f Aw 

^=»vs ap la 1€35^ i^ •4'«iu>di mat :a p ww ii ^w a of Mr. H««rr Kijpk. kit 

T«Il dvct«Mil tad YT«a vik^ tlw extnc: » mad^eO :t arrmn tint Foci 

NMktfknl c«K die cwapHrr 4 J7^ g:uS^.;s« 10 ^tcrrcn^ umI 

it^ l««Twc«> c«c 41tt.^«» «wUtn 1 1 9t!atT9mr^Hmaat4, 

f D(a:c9i vcsv moq rooKaido* of tbr des;^:^* of tbe New Es^rlisd secuur* 

HoQ^w u)d H*rar» co*r*ioc?e^ t cvvi>rT of rental* :o Fr*^ r.«»r. vai 

u > < q ibS»Tf lo 0» N«tiMffk»!«fs . tb» «w ii» coa wa ct ta t of 

of CottMcuc«c. "Hio I>iicli ioit ioe^ i«muB««i m iW j oi inum o of ii» 

MMn. Wt «nfoca4t4 m»d MmT mmovoiI Vr Eaf^nli towiao. lo IC39 

UsBfi StTurfSMLSir Aninr Hoarii» Sv Itieoori 8»i«MnttL Iftwi. 

Dodrr* nd F<B««dL iffojond Joibo Wiwkrap. iob. ** Gosvnnr of ii» 

KtM » \o« Enfluii." sor OMOTtor . tto« to *tilT«MO ~tW K a m fmm% 

Ho TO 1»C70C»4 U - OMB OS W COMM tO iW bOT«*' tO flO ^ t tt IMI 

oai HMko Jott afaop w w ~ox i^ nvtr Co — tc:k o i ml Imt. 

" TVt oir to WuU int ** for t^nr ovrri jM O >w i irrwni>dniom> uid 

eokj i«coifo «M« olT fttia/siv,'' tio Ulttr, vulca iho fen. TW 

to ** pUo:* UMMtKw"^ ot t^ kHjWor or Mor tW awit^ of tko mtr. 

k— i i »4 ocito M» >o lio mm ^oi ■<' m mm ifco it feg im 


covered this mer, bot had actnall}' porebased tJie lands 9ijM€tU» 
OD the S:fa JaouafT, IG^G, for the :^ute»-geoenl, hy thekr arssi 
Jacobui¥ Vao Curies. 

Tbe Incian? called tbemieiTes S<rpidin$j and the rirer SiracoiL 
Id the October ioilowiDg, tLe Duurb protested agaioei WLiilua 
Holmesv fvLo 2< commancer or leader of meo irom Pijmouii. 
" built a Lou^e on tbe Fresh rirer/' TLer desiredhim to cetu;. 
bot he. continued to occupy the laud previouslj purcbaied bj use 
Netberlaoder?, and to cultivate and build a» though oo bi^ ova 
propertr, and in a ^bort time Hartford arose, and the Dutch fevad 
ibeoueiFes enclosed bv English plantaiioos aiui an Eoelish tova* 
Soon after the arrival of Van Tviiler be appears to have 
1634 comtDeofed a^zricultiuist. One of bis piantaiions was at 

Red Hook* Governors bland, vrbicb is supposed alwajs 
from tbe first settiementf to i^ve been a perquisite of the Director- 
general for tbe time bein^, was so near Red Hook that cao^ 
crossed the channel to and fro at low water. This channel Las 
since become a passa::e for vessels, and L« known under tbe name 
pf Buttermilk channel. It has been formed bj washing away the 
lands of Lonz Island and part of Van Twilier^s plantation. Under 
his administration both Dutch and English villages were senied 
on Lo.iz Island, and the land at HdHaem was purchased froia 

the Indian claimants. FIatlands« 6r?t called Amerstbru 
16^6 was commer.ced. The inh^biuints of each town, settled 

by the EnzH-^h. adopted or trarr.ed laws for their own zor- 
emmeni : they irrr.ed themselves ^tA made miliiarr reiruULoos 
for defence axainst the Indians ; they established courts to pierent 
and punish crimes ; they had trial by jurv* when required, the 
jury consLstinz of seven, and a majority deciding; the que«tioa : 
thev had town meetinz? which imposed taxes and appointed lax- 
gatherers. Each town judged of tbe character of any person propo- 
sing to become a member, and admitted or excluded him as his 
standing and opinions suited them. The New England coIcMiies 
and the English towns of Long Island were peopled by republicans 
driren from Great Britain bv civil and ecclesiastical tvramiT.* 

* Is I06 a varriAt wis jprr:! 'm t*M \j*H A^nm* to wuso ai! mnuterw ir4» 
— raa/jfaifr Ca the dt$rrpiitu mmd c*.r€mmmviM %f tke <riiirci. fnm gra a ^ y r . jrip 
■tiau !• *£« S w i aai miarA* ud acacr of an mu.^tarj*^ pUstarwca abraa^ ** 
tef take !xbtfiT to rovnaa aad ucaerva tibrr &ctx«:f acd •chnrcatxaJ * 
cba %B4nfia« mi poad coafarmity aatf varr ui tha ciwrcB." Tk^T^iarr. =« 
■■• u M be icaea^orii ^ttuuxtd 'o fo ismd :o mi4 pvacei. wuaovt pcnaiaaboa af 
tka ardiVfop af Ctsfnhniw tad fauflMo of I>s':4oii. 

Rs«ti«aflta tari. - Tae atTctv CKi^waa m( xht 8ar Czaa'-xr, aaii J« jT»4t»«^» mf 
tka i wa i. Jec. and ■nnirirfiini| aarf ti:«c<eni:r aRlt-tanies o: iKE^t^rt for r«t ! <■< -■£ 
■a ^ caarea. sfa« boea 5ar gcorta ta ba axcirianf am ia< Lorrf'a dav. »s«ac leacv mf 
Um aasiaa, back a^niaccrt wmd achara. to t»;i ihe.r caeatea asid tat ta.l fr.r N<v E«jr- 
laad. (a ku ateMUM aa Aaanaa.) «hafa tier Md a ataaiabaa bv name 

U 107 the Cufbrii gmwail aaaa lo hava httm alariHA ^ the fraat 

THE IWBDE8. 63' 

Although the Dutch visited the Delaware for the pur- 
1637 poses of trade, no effort at cplonization was made from 
1633 to 1637, about which time the Swedes sent out a 
colony to that part of New Netherland : tliey were led and directed 
by Peter Minuits, who had been dismissad from the service of 
Holland, and now arrived in tlie Delaware. 

The heroic champion of protestantism, Gustavus Adolphus^ 
had long before lent his name and influence to colonizing Ameri- 
ca, as a place of refuge for the oppressed of the reformed religion : 
but the call he received from Germany for the protecuon of the 
same cause and its suffering adherents, deferred his plans. After 
his wonderful German conquests, made not like those of pre- 
ceding conquerors, over undisciplined multitudes — not like the 
triumphs of Alexander, and other leaders of well appointed 
bodies of men, trained to war over hordes witliout knowledge or 
practice in the science of man-killing — but victories obtained over 
those best instructed and flushed with success in battles innu- 
merable ; the soldiers of Tilly, confident in their leader, inured 
to carnage and delighting in blood. Gustavus conquered, solely 
by the justice of his cause, the favour of heaven, a gigantic genius 
and the valour of his hardy Swedes ; and after these heroic 
achievements, which resulted in the death of the hero, at Lutzen, 
in the arms of victory, his worthy minister, Oxenstiern, renewed 
the design of an American settlement, the conduct of which was 
entrusted to Minuits. He sailed with two vessels, the ^' Key of 
Colraar," and the ^' GrifSn." He entered the Delaware, and 
purchased from the Indians the lands from the southern cape, 
which the Swedes called "Point Paradise," to the Falls of Tren- 
ton. About this time fort Christina was erected at the creek of 
the same name. 

The liberal views of the Swedes, (particularly on the subject of 
slavery,) were avowed. The Netherlanders made use of slave- 
labour from the commencement of their colonial speculations ; 

her of people who left the country to go to the plantationi ; and the 30th April the 
king issued his proclamation against Uie disorderly transporting his subjects to the 
plantations, he having been informed that great numbers of his subjects are every 
year transported into those parts of America which have been granted by pmtenl to 
sneral persoju^ and these subjects transported or transporting thenuelpeM for the pur- 
pose of living ** without the reach of authority :** he therefore commands all officers, 
&c. not to permit any persons, being '* subsidy men,** to embark at any port, du:., 
without certificate of conformity to the church of England. And' on the 1st May, 
1638, *' the privy council made another order for reasons importing to the state, best 
known to themselves, to stay eight ships now in the river Thames, prepared to go for 
New England, and for putting on land all the pasMengen and provisions, Slc. And 
forasmuch as his majesty knows the factious dispositions of a great part of the peo- 

{»le of that plantation, prohibits all ships to set forth^ with patsengors for New £iig- 
and without permission from the lords of the privy council. 

mod like other people, English as well as other Eoropean US' 
tjons, seem to have thought the traffic in men as lawful as anjr 
other. As early as 1629, the Datch carried a carzo of African 
slaves to \'irginia« The tobacco and other plantations at Maif 
hattoes, were cultivated by negroes; but we must remember that 
long after this, when the good queen Anne was esublishine 
churches in the English colonies, she was no less active in prose* 
cuting the trade in Africans, and in introducing slaves to her Amer- 
ican dominions. It is only the more remarkable and worthy of 
admiration, that the Swedes at the early period of which we are 
treating, should have avowed their intention of eschewing the evil ; 
and should have seen the policy of a contrary practice. They 
declared their intention to cultivate their lands by the labonr of 
freemen. '^ Other nations,*' they said, " employed slaves ; the 
Swedish people are laborious and intelligent ; and surely we shall 
gain more by the efforts of the free who labour for their wives, 
their children and themselves.'' 

About the same time that Sir William Kieft arrived^ 
1638 at New Amsterdam, and superseded Van Twiller in the 
directorship, Minuits arrived with a ship of war and a 
transport, and planted the Swedish colony at Christina. With 
the emigrants came out a minister and an engineer. They first 
landed at Cape Henlopen. Kieft considered this as an intmsion 
opon his territories, and sent a remonstrance to the Swedes. At 
the same time he found himself daily more and more crowded by 
tbe ever thriving colonies of New England, particularly Con- 

Already the territories of the Peqnot Indians had been declared 
the just and rightful propert}' of the English colonist* by conquest 
On the twentieth day of September, " at a general court," it was 
declared, that *^ whereas the lord had delivered the Pequots into 
tbe bands of the court, and thereby given ^just title to all their 
lands both at Pecoit and Quinapiack, and the parts beynnd taieatds 
the DuicAf the court declares that they and their ** associates ^qtan 
Connecticut^''^ have ^' just right and title" to " all the said lands 
and territories." They accordingly proceed to appoint a time 
for the planting or settling this territory, to pay by sales to the set- 
ders a part of the expense of the war of conquest. It is well 
to notice, that it was only in 1635 that the Massachusetts emi- 

* !■ ihu y«ar iW first printhif pnm wtt mdI oot to Britub Amerkt, and in 1639 
^hm int priDUikf w«a dona ; wbems in Mexico, Mr. Tbomai in his Hiftory of priot- 
**Ht» toUt «•. that a preaa waa aat op in 1569, and Gaxcttn paMiabcd in the «ere«- 
2**Blll cantory. The int Gaaatu of the English colooiea was the Boston Neva 
l^tt^iB 1704. g aww l Gftooa coauBeocedpnntjnf in Cambridfa in 1639. and hia 
■B4 Bafftholomrw prinicd the firac GatcUa in Engliah ABMfica at Boatoo on Um aovas- 
tMoib of AH* > ^M «■ • 1>^ i^Mt of •« pot 


gnats, who, uoder the directorship of Kieft's predecessor, Vta 
Tiriller, bad purchased the lands claimed by the Dutch oo Coo- 
necdcut river, from the Pequots, who, led by their chief tSttsacuSy 
bad driven off the native chieis, and had a jitsi claim by conquest 
to this territory ; but Sasucus having quarrelled, or being driven 
into hostilities with the English, he and his Pequots were sub- 
jugated, and the above just title is given to the people of New 


Tendenof uAick the igMaramt hare in all ages to worship idols of 
their otTH maiiMg — Unicersalitif of ^fgro Slavery in the begift- 
mimg of* the sectHteenth ccHtunj — Sif/icnWi/y of Eastern Cfolo- 
nists — Absurdity o/' a community of' property iu mixed societies 
— The population of' Setr Amsterdam — Stat^ of' society under 
Sir IFUliam Kieji — Various encroachments upon hisjurisdic 
tiom — Canadian affairs — Foumtation of the enmity borne by the 
Froquais to the French. 

Thb disposition (caused by an ignorance of their rights and 
power) which mankind have ever evinced to worship the jugger- 
nauts who crush them, and to bow to the idob which they them- 
selves have set up, while they tremble, and yet curse them, has in- 
duced writers to bestow unmerited praise upon Elizabeth Queen 
of England. During her reign, the persecutions which chris* 
tianity and conscience underwent, were partly the cause of the 
attempts to colonize America* Puritans were marked as the ene- 
mies of hierarchal pomp and tyrannical bigotry. In process of 
time they fled their pleasant native land, in the hope to commune 
with their God without the interference of man. 

It was during the reign of Elizabeth that England com- 
1562 menced the slave trade. Four titled Englishmen, ** all ho- 
norable men,*^ Sir John Hawkins, Sir Lionel Ducbet,Sir 
Thomas Lodge and Sir William Winter, were the leaders in that 
iofaraous traffic, which has cursed and still continues to curse the 
free United States of America. In 1562, Hawkins bv the aid of tlie 
three men above named, (made honourable and tilled as well as 
himself, bv that fountain of honour a monarch,) carried a car£ro of 
Africans from Sierra Leone to Hispaniola, and sold such as were 
not muidered on the voyage, as slaves to tlie Spaniards. Even 
Elizabeth was shocked at this novel atrocitv. and called Hawkins 
to her presence to reprove him ; but he convinced her that it was 
an ad of humanity to carry men from a wone to a better country, 
where they would become cinlised and converted to Christianity. 

M cosonnnTT or peopeett. 

She afterwards encounged the trade. The same arffumeDC if 
still Uded hv the interested, in the face of iact, reason, reli?ioB 
and humanitv. 

The Sfst cultivators of New >'etherland employed African 
slaves for labourers on their plantations of tobacco or corn* Birt 
where shall we turn our eyes to the place at which slavcrry did not 
exist, or:o what man at that time who discountenanced itr Willi 
Penn was a slave-holder; and John Locke the framer of 
tions for Caroiini, contemplated negro slaver}' as part of the 
blishment, and ?ave to every freeman absolute authority over his 
negro slaves. Even in New England, where I confess that I 
love to look, neiTo slaverv existed. 

Alreadvihe iijhabitanL« of Boston in lC3'j,onlv fi\e vears after 
the settlement of the |>eninsiila, established a free school. In 
1639 the puritan* of Plymouth, who at first governed ihemselvef 
bv the voices of all who belonged to the church, that is. bv the vores 
of all the settlers, found it necefsan- to establish a representative 
^vemment. They had previously at)andoned a comm unity of 
property*, for they found that even in that baml of brothers it 
repressed individual exertion, and encouraged some evil propen- 

Community' of property cannot exist in any society combined 
for political government, which consists of a number beyond a 
verr small Kmit; and a s:ood srovemment must not be exclcsive. 
AU the ^ood should participate. Equality of rights constitutes 
democracy, and numbers require a representative assembly- — 
Among many, or even a few. there cannot be equality of body or 
nind ; so neither can there be equality of power, property or en- 
joyment in any community of persons associating for self-govern- 
ment. Equality of property in such a cornmimity. neither can nor 
oa?ht to exist. Individual property, individual power or hope 
of enjoyment, stimulates to actions which result in the good of 
ail. The man that can and will do more than others, deserves 
more, aad he will receive more : he has more power, and if 
lie exerts it for the common cood, he deserves and receiree 
more confidence, love and respect. If he is selfish, he will 
Ibrfirii this confidence, love and respect ; and his gratification «iB 
be sordid. The desire to possess power b in itself good, and 
with tbe inequality of individual gifts, proves ibe absurdity of ei>- 
dearonring to establish a society where community of property 
shall exist. 

Equality in tbe opportunities for acquiring education found no- 
thing to oppose it aroon; tbe puritans. In Massachusetts tbe 
general court enacted that in ever]^' township of fifty householders, 
a person should be appointed to teach children to read and write; 
md thej said "duspenon shall be paid either faj the parents or 

DE VKIE8. 57 

the town.*' And every town of one hundred householders shall 
have a g^romar school equal to fitting children Yor the university. 
So early did this wise people make provision for the future welfare 
of the state, and tax tlieinselves for the benefit of posterity. 

When De Vries, in April 1G33, found Wouter Van Twiller at 
New Amsterdam, just arrived as tlie successor of Minuits, he says, 
the new commander was on board the ship De Zoutberg. Van 
Twiller had been a clerk of the West India Company of Holland. 
This was his second voyage to America : in the first he had acted 
as the agent of the patroons, in selecting lands and purchasing 
from the nauves. 

De Vries expressed to Van Twiller the disappointment he ex- 
perienced in regard to the whale fishery on the coast of New Ne- 
therland. He said the company ought to have sent out two or 
three sloops to gain the necessary knowledge, before fitting oat ' 
80 expensive an expedition as that which he had brought out* 
Godyn, who had been a director of the Greenland Whale Com-- 
panjy ought to have known better. 

Van Twiller had arrived with a ship of twenty guns, fifty-two 
sailors and one hundred and four soldiers. By this we may form 
some notion of the importance of the place in a commercial point of 
view ; and it does not appear that the second Director-general was 
inattentive to agriculture. The colony or manor of Pavonia was 
neglected by Dt Pauic, and finally reverted to the West India 
Company. Heer Van Rensselaer* had not yet arrived in the 
country, and had only sent dependants with stock and farming 
utensils as the commencement of RensselUierburgh, 

The population of New Amsterdam was not so univer- 
1638 sally enlightened as that of New England. At the arrival 
of Director-general Kiefl, it is recorded in the secretary 
of state's office at Albany, that fort Amsterdam in the city of New 
Amsterdam was in a state of decay and dilapidation ; many farms 
belonging to the company, were without tenants or cultivation, 
and thrown into common ; the trading vessels, with only one ex- 
ception, were in bad condition ; the houses were out of repair ; 
there was but one smith's shop, one grist mill, and one saw mill in 
operation — ^there had been three saw mills, but one had been burnt 
and another was unfit for use. ^' The site of the magazine was 

* Id Vol. 13, Dutch Records, p. 43, Kilian Van RenMeUer is addrewed by the 
Sutes-gcneral, " honourable, reapected, beloved. Kilian Van Rensaelaer ; being, 
with hift aaaociates, patroon of a colony in New Netherland, and merchants io Ani' 
•teidam." Jadge Egbert Benson, in a MS. communication to Doctor 8. Miller, taya, 
** KUian Vaii fienaselaer caaM over with Van Cortlandt (who had beeo bred • ear- 
pcDt«r,) and broaght a namber of low people, indented Mrtanto and others not sot- 
vuita, for tbm pnrpoee of pUoting coianeest as the Dutch cflUtd them.** 

YOL. I. 8 5"^ 


K-arce dl?coverablt." TLe rvsieiij of covernrDeni had deierionaec 
a? well 'ds til UiinrS" t-is-e aboi^i irjis liiue. "JudJciaJ power w&j*-!- 
ercUed L-v iije juveniOi 'diid courjcll. or bv aptciai r-ount. Conft*- 
?lonr ^\ere ex:.o'iei: i:oiri i:j'.- fcc-cu^ej bv ion u re." 

abfciirr ;:Oi]'jLi of::-!- :»-j; iil'dTioD of New Aiii^i'^rcciiiJ in mi? vear 
and a cieort; ifJ^rL of i.'j*: wac^. uicTi llv irjoce I tou^d acopi. 

T:j(r "for. of A:j>!*:f'i'-r:i ^:j New NeUjer.arid."* aiiijourii di- 
lapija:ed. w L? TtriLLiitc: for LtreCorueJu-T \'aL TieLhoveet "se- 
crt : -- rv Iii :.»•.- :/s . f f • f : : j *- z-.l*: raj . ; iri ^ ij*r i: t d . W e?i I l c la C ocpcE j 
of Air>:erci::.." :.T-'- :^i- ciT-ie aijii ctifrridt': :o busi^erf: aiid 
here " tt'u W'ii.ic'.ii ]\\ti\. Di recior-::erj trol of New NeujeriaDc/' 
a]»f»tflred ojj 'be j.iutTeeMij of April 1«>J^. ai.d lue: John X>aii»etu 
w.'jotj.frf: l:.!-: ::.e:j io:a:n.c:ed :o leaK*' ''fiLe ri^ecioi. :wr, jou of 
laiaC. ;i;or.«L:.!v c j»ir. of T:;e '■.■.ornpiarjy'ir far::> Lbo\e r:je:.:ioLjec.*'ibt 
la r J *.'-:.'" -l\- ::.e .'t.-tor-::. "i^ :.!":; "ir-ui far ha* ^v '. ri,':tT-::^td bt :'u 
t- ■.; . v> ." * T I. '.- . ar J e - : : 'ie c e of '. a :. c i« c e-i r: :.»c c a = r.«e lii i' iiear liit 
for:, l: i ::.•: o:..*;: 1- *':.'r:. ■'■: ::.r co::.;iaLv'?. i-aicen." Dajiiet 

« * « 

■ ■ • 1 - 

cr.:-:riC*> v.- ::.•-:. Lrr l: c '. ^:::"v Lie ::.-* :c :..•:. ar.c a- rer.'.* jiay !r. Uit 
I»t?TO!-j'.:.-.rLi '.t.r::.'; : .'■''.•i;-r e. •• w.::. \\:.]r:Jif,c OLr Lord saal 
b-e?j::.e -L-: .■■>.■' K\h\\ C'':.:.'!:'::-. ••'.ohv^r' ■.-'.': j'c.iracei iu rood 
rf.^c!j. L-.- ;:<.'^!-:-. I'i::-v:. \\.::. iwj .abojr^rr ic-r a ionsi'.r:!: i:^ 
;:'^n---: :..':j-.' l: :;.•. ■:o;::;/c::.y*- ex:»ej!-e.'" T:.e cor.L-ac: i? for feix 
yea:*, i.-ij i:.v r .»::.:'L:.y :.i.-.e ::.e prM.e^e :o jijani virjef od :be 
j»re::---v-. T:.'.rv t:^ '':"-\! :-:o"i!r:o:.r : a^ri \\ lase a^v cor.irc- 
r-fi •*•'■* il ' ■ '^ • " fi" i ' • ', •"• fi« ■;■'• J. •■»,-- " 

A.l ::.c -^j-i! irt-.-i' !!o:.* l: j-vir "o :••: ::. ;rv-^ of I'je itoie 
s-err'Urv Tir: • -.v^-.:.. ^w.^ij^er ;.ro:e*:- of -?:.;;.'■>. r.r riL-;-!.!!* 
for .a:.:. K!-.:': L:.;-:aj-- 1:. lo.-.iiar.v •.\/:. :;,e •• :,-.r.ojrc^.*. v.;^ 
a:jd ;ir^--.<t:.:."* '-^w.i.'.^r ^-r-- :y t:.e •j-aii*! =:'..: i\:.vLe*.er tie roier- 

• Jrir "^V. .L~. K..f r»-:iL;r».i ■.:.^ ::t: w: ':. : ..: •••-»l •:•■'.:•; -i Vs.: Tw.l.e: anc 

hc'.'hl: i.fc- ■■**■- :'T» ■-» *:■-.::» . .: J.-. : :. l: -. • »:.:» ■ .: .' :-.i -.. : zran :■:' n 
Ir :€5:: ■.:.•. f: :i ' .-.•:>:*•-;:. • • tl'. •..:"'■ . . i: • r '.■:■»■ ^. i« : -.:,. t;,,:^ 
XiiH* I, ;•*. TK-: ' ■ :•-:'.:• i- '.'..'».' v ■ : ■ : • ■ l ■ . -.^ i.« ■ . - « -. - -. ■: » : • : • i -.■•■nc- 
« :.».:.r V .:?:::,: I ;• 1 L •:..•-• .- '•.•::. ■;.; v. ■ ••• v ■••.,, ;-,- 

. I'l: y-.-ic :•.-•■-■.•••'-: I- * ■ - ■ '.'».•-.•.■'■. I- £■.'.•• L* ^ wi.. : • :.-ii: 
I-r't:;.' • ■ • w i.- ■ -.- • : ■ ■ v .•' - L :•---_■■:. ■ .-,« •■-»..■ . ,-. 
:\. I'r-i •^. . -I. ■•.;.•• i ».-..■••'..■:•-.: I l- v • l-* ■ 7 i*:.:l_i 
■•.■»:•..: I i -• :.•.:::■ . .. .v.-l *If .l ::•**.:*■. iw-i.:: 4 : ~* •.: ••:,.:: :ilt. 

• I: i:':t»i*t •.:.•-: .. ■ . . -l K ••: t ilt v l» i" Ft. 


nor <irex*$DT«nior ire niined,) Wouier Vin Tirillen who hires 
« torn fivNtn KieA. 

Wlt»p«s>e!S anp permiited to sireir or affirm ts conscience die- 
aies : the liner mode i> ctaimed anJ piacrised bv the baptists ; 
a»d *orofdinr3v Rever HoiVls^^n Smit, amm^s belorv the «ud se- 
7" TO cinrumstance? which I copy to illustrate manners ra- 
tino TO idii di^iiirr to our historv. This solemn affinnatioii 
» rxix oi* Reiner Jansen Van Sevonl. who declares that Hendrick 
Jaasifs Savdex. called Anthonv J^^nsen Van Zule, •* b a lurk, a 
Tisral and i homed beast/' 

Tbpn? appears to be i de^rree of rustic ilV-manneis inMhe abore : 
b« r«iera!S- the records evince a state o( societv that is pleasant 
ID C M >ieg n pbte> We have an axneen^ent for the rent of a tatrin 
calted 'r»jiir»jErrf.%* with horses, cow?, cakes, plou^ and harmw ; 
the owDer of which is to receive from the fanner as rent one hun- 
<ired and fiirr pounds of butter, half before and iialf after hamest ; 
ksacles finr schepels of com ^ihat is, thim--seven and half bushek) 
ridser ** wbeaiu rye, bariey, or such produce a? they can spare, to 
tbe cootentinent of the owner/* The increase of tiie cattle was 
fi> be equally divided. 

By another a^r^etnejit, the wise and prudent* Wouter Van 
TwiUer provides Lenian Arentsen wiih three milch cows, of which 
Are enwB is to enjoy the increase for four vear? : at the expiratioii 
of which time, th^ •• wise and prudent" may take his choice 
of lie creatures Arejiisen has :n his stable, to the number o( three 
mikfa cows« and the re^sidue shall be equally divided between 
tbem. - provided that the three calves which are actually with the 
cv^ws are to be fed and taken care of bv^aan duririi: the sum- 
TDer aiid next winter, after which said ca -ves must be returned to 
ibf HoMHir^ble Wouter Van Twi-ler*' — ** aiui previded that the 
first hesftr calf of the whole stock shall be ihe propem- of Lenaait 
A jgajiwu 's vounrest daughter/' Georije Rapelve receives cow5 
CO sdmikr terras irem Van TwiHer : and Kieft, the present Diree- 
icr-£eioefal. sells to Abraham Isaacs Plank, ^^^ a lot of land called 
P««m4tMlr« situated to the west of the IfJttmJ or' Af i».%t:;;«7ji« east 
&ncn AJimmms on the AVn-.i /ftrer. to the vallev which borders 
oa tt-** For this tarm Plank ci^res four hundred and uftA- guilders 
of iweiifv sdviers each, < a7-5 st.> aiul the sheridf in the coIobt 
of Resseber-wrk is securit>*. 

Geaxi&i t> Wo«t«r Van Tv.jtr ««i:ij««! kirn t<» tM TWi Stti w a ai ^ wa« ui4 

VAX. *-Ki«ft-^ico^ " Sfrm" r<yyv«<.» »rr*ir »>ts :>♦ rrcwnfi* «( i*:*c;:e*» fts r«j?T 
1«U «^ l^4« »« V*.»c^ l^^ l»:t;v:. vu ^n^Tt^ uj' ki^ c«=t -.a 1(^>t. 

ift[-1ir. Jacob G*m: Kpcotid «• «:tai »««:&: cxsk^s 6«aiili»l>cu:li mnOTds." 
m Yb SmsAy^ ^mmt cBMan Tcar Intit ti t^ twiv mn U X«« NtilNikBd 


Some payments are made in tobacco, as tbey were in Virginia 
long after. Several debts are acknowledged of tobacco due to 
the wise and prudent ex-director-general, who not only fumisbet 
the colonists with cows but with goats. 

The plain " situated on the island of Manhattan behind Ccrlaer^i 
lot,'* was cultivated in tobacco ; and Hans Hansen contracts to 
provide houses for the workmen and stores for the tobacco, and 
" to keep the persons emigrating from Vaterland in constant em- 
ploy to their mutual profit.'' 

These records remind me of the testimony borne by ChaDGcUor 
Kent to the virtues of the first colonists of New York : he says, 
" they were grave, temperate, firm, persevering men, who brought 
with them the industry, the economy, the simplicity, the integrity and 
the bravery of their Belgic sires ; and with those virtues tbey also 
imported the lights of the Roman civil law, and the purity of the 
protestant faith/' But we should have a ver}* unfaithful picture 
of the society of New Amsterdam if we applied these flattering 
colouis to them generally. Tbey undoubtedly belong to the lead- 
ing men on the island of Manhattan, and to the agriculturists 
throughout New Netherland, who like the Walloons of Brookl}ii 
and the settlers of Long Island, Esopus, and other early planta- 
tions on the Nord) river, as well as the farmers upon the island 
beyond the pallisadoes of the city : but within the boundary line 
of Wall-street, in governor Kieft's time, the virtues above named 
were not so general. In the fort was a body of soldiers ; in the 
harbour and at the whar\'es sailors and tlieir skippers, of various 
character ; and among them drunkenness and brawls were not un- 

» The administration of Kieft has been generally condemned by 
histor}', but we must make allowances for the many causes of ir- 
ritation and perplexity which pressed upon him : among which 
the several colonies of Swedes who settled within the Dutch 
limits, and whom he had no power to resist, must be taken into 

Colonel John Printz had been appointed governor of 
1640 the Swedes on Delaware river in 1640, but he did not ar- 
rive until 1642. He established himself near the mouth 
1643 of the Schuykill in 1643, where he built a fort, called New 
Goitenburg, a church and a place of residence for himself. 
He was instructed to resist the claims of the Dutch, but was only 
opposed by Kieft's protests. He cultivated friendly relations 
with the natives and enjoyed uninterrupted tranquillity ; the colony 
prospered, and the colonel received permission from home to return 
in 1654, resigning his government to John Papagoa, a gentleman 
who had emigrated to America with the earliest Swedish colonists. 
Two years after Papagoa resigned his government to Risingbp 

vacs a> «« siMU tee, wms foiciblj displaced by corenior Suit- 

Is addiiioa 10 the eocjoachineiii of tbe Swedes on Delaware, 
iV ibe Kn^&h on Connecticut rirer. Kieft found his territorr 
iaraoevi oa Loa; Isjand bv hxoa Oardioer. wbo had emigrated 
b> AaMnca ui lt>3o. and under Lord Say and Seal buiit a fiwt 
ac Sav^n>ok« of which he was commandant undi he K>und a more 
fweasaai and pn>Dtable home in 163^ on Low Island, and on 
i^ Jhiiaoem isLmd* which has to this dav borne his name.* 

Tue Indiaastikewisedisturbe^i Sir William Kieti more thaniber 


ktd dv^ae his predecessors They probably k>si the admiratioo 
si LZLs^kiied by their Eurv>pean piesi*^ phced less TaltK^ on their 
Miicies« leit annovance frxNii their encnMHrhments and con- 
at witnesisinf their vices. But before 1 enter upon the cod- 
aests of Kieti and his san^ nei^rhbours 1 will hruur up the adairs 
at KK Fr«och in Acadia and Canada, to the period ot' his admi- 

Tae sadves d" Acadia or Nova Scotia called by the Frejich> 
J(Rir«Mt-s.were i!Oven)ed }>atriarchal.y by their chieis. or sa^punones* 
a :^6e wh^^h was in use likewise anionc the Indians of New 
Ea^md- Cnarievoix tcUs us of a irnmt sa^ramore who was con- 
leraeu lo christianitv at Pon Ko^~aL bv the iesuits. but on his 

* « « « 

M£h-Md desiied to be buried amonc his forefathers : ami obtain- 
id she ^venior*s pr\muse to that edect. But ^ther Bedet the 
xsao. said ** no ; it would be a scandal to burv a christian amonj;! 
iaiiUeis^ Bieocourt* the ^oveiBor. pleaded his prt^mise : ** be* 
»** he added. "* vou can bless the place of burial.** The Jesuit 

Jmm» ;&* ±!«s ^: Er^UsX Tbc H^to SiU* Wcgti «-' H-^r.i::!rjc:Qe« Loup 
t^ftt SM^ Mcn^^.«cac<sc «s Loo; Is^kSit >t u** ^<±r» %^: ue Cut o?' ^utw 

•JIB -t** N*rTxp-i*:i». «•» •*£ carrec be- ,•? 7>rtcr<r ■:: c*c# cf :>f j tr»r ex- 
i2_?«» :* 3je ^.^-r c:" 2^ c<4i2. G*ri -<:» Is-Litc «»» trcrLJWc :a ;S<f3 kX 


would not yield that the body should be deposited id the spoC 
pointed out by the sagamore, unless all the infidels should fine 
be dug up and removed. As the sagamore's intention was to 
sleep with them, not to disturb them, and as the natives would 
not suffer such profanation to be offered to the bones of tbehr 
ancestors, this could not be done. The Jesuit persisted, and 
refused to perform the ceremonies necessarj* for the repose of the 
dying man unless he relinquished his intention. And father 
Charlevoix tells us, that this firmness of the Jesuit was blessed 
The sagamore gave up, and renounced his wish ; conseqaendy 
made an edifying end, such as would have done honour to an 
" ancient christian." 

In the meantime the colonv decreased : the colonists 
1613 were dependent on the natives for food; and the contempt 
they conceived for such helpless beings, who at the same 
time made extravagant pretensions, prevented the progress of con- 
version to christianitv. In 1613 M. La Haive found but five 


persons at Port Koyal, including two Jesuits and the apothe- 
cary, who had been in charge of the spiritual and bodily welfare 
of the community; the latter acted as governor. 

La Haive removed tlie two fathers to Pantagaetj and the new 
colony was named St. Sareur. Here the Jesuits performed %t 
least one miracle, if the historian is correct : but scarcely had the 
savages been edified by this supernatural event (the cure of as 
infant by baptism,) when Samuel Argal with a fleet of English ves- 
sels from Virginia entered the harbour and carried off the colonists, 
Jesuits and all. Shortly after, Argal expelled the French from 
Port Royal or its neighbourhood, claiming tlie whole country for 
England, and the plunder for himself. 

M . Champlain, who had returned to France, again crossed the 
ocean and ascended the St. Lawrence. Having piomised the 
Lfidi ans of Tadoussac, who were called by the French Montag- 
nez, that he would accompany them on a second expedition 
against the Iroquois, he proceeded before them to Quebec, 
where the Algonkins joined in the war party, and the Indians from 
below coming up, all the savages proceeded to the river Sorel to 
await Champlain. On his arrival at the rendezvous his allies re- 
ported that one hundred Iroquois were near them ; on which 
Champlain and four other Frenchmen leaving their bark, entered 
the canoes of the Indians, for the purpose of falling by surprise on 
the Iroquois. Again the heroes of the confederate five nations 
were defeated by the aid which Champlain afforded to their ene- 
mies, and the repetition of the fearful effects of their fire-arms. 
The report of the first defeated party, which probably could not 
be fully comprehended, was fearfully confirmed to the Iroquois. 

After this battle the allies, though victorious, were disgusted 


vkh e«cii other. The Algookins were displeased with the eagei^ 
nesiS the French had shown in seizing and appropriating the spoil ; 
md die French were shocked when thev saw their friends eat 
oae of their enemies who had been taken prisoner. 

Champlain, alter another TO}'age to France, returned 
1615 to the colonists on the St. Lawrence. An establishment 
was formed on the island of Montreal. Champlain, who 
thought that by accompanying the war parties of the Indians, who 
suiTouaded the French colonists* he should secure their friendship, 
ind at the same time make himself acquainted with the country, 
and tamiliar with the names of the various inhabiiants, entered into an 
engagement with the Montagnez, the Algonkins, and the Hurons, 
all in league against their former conquerors, the Iroquois, who 
yet had not become acquainted with fire-arms for their defence or 
me annovance of their enemies : for thev had not vet received 
trom the Dutch the weapons which they subsequendy used with 
soca exiect a^^ainst the French and their sava^ allies* when thev 
proved themselves the guardians of New -York in repelling the 
Canadian inroads. 

M. Champlain having occasion to visit Quebec* the Indians 
in liie neighbourhood oi the colonists, with a number of French- 
men, armed with muskets, proceeded to the countr}* of the Hit- 
loos to collect their forees against the Iroquois. They were 
accompanied by a father of the order of RecoiUt ; who, in his 
zeal as a minister of (>eace. persuaded himself that it became him 
to accompany this invading war party, that he mi^ht. says father 
Charlevoix. ** accustom himself to the manner of lil'e of the people 
to whom he proposed to announce Jesus Chiisu** ThisRecollet 
mher was Joseph Caron. 

Champlain, returning from Quebec to Montreal, iramediateij 
pressed torward. with two addiuonal Frenchmen and ten Indians, 
jor the purpose of overtaking the allies. At the village of the 
Hoions he joined them ; and they pushed on* accompanied by 
l^ifaer Joseph Caron, to attack the Iroquois, who, at that time, had 
DO kziowledge of the French nation but by the injuries they had 
sttstained at their hands. 

The missionaries apjHjareil among the Hurons, Aljjonkins, and 
ocber Canadian savages, with the advantage of being of the same 
coimtry with ihosew hose superiority inarts and arms gave them suc- 
cess over their enemies. The tesiimonv of the Jesuit Charlevoix 
respecting the efiects of the zeal evinced by the missionaries 
amonz the Hurons is i:iven witii candour iiui great nairete. 
He says, thev made but few converts \^ho submitted to baptism, 
but they save\l many infants by baptizing ihem when dyin^. As 
3> the aduhs* his words are, ** We are not to consider a savage 
ccnTiDced because he assents to what is proposed to him ; for 

64 cHAMPLAnr. 

tbey hate nothiog so much as to eontndict or dispute ikai wfaieb 
is asserted to them ; and, sometimes, from pure complaisance, aid 
sometimes from laziness, ihey evince CTery mark of being coo- 
Tinced on subjects to which thev hare paid no attention, or iiaf« 
not comprehended.'* He &av5» they receive baptism, and attend 
to all the external observances of relisrion, and will sav (nmklr 
that they do so to oblige the priest who has pressed them to change 
their faith ; but, with strange simplicit}', he adds, that Indians, 
who hate had no doubt respecting the articles of the Roman finth, 
even the mo$t incomprehensible ^ yet would not be converted. 

M. Champlain fortified Quebec, he having been at ths 
1623 time established as governor of Canada; but the citf, 
now so proud, and as a fortress the admiration of tke 
western world, was, in 1623, a very paltry place, and so it re- 
mained in 1629, when Kirk took the place for the English go- 
vernment. Most of the French inhabitants remained, and Canada 
was restored to France in 1632, by the treaty of St. Germain, 
with all its dependencies. 

In thb year the capital of Canada consisted of a small 
1632 fort, surrounded bv some miserable houses and barracks. 
Higher up the St. Lawrence, Montreal was still more 
inconsiderable. A few houses were commenced at Troi* ririere»% 
and below Quebec the settlements were much the same. Thii 
scant colonization, with the ruins of Port Royal, were the oolj 
results of the efforts of France to plant civilization in America op 
to this lime. 

When Champlain was restored to hb government by the peace 
of St. Germain, he sent a colony of Jesuits among: the Hurons, 
whose countr\' was bounded bv Lake Erie on the south. Lake 
Huron on the west, and Ontario on the east. Notwithstanding 
many miracles performed by the fathers this colony did not 
thrive ; and, although many christians were made, they were 
generally converted and baptized when dpng. 

The Iroquois had by this time procured gans» powder, 
163S* and lead, from the New Netherlanders, and resumed their 

to haughty attitude, as warriors and conquerors, over the 
1642 savages of Canada, notwithstanding the aid the latter re- 
ceived from their French allies. About the time that Sr 
William Kieft arrived at New Amsterdam, the skill anained bv 
the confederated five nations, in the use of the European engines 
of destruction, enabled them to take ample revenge upon the French 

* Let 08 ever remember that m this jear the fint pnotiof press was seat to 
nea, bjr J Glover, a dissentinf clergyman of EogUnd, and arriTed at Caal 


settlera for the inroads of M. Charaplais. Eagerly and quickly 
the Iroquois seised the deadly arms of the Europeans, and, retain- 
ing his superiority of skill and conrage, became more dreadful 
than ever to the Algonkin tribes; and the French were compelled 
to erect a fort, which they called Richlieu, at the mouth 'of the 
river Sordj to guard against what they termed the insolence of 
the Iroquois.* 

Their country, according to Charlevoix, extended from the 
Sorel to the Ohio ; was bounded on the north by the great lakes 
and the Hurons, and on the south by the hunting grounds of the 
Leni Lenape or Deiawares. 

About the year 1640 the French government established some 
schools at Quebec, a hospital, and convents. A feeble attempt 
was likewise made to resuscitate the colony at Montreal, and the 
establishment was placed under the patronage of, '^ The mother of 
God J our lady of Paris. ^^ 


Fort Amsterdam — Long Island — Hartford — Slntggles of Sir 
William Kieft — With New England — with the Indians-^De 
VrieM'-'Bjoger Williams — Canadian Affairs-'^Previous Hu^ 
tory of Captain Underhill — Troubles and unhappy end cf 
Director-general Kiefi. 

Thb practice of purchasing their land from the Indians was 
one adopted by the colonists from a pure sense of justice and 
propriety ; it was not enjoined by the grants from the European 
potentates. Calvert, Lord Baltimore, and, one year after, Roger 
W illianis,t purchased of the natives publicly in council the terri- 
tory they wished for their followers. The Dutch did the same 
at Manhattan, at Oranien, and in 1636 at Harlaem. The settlers 
on Long Island, both English and Dutch, satisfied the Indian 
claims. Many of the towns in Queens county were English, 
while the greater number in Kings county were Dutch. Wouter 
Van Twiller granted a tract of land in Kings county as early as 

* HiU name of Iroqaoiv ia said to be formed upon the exclamation of these people 
when they finish a speech or harangue — ** Hiro V^ " I hate said.'* 

t Ro^r WiUiaros was a native of Wales ; be arrived in America in the year 1632. 
See Verplanck'a Historical Discourse, Bancroft, and Walsh's United Sutea and 
Great Britam. Note C. 

VOL. I. ' • 9 


Fort Amsterdam, in the city of New Amsterdam, was finished 
by Van Twiller, on the bluff which once overhung Pearl street, 
and commanded, or appeared to command, both East and Noitk 
river. It cost the Dutch West India Company 4I7S 
1640 guilders 10 stuyvers. Two years after his arrival Kiefi 
built a church within the fort. In this church probably 
the Rev. John Megapolensis was the first preacher. He wm 
likewise a surgeon and practised physic* 

Long Island, as we have seen, was not only claimed, but the 
settlement commenced in 1625. This island was then and long 
after the English conquest, an important portion of the province. 
The Dutch inhabitants of Long Island, as well as their brethren 
on Manhattoes, professed the religion of the synod of Don. 
Their church government was that of the classis of Amsterdam 
until 1772, when the Dutch church of America established ta 
independant classis and synods like those of Holland. 

* In 1664 John Megapolensis, jr., minister of the Dutch church tt New AttMU- 
dtm, wrote ** A short description of the Maqnss Indians in New Netherland.** Ha 
gives an account of the country and its natural products. He says, ** strmwbaries 
grow in such plenty in the fields that we go there and lie down and eat them, ftc 
Grapes fit for eating and wine in great plenty — Deer, price six or seven goilden— 
Turkeys in great plenty, and other fowl — Land-lions, (supposed Panthen,) Bean, 
WoUes and Foxes, dec. &c.*' 

He describes the Indians as of two nations, the Mahakobatu, (Mohawks or Iio* 
qDeis,)and Mahakana^ (Mohicans,) the latter being subdued by the former and paying 
jmnXj tribute to the former, friendly and hospitable to the Dutch, as are both. They 
go almost naked in summer, the children entirely so. In winter " thejr hang loosely 
aboQt them" a bear'a or other akin. Nothing ia worn on the head, and the womn 
hare long hair ; the men only one lock unshorn. He describes them aa looao iaaex- 
nal intercourse, snd the womeu*s favours bought by the Dutch at two or throe sbiUiofS 
(a Dutch ahilling ia worth aix and a half pence sterling.) The facility of chiU-beai> 
ing and the alavery of females is mentioned as usual. He asserts that cannibaliHi, 
tortaiing and eating prisonera wore practised. He says, that in 1643 the Indians took 
tiiroe Frenchmen. One was a Jesuit, who was tortured, but the Dutch released hia 
and aont him to France : one of the other men waa killed. He describee their man- 
non aa they are now well known. Their slovenly and beastly mode of eating ia 
diaffoatingly descriptive. 

A tckepel is a measure equal to three pecka : and he saya he has aeen a eanti ff 
the wood of a aingle tree, that carried 200 achepela of grain. Already the Dutch 
had supplied the natives with guns, swords and axoa. He describes their fishing, and 
aaya they dry the fiah for winter food. His description of their belief in and worship 
of, a good and evil apirit, ia confuaed. He saya after he has prcachrd to the Dutch, 
the Indians who have stood by, asked him what is the meaning of hia making so 
many words, and no one anawering him T And when he tells them that he admou- 
isbes the christians not to steal, get drunk, commit murder, dec. — they aay he docs 
well ; but remark, that the christisns do all these thmgs notwithstanding. Of their 
superstitions, charms or medicine, he speaks as having some knowledge. Their 

Evemment bv councils of their oldest, wisest, most eloquent and eflBcient men is 
idowed forth ; but he truly saya, it ia only a government of persuasion and con- 
viction ; for the people decide in all cases — this he calls mob ffovemmeBt. The 
ehiefo and leaders, be says, give to the people instead of recei?mg from thenif ct 
_ ekrutuau. The principle of revenge he likewise mentions, and of pacifica- 
^ ptea en ta. He concludes by aaying, "that although these people live withonl 
'^■oiMhiMnts, they do not commit murders or other villanies as much aa w do.*' 


Many of the towns of Long Island were settled by the 
1640 English with the permission of, and under the jurisdiction of 
the Dutch. These, towns adopted or framed laws for their 
own government : they armed themselves from ^suspicion of evil 
designs towards them on the part of the Indians, they therefore 
entered into military regulations ; they likewise enjoyed trial by 
iury when it was requested; a jury consisted of seven, and a ma- 
jority gave the decision ; they had town meedngs for imposing 
taxes and appointing tax-gatherers : each town judged of the char- 
acter of any person who wished to become a setder, and admitted 
or excluded him as his good fame or opinions suited the majority.' 
In this year, Trumbull says^ Mr. John Youngs purchased and 
setded Yinnicock, i. e, Southold. 

The regulations established by the Dutch Governor respecting 
trade to Connecticut river, were strict, and no doubt intended to 
prevent collisions between the Netherlanders and the English. 
All persons were prohibited, as early as 1639, from trading with 
fort Good Hope without permission obtained from the Director- 
general ; and vessels sailing up the Fresh rivei without leave were 
liable to forfeiture. Still the English increased in number about 
the fort, and the men of Hartford took possession, by force, of the 
land which the Dutch had prepared for plandng. Those of fort 
Good Hope who attempted to plant, were beaten, and their com- 
plaints to Governor Hopkins of Hartford were not heeded. On 
the 13th of May, 1640, Kieft sent Cornelius Van Tienhoven, his , 
secretary, with the under-sheriff, a sergeant and twenty -five sol- ' 
diers, t o Siocits bay, since called Oyster bay, on Long Island, to ) 
break upTsettTement which the English had begun at that place. ^ 
These setders were people who had purchased from the agent of 
Lord Stirling, and finding on their arrival from Massachusetts, 
diat the Dutch had marked their possession by affixing the arms of 
the States to a tree, the English tore down this mark of sovereignty 
and in derision set up a fo^'s head in the place. 

When Tienhoven and his detachment arrived, they found eight 
men, one woman and an infant, who had erected one house and 
were building another. The Dutch guard brought six of the 
men to Kieft, and these men reported that they came from Lynn, 
near Boston, under the authority of one Forrester, agent of the 
Earl of Stirling.* The arms of the States having been replaced, 

* Jul]r Tth, 1640, Fonrat or Fomtter, whote real name was Ferrat, agent of 
Lord Stilling, patented eight milea aqnare, (now the towoahip of Soothamptoo.) to 
Daniei How, Job 8*3r«r, €&orgo WiUw, William Paiker and their aaaociatea. llioegh 
thia tflent of Lord Stirliog ia geoerally ealled Forrester and tometimea Fomat, be 
wrote Bia name Tciy plainly Ferrat, aa may be aeen by original papera now on Long 

ol tde year uovernor jvieii was invoiveu a^m in lunous nosauij 
with the natives of the surrounding countn-, and it was thee thtt 
he called in the aid of Captain John Underhiil ; but, before intro- 
ducing that worthy formally to the reader, I will bring up the 
afTairs of Canada and the northern frontier of New Netherland to 
this period.* 

After the death of M. Champlain. who had caused that enmiiT 
towards France in the confederated Iroquois, which made them a 
rampart for the frontier of New Netherland, and subsequently far 
New York ; he was succeeded by Mons. Montmagne, who was 
shortly after recalled, and Mons. DWilleboust was appointed go- 
vernor of New France. 

The (^reat business in Canada at this time, according to Chai^ 
levoix, appears to have been making christians : but the trade ii 
furs was not neglected, and cenainly succeeded better than the 
first, if a protestant may be permitted to judge ; not but that many 
miracles were performed, and martyrdoms suffered. The Iroqaoii 
continued to atuck both the French and the Indians with the 
usual success which attended their superior wisdom, valour, and 
daring; and as the Eastern Indians were troublesome to the people 
of New England, Charlevoix tells us that they sent a deputy lo 
propose an alliance, eternal, (as all alliances are,) between the Enp- 
'' ^ and French colonists. M. Ailleboust, b return, sent a prieat 

* 1644. — ^Tbe Rev. WiUum Caitell wrote to the English parliament a letter n- 
■Modiiiff the laranching of the gospel to the Indians in the English piir.uuoai, 

■hiainfn tbo signaiarea of maDV dergrmen lo London, and elsewhere, lo kii 

leticr, which was a kind of petition. He represents the cruelties of the Spaniards 'm 
AoMriea, and pninu oat the " better way" that protesunu sbouM take wiih these 
Qoh^ppy ami benighted people He secins, howerer. to think that the Enp1<»'i plts- 
Utioos wilt notcoolinae, as England has rather hindered than furthered tneir proe- 


BoMOD. to coadwfe a tRMr^ ** utoi ii dted the 

in a vir iciwt the InMjoois^"* TUs iiHif f 

■ft Barir t» okv pbce. Tbe Nev EocbBd men did won 

in t» ■art& ic^uis: ibe InH{iXMS <br tbe pinpokse of drtndiBg 

T!» H'jroos^ xoDribud:!^: tbeir desstnicmi to the ensitr vhicb 

FrPeXxNttsbore to the FnnBdi«be«uBejewNK oftbejesui 

tbefii. uii pm $<Teni to dntb : viiife iw Ira{Qoii 

b tomiinf tbe priest vb^serer iber ieli into ibeir 

The nripp c^ifOt ot'dte IndLuBv aad tbe soainiiifs ol 

tne oeoiM bj tbe j«54uc hisaxas* ^s^ welH ^s^ the mi- 

rb aaescec these iasrL:>:>e« ofcmehr. 

TW tRBaspbuz; Inwaois ir>f rewsected ib$ pur^uini: the Ho- 

to the >bel3ef of oe tort o: Qae£>ec. 

Iz tb? rear i»?4;^ tie i>>ioci:^ of Mx5i5;K^i:*.2setR« P-yicKMith, 

aiki NevbjiTeii. loetned m Wapie tor sebhcorereiK 

comzsoc ceifsce.^ Toss oMtiecencv dit be cob* 

» s>e £ena ol the pn?;<esT feoeni coe^diucxwi : a c«o- 

bv ^gnpe crf gL. to cw bejo aiaQu^^y, ejch pcoviare send- 

tvo oeiie'xises : ihe sigeot c^* tttee^xiith? ctf the ftssembhr ««s 

spoa the vhoie. Joho mndtiop* the Toun^er* ««$ tfat 

Tbi? w^tf trie fira step toinmb th« mdepe n d ea c g 

eaior. Ta^ cvviiedenjdoD ksted tiU 16S6. It 

soint whk-h becacae UDiremi vith ibe Ai 

K> ffceseirre the lijrhcs of El^u5a^^eil : bu: h kss. br no meve^ a 
»s RobmtsoQ the b2s;ic«iui^ ht5 ««np^« ** thu ther 

ies« (Ni5i»s»zx( all 

«c sovenn£c:tT« uxi Dve Avca the cwmoi of isy 5iipen«r 

r.*" They v^pte evifr coKckxK c4 their rijibts as Eaicfisk 

aad vb» iher iocsd iis thev sooo dici thu Ezic^umL 

iKzrK««e$* ijDTadevi those iuh&% iher Iwcue^ Vnkos db* 

of &esi. The naxMi of 1643 vis tor iieferoe« bis ito 

mi iQpressed ;];;vy: ibe coiocies the tmth mix uitxMi civo* 

Ther iLsked tor their deieaee a5 their preoeoe^ssois the 

hod dooe tor coK*je$t. 

coQtoceracr <« aje Er-r^^sh cvwKiie* wax he coo^deted at 
to 1- ux%5e w^xn i'X.oinpo. The >ew Eofviix: «k-c> 
oreteoce of carixer mxn theDuwh^aod 
R«ciT of kfroa the Isoan?: bet the tnae fEbotire was self- 
i:. the n£$!t of aii mea. The cvxiifdefacT ii—hmd 
43 it iM s » «be^ Juaei^ IL« of Eftoaod. depRved the coIomw of 



their ciianer». Bui aldiougfa ihey confedemed lor icU-gorcm- 
iiieflt, they »oon fouod tbemselfes strong enough lo govern cAea. 
The commissioner? (s>o ihe conrre«s of deputies called 
seKes) crave a ceruDcaie to an iDdian of Long l^^Miyj^ ** 

Lone Island, wiih the smaljer i^lcLDd> ridjacenC hadbeeo 
** to the Lord Siiriin^/' and bv niai *- passed over,"^ that is. 
granted or sold lo ^* some English of ihes« colonies.*' and 
the Indians of and in the eastern parts of Long: Inland had 
tributaries lo the English, and have engacred their lands to thaa; 
they, the commissioners, therefore certify t}jat this Lidian pit- 
fesse? to be trieodiv to both Endisb and Duich. and will infoiB 
them of any ^i^.y. :o injure thein : and tht-refore they exptross thv 
wish that tiiis lijcian. liie sa^-iinore. or ^acbe:u of Mvathaygflf oa 
Lonz Is'l&nd. mav be resL»ecicd bv the Eiidish, and remain 
jured by tbem. 

It was to this ]»ow€jfui confederscy of the English cokxmes 
Kiefi applied fo: rtiief trom the Indian iri'L»e? that desolaiad 
Neiheflond and tnre:a.uned Xev Amstnrdam. and he applied 
rain. Kien knew uj'it. besides lije Indians who bad been 
Toked bv nis owri >•.•.#;•! e, and now iirevaijed ajainsi biirt- he 
Funxiunied h\ K jr-'p'/an foes. 1 ne [luritans pressed npcni 
from tne e^.'^T. uo'sSi on i^e coniinc-iit and on Lonz Island; ihr 
Swedes w-re fjn sou'ji river : arid the Cavalier colonies «f 
Virginia cTid Dei e ware were bosuie to the pretensions of Ui 

The tribes of :b-: r.i'.i-ius ton iJK Hu -^on ioined with die 
Raritans hue ^ •.':.v of ihr L jtil' l?;^:-d lnd^^-^: it therefore seemed 
as if ihev were dexm^r.-.i t.- -x^-rriiinaTt \!ii whites whom ther 
had once love :. .-r fvir-. : aid c-irci. F:.:n :be shori*s of 5 
Jersev to tr-e :•.•:.>:.-* •: :'L ■.•nrie-::!- ..: -I'^'-jv :.Ld r^raor^tjess 
tiliiy w 2?> w i. J '. ■: l.-'. 7i< : no N e : •. •. :.i • .: t rs and their 
Anne Hu:c:i/:- ::. vv:...p ;,ii ne i :> -j v.:-. »".v' ■•..:.••% of ibe 
r».vW. :r.i tikvi. r-. f.^re '.vi::. :;.•: : u '.^ i: ■-? <.»r 'i^e > 
was in'jrde.'td w.::] -m: : "I'lrcv-T^*. 

•• Wh-n you £>: i^-z.-.- vt ou: ?:ji T*^r-" said a sacbem of jkt 
c -ir.- : '. :. e ! : k»: l : .' -. . : v . • ■ y : j • v --re ■:•:-::'; j: •■ ..» f Kod- We gift 
rou o'jr r»ean=' and ■:•'::. : "i^*/ h :i "*"- w.::. ^.vittrs and fish: and 
now. for our reco:ii:»r:r,*e. v. .. ::. jr :•..• •:--:: i>:'''ii.-e/' This 
was, wiiu Tr-Jth. r.fier: re:*e£te': ^n cv-rn- r-ar: o:' Aiaerica. 

But conSirnre w^s not »:.^r^. ■: b^e'-weea the 
1643 ar ] the Nt-tr.» ^in j-.r*. KJ-.ft -^l* »: c-.r.cii!L:iai: or 

d«^r.:. Tr:r T .:;,i:> ri&i k:: ':.- .; ;• '«(r m. i uiirf-^d for rp- 

a • 

fi>!i.r« r: -'-r i; l:, ; "« i*.-. r?. T :.»:>;,::.•: i:-_^?-:> :h a: :i«,d Itrouchi 
on tjjv firrt i.s.rrt! "• : • v» •. i !: !-■ !■.?- :• aj- s veai, and the 

ft«beJ witk faanr success^ igtia be^tn the work of blood tnd 

TlMwdi Kwft hftd r^*«ived bo snccoar ia soldiers from the 
of Nov Eo^lajod* he vas iio( so uikSQcceasfal in his 
to iiidiTiduab o( the Eo^&h blood. He engaged in 
ob ic n ric e a man vbckse ntiue b soil £ucK>tt5 oq Lone k)uid« 
wiHiiiL deseendams to th^ day ivcopv had, purehased br his t*- 
kMT. tw fiars or friendship of some of the Indians^ and tlie assisl- 
aace nendered to the Dutch in this second Indian wv. 

We are informed bv the Dutch ree^Mrds^ that in June 1641, 
Eoflt&loDieo had pennissioa to settle on Lone Island amon§ die 
Ditoca. Such of the Eoirush as chose to minacle with die Xedier* 
fcmders were secnred in the ej^eicise ot' their religion* choiee of their 
own magistrates, their oira courts for causes under 41 guilders^ 
is cases cnzainal^ not capital : with exraaption from taxes for 
years« on cooditioa of swearing allegiance to the Dutch go- 
usio^ Dutch weights and measures, and not erecUng 
IT foc^ without pemissioo. 

Captain John rnderhiil, like Lyon GArdiner, brought widi 
the acquisitions gained bv serving ia the armies of £ngland> 
to aid the Dutch in the low countries. Captain John was a 
of fortune, srurdr and brare, seeking ^* prorant** and 
piwadcr as onew at that time, of his protVssion may be supposed 
lo do. He had been sent with the forces of James L of £i^ 
siaL (oaoch against the king*s will«) raised to aid rebelLioas sub- 
Sects ia castuu: oxf the voke of a masaer ; but the cause of ihe 
prooesciRC religioo. aod the interest d* JamesV son-iG-Iaw« the |^ 
bciiie. had prevailed over his bias to kiogcraJit, Whether I ik 
derhill boce a commission in this war* I know not* bet he returned 
la EB;rivtd with the title of captain, a Dutch wile* and the Dutch 
new worid presented a wider field for adventure than was 
foucd la En^^hnd. A Dutch wife, or the Dutch Ians:uas:ef 
aot likely to cattse his thriving among a people tjiught to des- 
pase all foreigners : and the tride of war was not i^neeable a> 
JaflBes» happily for his sublets, A sword was the kipi*s aver- 
SMKt : and a s'.vnrvi wjl? prv-bablv the soU* reliacce of Unc^rhilL 
Accofdinzly he eKti^rited :o Botston, and was wtll receired 
X the valiant and piocs. 
Cxpcxia Joha Vaderaill was an audtor as well as a warrior, and 
exxscs, ia the New York Historical LLbriry. *^ News fiom 
AzE^erin. or a New acd Experln>ental DiscoTcrie of New £a^ 
iaad, cootaiiun; a true rekition of their warlike proceedings, these 
:wo Teats pass, with a figure of the Icdtan Foit or PaUisado> by 
Cffltiaaa Jhba CmdrriUl^ Comwtamdmr tft tie MTrnn tierr. London, 
pMMi for P. Cola, l»8w" 
▼<*. 1. 10 


Tbewirrior aathor, after fntkinr apologies, telk ot of die wm 
of New EngUod with the " Block Islanders/* and tbat " iosolac 
and barbarous nation called the Pigeats,*' wbo were stain ligr iht 
** sword of the Lord,"' and the English, '* to the nonAer of IMO 
soak," so that their country *' is fallen into the hands of the Eng 
lisb." AH this for the " glor}- of God,*' captain John sets (m^ 
He states the cause of the war with the Block Indians being, Am 
slaving John Oldham in his boat, and clothing '* their bloody 
flesh with his lawful garments." This island, " lying in the rand- 
way to the Lord Sey, and the Lord Brooke's plantatioB,*' fbe 
miirderer wv seen, and several of the murderers shot on the spot, 
and ocben carried prisoners to Massachusetts by the master and 
crew of an English vessel. This not being considered aionemcat 
sufficient, " >la5ter Heorie Vane," and the other magistrates of 
Massachusetts, sent " 100 weU appointed soldiersf" commaoded 
by Endicot, having Underbill and others under him. It seeaH 
there were fear captains, besides " inferior officers," to command 
this body of 100 men ; for which disparity Underliill accoimts by 
the necessity of dividing their men into smalt parties, to meet the 
practice of the savages. As they approached Block Island, diqr 
saw a single Indian, and every appearance of the place being d^ 
serted ; but, knowing their manner of lying in ambiBh, Underidl 
was sent with twelve soldiers in hb boat to land, in ezpeclatioB of 
finding an enemy. Accordingly, he says, when his shallop ap> 
proached the shore, up rose, ** from behind the barricado," " fifty 
or sixty able fighting men, men as straits as arratcsn very talL and 
of active bodyes, having their arrows nocki," (i. e. fitted to the 
nock ready for flight.) *' they drew near to the water side, and let fly 
at the soldierSf as though they had meant to have made an end oif 
us all in a mofcentr" One young gentleman received an arrow 
in his neck, through a thick collar, anH Underhiil was pierced 
through the raat sleeve, and would inevitably been slain, hot thai 
'* God in hi^ providence" had " moved the heart of 
hill^s " wife to persuade" him to go '* armed with his 
on which the missile fell in vain. From which the warrior-aii- 
thor impresses his reader with two things — 1st, " that God nseih 
weak means to keep his purpose un violated." The second 
lesson of Captain John is, ** let no man despise the counsel of 
his wife." We may add, that few men despise the advice of a 
wife without cause for bitter repentance. 

But the captain seems to apolozize for his former frailty at Boa- 
ton, and says, that '* what with Delilah^s flanery, and with her 
mournful tears, they/' women, " will have their desire." After 
much apologetic maner he proceeds to tell that the party he led, 
with difficulty landed, the surf preventing them from firmg npos 
the Indians, or bringing their boat to the beacb ; tbey, bofwever. 

cxDsmuiu.. <o 

ipfig into the wt?es, middle deep, and waded ashore. The 
siT«jes« finding the bullets " OTerreach their arrowa," fled, while 
Eadicot, n-iih ihe main body, gained the land unhurt. They 
fonfid provision and shelter in the Indian wigwams, and with all 
doe military prK'aution of pickets and sentinels, refreshed tliem- 
aelres with the goods of the naiire proprietors. 

The next day they '* burnt and spoyled both houses and come 
in great abundance.^* The Indians were hid in their swamps, and 
the conquerors received no harm, but thai 6jff cfthr captains^ going 
too near a swamp, was hit by an arrow upon his corsUl^ which 
blow would have killeil him. if he had not been thus defended 
by armour. Having passed this day ** in spoyling the island/* 
tbey passed another night in ease, only that Underbill with ten 
men went out and discovered a place where there were many wi^ 
warns and much corn, all which, takinc fonv men uith him the 
next dav, he destroved. ** burnt their houses, cut downe their 
eonie,*^ and killed some dogs, ^* instead of men,*^ which he found 
in the houses. As they passed to tiieir embarkation they " met 
with several famous wigwams, with great beaps of pleasant come 
readv shaled," which, not beini^ able to brinir awav, ihev burnt. 
Boi the soldier speaks with pleasure and triumph of the uroyghi 
maae» ** and delightful baskets'* which were brought off as plun- 
der : and after ** having slain some founeen. and maimed others,*' 
tbey embarked and sailed for Saybrook fort. This was the 
pcmiftiuBent inflicted upon a nation, women, and children, be- 
caizse a man had been robbed and murdered bv savaces, most of 
wbom were killed at the time. 

Underbill, continuing his narrative, says, '* The Pequeats* 
having slaine one Capuin Norton and Captain Stone, with seven 
more of their company, order was given us to visit ihem. Sayling 
along the Xahanticat shore with five vessels, the Indians spying 
OS, eaaie running along the water side crying, * whatcheercEng- 
fiilHWB, what cheer? What do you come for r* They not thinking 
we iaieBded warre, went on cfac^erfully till they came to Pequeat 
river.** They received no answer, the Englishmen thinking, as 
Underbill says, the better to " runne throu^ the worke,^* and, by 
rendering them secure, ** have the more advantage of ihem.^^ At 
lengih the natives, suspecting hostility, asked *' Are you angiy ? 
W5l vou kill us ? Doe vou come lo fichi r" And at night ibey 
Tued alarm fires, and uttered cries, to gather the people for re- 

* Fkvm. iW vNt mf S&men^ wn mx ihtr si:e of Nrw I^oDdoii, ud. I prenoie. 
aad UndrxbaU. wms near iht Mvtbc nrcr. 


le rK-M iKirnin^- .he .utn «>< -eiic :m ^iinuiuiaaiiiii ca vjuc il^ 

'b. '^ L xrrivo -enior, i nan >ii -•uidersiaiicuiii£«"' ** mve uki 

flirai :n iiLs i*xpre^sioii3.'* Wij :irc lielbre raid diac :zc uoopf 

an iniernrprer \s\i{\ •hefn. This *' ^nxfi -eninr"' c<T:raifCeG 

ffiai :)iirpo«e hey ■;;.jne : jkI '.vas -ojd, :o rei;ii:re '-e L-eftds 

ioj^p -vfKi laci :iile<i Nttrruii ma "^^oiil*. Tliu uucia&s^or did 

d«n\' 'liat :tie L' *f)iuits .lud !;iilea some :nuu. ^ueizisr Errli^b 

tot ilipv 'oiiid idi fjl ; iiid ins -loiv T.ifc. ;:iat hef':*^ NonoL 

tminr. .rill lipy laa Xsva "iicm -.vtiil iiiii TaiMc x.r- -Jj^-Hi : 

ttljp -^ac'if-rn ^'oiii'^ 'Ui jiuirci 'In? -'rtrHti ■;! je rmjiier* "srii 

nined. nui i iiiaUf*! u 'ev/7/;777<in •Uiiiiuiiiiufi :'ur Jis n:::£*:rL. To 

fe :lii':r -^^c'lP!!] liity jiiia tiu ;)ncit. imi um :n.:An »: ^-'^n- 

le. imt ifitv ' '1^' ;.iliiii: imi. inu ':<!iiiiiui: iiiii i::;rp3«; «ji«orc 11 

j|Cfti.*r\ T'li; .jiiKiii.'j -iUiiua -tujjr ■n««iinir». ::»ii ^:"=*si rt- 

Joec. ^imrl- iiii.»r iiiinn lunitinr 'tt^sAM iniu -jeir -7=7- v:« aadt-. 

Jhis vTs '.hcj ''i jri.\iiiiaiii Tiriiiif. T!j« P-fnuiits p-re-eadtc 

liendl;.' .iiiti!"rmr.i<». :imi luf -on tji riu .niir:Hr';«: *an^«c venioa 

Joari jrn: vif ."*<::»ivj{i v ':w. ramajii in im ::u;ii]. x;-£rc, S:o«: 

■• lAv:im iniiii .iwwi ■;:!iii ;j; jiin i'JHi;." '\i\\ :n ^Vs *:^ a^^ 

his innii»ni. '.H'rvvi:! i.-ii.rji: iiiri 11 "..ii' .iifu:-" T-*? crew of 
lim v»^a*M :iiii:lnj. 1:1. lui*. .ra; 'in! Liiiian.'?. n r^a: -iZ-«-r5, Lad 
hoJir!i»»; '.\i*r\\ wxii i ii;rri;i»: 'itfrriii'i. ziftunnmH': : :i:c blswizr up 

P'll I'd *'"l* """Ii '';■'■. *i* ' "I* ■':!"''i»«* ;-n-»Hi; ■^"M'"«il*:i*t^ 3~,* •■"^ *-T- 
■ ad ■ 

f: .:* ■.'.■* r, ..*'-. r IT a.: v ;i; t"' ::? jiii :i;«;ii. - Vs -7 Mie 5reB our 

• I 


!<-'*v -.-- V -.^-ih:/ !■ .: .\. ■:.• '-LzL ..'.: :.«: *. A.. ■=:.-*-e iceE art 

- fi'» ' ?.i 

\...zz :: Li^t.cEC s 5U> 

•^:..-. •• V.'*: rn:€ Ii.--.-." Ti-e -■i-.T :: ".^cfe 'who caLsec 
:-* -.»^v. '■'':.': Et--' > V- ,•;••■ T.ri "T-«_*:f': :=. arid : he roe- 

?-.-- ':.* :.c .- 0: ?.. '.:.i-iiti .:; :ie tZii: of SioLt and Norton, or 
•-;*<t !•.«:;. t.'ire<:t^aed venrea^ce on the nation. 

" W f- rri'i jrani him libertv to eo a«hore, and ouivelres followed 



suddenly after, before the warre wis proclaimed." The ambas-* 
sador seeing this, returned to them, and be^ed them to come no* 
further until he had delivered his message. They, however,' 
march to a commanding ground, and are drawn up in battle array. 
On the messenger's announcing that both the sachems had gone to 
Long Island, he was told that the sachem must appear, or they 
would *^ march through the country and spoyle the corne." After 
an hour's delay. Underbill says, that an Indian was sent to an- 
nounce tliat yiomnenoteck was found, and would come to them. 
The soldiers waited another hour, when another Indian came to 
iDlbrm them that the sachem, begging their patience, hkd called 
together the body of the Pequots, that he might find the men who 
had killed the English. In the mean time it was perceived that 
the Indians were hiding their *' chiefest goods," and removing 
their wives and children ; " but we were patient," says Underbill, 
*' and bore with them, in expectation to have the greater blow 
upon them." At length the English were requested, from the 
sachem, to lay down their arms, and move tliirty paces from them, 
when he would cause his men to do the like, and then advance to 
a parley. 

This proposition was answered by beating a drum, displaying 
the English colours, and marching upon the defenceless wigwams 
and com fields, firing on the natives as they fled before them, 
shooting ** as many as we could come near." The rest of the 
day was passed in gathering '* bootie," and " burning and spoyling 
the country." No Indians came near them and they embarked, 
setting sail for *' the Bay," (iMassachusetts) : " having ended ibis 
exploit," says Captain John, " one man wounded in the legge ; 
but certaine numbers of theirs slaine, and many wounded. This 
was the substance of the first year's service." 

Underbill begins his narration of the second year's service, by 
remarking that, ** this intoUnt nation seeing we had vsed so much 
lenity towards them^^^ were even more bold, "slew all they found," 
and advancing to Saybrook fort, dared the garrison to come out 
and fieht. A lieutenant and ten men were sillv enough to leave 
tbehr defences. Three Indians appeared and fled. The English 
pursued and of course fell into an ambush, and in spite of their 
STuns and defensive armour, some were slain, and others glad to 
fly for refuge to the fort. When next time the Indians appeared 
some were armed like Europeans, with the spoils taken the previous 
day, otliers were dressed in English clothes. They defied the 
garrison to come out " and fetch your Englishmen's clothes 
again !" with every taunt they could devise. 

*' Connecticut plantation" sent a body of soldiers under Cap- 
tain John Mason, to strengthen the fort at Saybrook. Still it 
feared that force was necessary to defend it, and application was 



dam. The master was on a trading voyage, and stopped at Say-^ 
brook fort, where Underhill detained the vessel, declaring she 
should not supply the Pequots with necessaries or arms. The 
Netherlander agreed under a written contract, that if his vessel 
should be suffered to go free, he would make use of the oppor- 
tunity to procure the liberation of the two Weathersfield maidens, 
whose captivity was a subject of conversation and lament. Ac- 
cordingly the Netherlander sailed for Pequot, (now New London) 
and offered goods for the captives, but id vain* He then found 
means to induce seven of the Pequot warriors to come on boardf 
and seising them, made sail for the Sound. No offer of ransom 
would he accept, but an exchange was proposed of the seven men 
for the two girls. This being made known on shore, was agreed 
too, and faithfully performed ; the Dutch skipper most honoura- 
bly fulfilled his contract, and the maidens after many fears were 
restored uninjured to their friends. In the meantime, Underhill 
tells as, that the Dutch governor, who must from the time (1685) 
have been Wouter Van Twiller, having ** heard that there 
were two English maids taken captive of the Pequots," manned 
out his own pinnace purposely to get these captives, what charge 
soever they were at, nay even at the hazard of war with the 
Pequots. Thus incidentally we have the testimony of an English 
writer to the gallant and honourable conduct of the Dutch of 

The reflections with which Captain John accompanies the tale 
of the captive maids, are in a strain of piety, little comporting with 
the story of his Boston penance of a few years after. He, accord- 
ing to his book, was filled with christian feelings at this time towards 
all men — provided they were white— or not arrayed in opposition 
to his party, or employer. But he tells us that the apostle sajrs, 
" contend for the truth/' and that the Saviour told his disciples, " I 
came not to bring peace, but a sword." 

But as he says, *^ to go on." The forces designed for the des- 
truction of the Pequots, instead of sailing directly from Saybrook 
fort, to •* Pequeat river," stood for Narraganset bay, thereby de- 
ceiving the Indians into a false security. They landed and march- 
ed undiscovered, twty days before they came to the Thames, or 
** to Pequeat." They passed the night within two miles of the royal 
fort, and had ample knowledge of the situation of the Indians, who 
being there in a state of security, knew nothing of the approach 
of the English and their Mohican allies. 

Doctor Dwight* says, the Pequot fortress was near the river 
Mystic. Underhill thus describes it. " This fort or palizado was 
well-nie an aker of ground, which vras surrounded by trees, and 

half trees set into the ground, three feet deep, and fiistened close 


* Dwight*t Triftb. 


to ooe another/' The author for a clearer notioa of the Ibn, refas 
hid reader to '* the figure of it before the booke," wfaidi u fkt 
most unintelligible of the two, and evidendj as nntnie as it ■ 

Captain Mason allotted the western entrance for faimseU^ and 
ordered Underbill to attempt the southern. The soldiers lar* 
rounded the palisado, having their Indian friends encircling then 
again, and all were ordered to fire their muskets and arrows toge- 
ther, which was the first notice the sleeping Peqoots had of m 
enemy. The English force had arrired, an hour after iniilM^h, 
and made this simultaneous attack about daybreak. The crowd 
of men, women and children, thus started fix>m their sleep, Mot 
forth " a most doleful cnr ; so as if God had not fitted the beam 
of men for the service," says the gallant captain, ** it would have 
bred in them a commiseration,'' towards this mass of beings devm- 
ed to death bv fire and sword. *^ But everr man beine bereaved 
.of pity, fell upon the work without compassion.^' Thus it is that 
man blasphemes the Most High and Most Merciful ! UndeAB 
states that the nationhad**slainefirst and last about thirty penoos." 

After this volley of balls and arrows, the assaihnts approndiBd 
the palisades, and Underbill found the entraixre, he was desned 
to force, so ** stopped full with arms of trees and breaks," thtt 
the work was too much for him, and he ordered ooe master Hodge 
to the post of honour, with some other soldiers, to pull out those 
brakes, and lav them between him and the entrance. Master 
Hodge recei%*ed an arrow through both arms. 

Underbill now paused to defend himself from . a charge made 
against him in a book, to which this **' voice from America^' may be 
considered an answer ; it was said that he questioned a soldier 
thev came to the entrance, savin? *' shall we enter !'' and was 
swered " what came we hither for else I'' This he stoutly 
aod says, it was never his '* practice to consult with a private sol- 
dier, as to ask his advice in a point of warre."* 

He says, ** Captain Mason and myself entered into the w^ 
warns, he was shot and received many arrows upon his 

* It is in ibe accosnt of the Pcqoo: war. or ** tbt laie bftuie foogbi in Ni 
IhTtd Sec. trai P V:nceo: ssts. tiiti I'rxlertk:!! vb^n st tbe door of tbe Pc-qooc ior*^ 
•«ked ** Wtat ! Sball «• enter ^'* and ** ooe Hodse, t voanc NonhunxMooshTe fts- 
tleman.** antwered. ** what come we for elte V Tbe ReT. Saamel Ntict ia hat H»- 
torr of lodian aod Freocb warm, aart re*pecusg the hesitation of Undcriuil, taai ha 
entered tbe lodim castle on tbe oppo»:!e side to Mason, bo: afier him. Meecjif 
wxb some obstr::ct3uas at tbe sooth-east entrance which o ccas ioned soise ddaj. at 
l^cgih 1 raiiant aod molate geotleiaan, one Mr. Hodfe. steppmp towards the fate 
sarin;. " if wc mar not enter, wherefore came we here *" aod entered after sUjaf 
his opponen*. '*a sturdr lodian fcUow." NJcs died 1762, a^ eigbl-eigbi yi 
Vioeeur pna*^ b:s •• Troe reiatioa ISSS."* 

In 1637, the name of Nawtows was cbaaftd to Haitfovd, aad Wi 
called Weu>era5e!d. Tbe place now called Sachem Vbe^ is ao naai ~ 
the Eo^ish b eh eaded acvwal S a rWms wte vafoped to httamw ikm 
tnriog inforiBatioD TroabalL Vol ]. Chap. Sch. 


"" rtcetvcii a sIkmm in tbe kft t^4>P^» ihiiNigfa a sufficient bufie 
ciM^ Ami i£ I hmi aot beeo supplkd with such a mu^nu the 
vru«« wottU^bat « pieiOHi tfatough me.^ But tbe ^^ Bufie coa^'* 
a uiick laather defMC«> wa;» s«tffickm to slop the weapon of the 
BadTe» who was expoised oaked to tbe hoUet or sword of his aa^ 
wianc The capcua safs, he ^"^ received another between neck 
and shoulders^ kinging in the linnen of mjr head-piece.** Not- 
wifhrtfamiing the two capium were unhurt» two of their men were 
kiiied« ajki twentgr wounded. The Pequo^ finight bravely in defence 
of their bocnes* their wives and their little ones ; and finding the 
piace ** too hot libr us>** Mason zseized a "" fire-brand/* and be set 
lirt 10 the west side* while Underbill did tbe same on the south 
end ^ wiib a train of powder ; the fires of both meeting in the 
cicfltte of the fort* blaaed most terribly, and burned ail in the space 
ef baif an hour ; many courageous lieliows were unwilling to cone 
eutr and fiMigbt most desperately through the paiisadoes :** from 
which ic would appear that the English finding tbe place loo hot» 
had set fire to the wigwaos and retreated out of the fort. In vain 
the gallant Pe<{iiofe$ fought — they were shot with bullets> by men 
covmd arith defensive armour, firom without — the flames even 
rendered their bows useless by burning the bow-strings-*^ many 
were boned in tbe fect,^ says the nairatort ^^ both men, women> 
md ehiidren;** others escaping firom tbe Europeans, wete eat. 
d»wn by the circle of Namgaxfesetts and Mohicans who formed an 
outer endaeure; but first they encountered tbe English, who ^ re* 
ceived and entertained** men, women, and children, in troops of 
tweflOr and thirty at a time "^"^ with the point of tbe sword.^ Xot 
aiioee five oat of 400 escaped the mnssacre. 

^Great and dofefol was the bloody sight to the view of young sol* 
iSers that never had beeoe in vrarre ;^ but Captain John was inured 
to such carnage, and besides, he could jtt^tify putung tbe weak and 
iefettceless to death, for says he, ^ the 2>cripture declareih women 
and children mtt$t perish with their parents^ — ^^^ We had sufficient 
iifhc fivm the word of God foe our proceedings.** 

Before Masoa*s troops were received by their vessels which 
had been ordered to meet them at a ^ven point, tfaey had several 
fifiirmishes with toe natives^ which were principally managed by 
hin Indiatt alkies* Underbill and his command returned to Sav* 
brook tort, and Mason having been joined by Captain Patrick 
with forty men« burned and spoiled the country between ^* the Pe- 
^foeat and Connecticntt river.'* 

Sn»acus in vain urged war to tbe destruction of the invaders; 
bur the Indians were generally discouraged, thioking it vain to 
coocend with men so superior in offensive and defimaive arms. 
They petvwjkd* and deati of ing what they conU not take with 
u ' 11 


them, abaodoned the countr}-. UnderhilPs dme of serrice beng 
expired, he returned " to the Bay/* Stoughton whb one bQndied 
well appointed soldiers, joined in the destruction of " the distretaed 
Indians ; some they slew, others they tooke prisoners.'* Such 
are the last words of the book of Captain John Cnderhill. 

But Captain John had not served in the Netherlands witboot 
bringing away some of the frailties of the camp, and we are loid 
by Bancroft, upon the authority of Hubbard, that althoueh his 
Dutch lady was with him, the Captain had been compelled, for 
the purpose of regaining his good name, to appear before a great 
assembly at Boston, in the year 1640, and confess his faoh on 
lecture day, during a session of the general court, dressed in the 
rueful habit of a penitent, to stand upon a platform, and with sighs 
and tears, and brokenness of heart, and all the marks of contrition 
and aspect of sorrow, to beseech the compassion of the congrega- 
tion. This, the above authorities say, was in consequence of 
certain gallantries wliich would probably only have senr^ as tro- 
phies in the course of a warrior's career in the Netherlands. 

Whether this was the cause of removal or not, certain it is that 
Captain John, in the year 1641, removed to Long Island, where 
his Dutch wife and Dutch languaire, as well as reputation for va- 
lour, recommended him to the inhabitants and to Governor Kieft. 

Before his fall and repentance, as we have seen. Captain Joim 
had gained reputation in the war with the Pequots. His religious 
zeal had attached him to Mrs. Hutchinson, and the banishment of 
that ladv from New En<:land, mav have been one cause of the 
Captain's removing to the New Netherland, as her death by the 
hands of the savaires mav have embittered him as:ainst the natives. 

It appears that this war between the Indians and New Nether- 
land continued for two years, and L nderhill did ^rood service. 
His militar}' reputation enabled him to raise a considerable num- 
ber of men under Kicft's authority, and his skill gave them dis- 
cipline. They were composed of Dutch and Enirlish. With 
this corps he is said to have terminated the opposition of the In- 
dians on Long Island, by the destruction of 400, at a place still 
called Fort-neck, in the township of Ovsierbav, but on the south 
side of the bland, being a neck of land projecting into the sea, and 
on the estate at present of David S. Jones, Esq* 

At this place, it is said that the Indians threw up works for de- 
fence, and sent their women and children to some Islands in the 
bay adjacent, which to this day are called Squaw hUtnds from this 
circumstance. Underbill, with his corps of disciplined Euro- 
peans, attacked the Indian fort, carried it and put to death the 
champions of their countr>''s indej)endence. Here, for a time, he 
established a garrison to prevent a reunion of the tribes. 

Tradition likewise says, that Kieft and bis friend Underhill de» 


fatiei die Indiam upon the main lind, after a bard fought battle 
ax Smcklaod's plain, Thro^neck.* After the battle of Strick- 
laoiTs plaint tbe vrar was termiiiated by the interference of the lio- 
quois whose mediation Kieft contriv^ to engage. These con* 
<]ueioK axaong savages, negociated a peace between the Dutch 
and the New Jersey and river Indians. As sovereigns, they as- 
jieaabied the tribes of the Delawares at New Amsterdam, and the 
sachems of the liaritans, Manhanoes, Mohicans, and others ac- 
knowledging the supenority of Uie Iroquois and submitting id 
their arbitration, appeared upon the space between the Dutch fort 
of Amsterdam and the bav, and attested the sun to witness another 
treat}' of peace between them aiul tlie Dinector-generaL 

This is the last account I have of the battles of Captain John 
Uadeiiiill, whose Indian warfare lias stamped him the hero of 
Long Island, as far as heroism depends upon the power or incli- 
nation to destrov. It will be seen that althonch a friend of Kieft^s, 
he was not so of his successor, Stuvvesani, durinf: whofse admin- 
istration Uinieihill endeavoured to get up another Indian war, in 
which he would willingly have involved the English, on the one 
part, against the Dutch and natives, on the other. After the En- 
glish conquests, he held the civil o&ce of high-constable. The 
Hon. ^Nks Woodt tells us that under the government of Nicoils, 
he attained to the office of sherLf of Queens county « and received 
irom the ftieadlv Indians a rift of 150 acf>es of land, which re- 
mains with his descendants of the same name, to the present time ; 
and having shown his prudence and judgment, by securing to 
his posterity some of the best land on Long Island, be died on 
his own territoiies in the vcar 107^, and lies buried in the ceme- 
leiT of the veiy pleasant village ofOysteibay. 

Kieft^s fame is not so unclouded. After a stormy life he ap- 
pears to have ended it in a tempesu Again he was involved, 
and inextricablv, in hostility with his sava<re neiirhbours : towards 
the end of his tiubulent adminiscration he incurred the displeasure 
of all the Dutch colonists of any respectability, by an atrcKious 
ma iaaended to destroy or weaken the power of the natives. A 
pany of the Iroquois, probably Mohawks, as tliey were the nearest 
of the confederacy to the Dutch sealements, appeared advancing^ 
towards Manhattoes in warlike array, for the purpose of collecting 
tr3mte from the river Indians, and others in the neighbourhood. 
The latter unpreparod for the visit, had gathered on the west side 
of the Hudson, seeking protection or mediation from the Dutch: 
but Kieft, instead of seizing tbe opportunity to conciliate the 
aeicliboiinnc tribes, took advantage of the occasion to perpetrate 

84 kibft's mamacbb. 

an inGunoos raaasacre, bj saerificing the fogitiTcs. Wlib Ae 
soldiers of the fort, joined to the woitbless and nnthinlring of 
the populace, and the privateersmen or others, from the Teasels 
in the harboari be crossed the Hudson and fell upon the defence- 
less, unsuspecting natives, and murdered indiscriminately men^ 
women and children, during a night of horrors. 

Those who escaped, and the inhabitants of the neighbouring 
country joined to revenge this gross and faithless deed of blood. 
Again the innocent cultivators suffered all the miseries attendant 
upon savage wariare. Kieft was justly and loudly accused as the 
author of another war. The inhabiunts of the colony complained 
to the authorities at home, and the Director-general was recalled 
by the Dutch West India Company. He embarked with fab 
riches, for while others sufiered, he had accumulated wealth ; but 
the ship was wrecked on the coast of Wales, and the unhappy 
governor drowned.* 

The colony Kieft had to govern was certainly not composed of 
the best materials. It neither had the advantages of the puritan 
setdement of the east, nor the Virginia colony of the south. The 
Swedes on the Delaware, were of a higher character, and so were, 
subsequently, the Quakers of Pennsylvania and West Jersey. 
The colonists of New Netherlands in general, particularly in New 
Amsterdam, at the first, were mere traders seeking gun ; and in 
Kieft's time, a modey set of grasping petty merchants, mercenary 
soldiers, privateersmen and other sailors, with a few planters and 
very worthy emigrants from Holland, constituted the people. The 
West India Company, whose servant Kieft was, had littJe else in 
view than gain. They threw a negro slave population from their 
African setdements into die colonv. Even in the boasted times 
of the Georges of England and of the elder Pitt, (Lord Chatham.) 
colonial poCcy in Europe was calculated altogether for the profit of 
the mother country. When Chatham opposed certain oppressive 
measures adopted by England, it was only because he had the 
sagacity to see, that by bending the bow too far, it would break. 
He was wiDing to strain to the utmost. *' Parliament could bind 
the colonies in all cases. The colonists should not be allowed to 
manufacture even a hob-nail.'* If such were the maxims of Eif- 
ropean government in thb enlightened dme, and with this great 

• Sir WiUiuB Kieft mnM mSHm \cw Amftcrdaa m iIm tStk JbIt, 1647 (u a^ 
pcan bw % urocUmatMii •C Govenor Starvc«anO nd was actaf m om sf tke Gov- 
•nof** coaociU (USS. tnMUtcJbv Mr. Wc«tbro*k far Co««im Cmmcik mi Ncv 
Tock ) Tkftt Im MiM from ibc New NetbciUa^ dcnac t^^ Jf* v< Inn inm 
Dr. VaadcfdoKk. wbo my •• tb« tiktp PhaccM* m wh»tk W twiimi^mi. igpomt»4 
his u4 kit CMMMt at tht boctttB ^r th» •ens.'* Alteoy Rcc«il% TtL Si : D* 

• ' \ 

?ue;-i- '-' ''■'■^ 

; ill uutN i-. - '^ ^ 

liw die ]Me9Cst coBaunatm of Gitat BriDuB 1^ 
T u»d Ubenr lo EoglishiDeB, vbat are m« 10 look far im 
Kiei^s nxDe. vben Engbnd v^is inrolred in the dariaie» preced- 
iftc ber re^xihnioB of 16^ and when die troe ibeoir of a repre- 
Maoszxre gme mmeiit iras liu)e understood amd scarcely practised 
ia odMT pans of the ciriliMd world. It faUovrstbat dieoolowal 
gaff gnimf m of New Netfaeriand was« in Kme meaenre, ariMnix 
■wawi far die benefit of the West fai£a Coaapaov. Kieft was 
MBMd izpon by tbe poriims od the cagtcm bolder, and by dw 
g »u>u> oD his WYstera : while sach Eiucfisih as laiagled in lus 
pepiilaDOB arere e^er in opposition to his role, as tbey anere iaa* 
haiod vith the lurhi of repviilicamsm from New England. Suc|i 
woe his diSnilties* and they contbiued onder Us soeeeasor 
&ayi«nn7« ahhou^ his superior wisdooi and enei^ redeciad 
coilooT, is a i!Te^ measnre^frcim tbe erik wladi sanoQi^ 

h»* hwai yu fwnai. 
WMidfwmqo t kliMmef ElbMiMl Mirbnr f»«i>krchMDu»«»dcM* 

cah.-rftzici& ««« «f hojt woRk Dr. IHr^ miMiMii te icaMM 
« laai^l^ — brmf iy» ilifc hcJI ihwm ii ifci it— ia il» 

Ix 1774. iteiv vcK bm 9(41. » StwnMa tS7« ia Gnaai iaa» 

i» vfisf^iiir ibMA. and «ihf9« iMBud m tbr Umr. Hiav 
fai ITS!. Mr £a««Tdt cf > 

«r 4k Ivdinft' «• -~ 

Btt W wn tte& ike M tajft* *-«|pck iM^ 

te afiocner of ife paiyfl sniHif tiMm. kirv n • p«K 

Is iKi. ikr Isdai: omi^vtia;. no c>PtA> m mr 



Swedes on the Delaicare — MinuUs — PrintZ'-^Tkc StmartM — 
Colonizcuion of Sew England — Doctor Vanderdonck — Peter 
Stuyvesant — Controtersii with the commistUmers a/' the umited 
New England Colonies — Charges against Stuytesant as co«- 
spiring with the Indians to cut off tite English^ denied amd 

While the thriving colonies of New England occapied the tt- 
tention of Kieft in one direction, and the Indians required all his 
inilitar}' force near the Hudson, the art or revenge of Miouits, his 
predecessor, planted a thorn within his side on the Delaware 
which he had no power to remove, 

John Printz, a Swedish colonel of cavalry, was appointed gov- 
ernor of New Sweden, and in 1642 arrived in the Delaware, 
where previous to his coming Jnst de Bogadt bad ruled. With 
Colonel Printz came the Kev. John Campancies, the future histo- 
rian of the new territory. An addition to the colony of sereral 
vessels with emigrants had accompanied Printz, aud be establish 
ed himself on the island of Tonnekongy near the mouth of ibe 
Schuylkill, which was in 1643, granted to him by the crown of 
Sweden, and there he built a house for himself, and a fort, which 
be called Sew Gottenhursh, His dwellins: was somewhat am- 
bitiously denominated Pnutz-hnff^ but be did not neglect to erect 
in his neighbourhood a place for public worship. He confirmed 
the purchase made by Minuits from the natives, added presents to 
conciliate their good will, and was repaid for his just government 
by the friendship of the Indians and the prosperity of the Swedes. 

Printz, by permission of his sovereign, Christina, resigned his 
government to John Papegoa^ who was succeeded by Jok» 
Risin^h^ of whom I shall have occasion to speak hereafter. 

The reader of American history can have no just view of his 
subject without reference to the events in operation at the time in 
Europe, and to their causes, particularly in England, and is it 
spects New York, in Holland. 

When James I. in 1603, escaped from the thraldom of 
Scottish Rarons« each one of whom felt himself a prince, according 
to the feudal svstem, the son of the misguided and probablv 
guilty Msry, found himself a successor to the tyrannic power the 
Tudor* had cstahlisthcd in England. James found the people 
who had served Klixabeth on their knees ready to kneel to him ; 
and, although hi« longuc gave him the lie, be said, **I am Eng- 


'.laii.** He ns hoireT«r, a kiDc> and be bated tbe Netberlandera 

S^-:si»e tber bad thn>WD odf the roke of n ivnot. He calied tbem 

• • • 

rxrctel? : rei from » dread of the power of the house of A ustria, be 
>x>e^ wiih Pruice in estiblishiDg tfait repubUc to which we owe 
:>f KKiadaiioD of New York. 

But t2ie tir^ of the Stuarts found already dittused amon^ his 
Kapi?^ subject:^ thouj:h ooi ap}vireQt to his view« a vi^:oni>us and 
jociiuul spirit that had been cherished by the early refonuers and 
wthjch was teaching them that they had rights and property ; to 
secsn? which they must aim at selA^ioremment. The jiand* 
a»ocber of James« had in a moment ol' paj^ioo, deciarvd to tbe 
xYCs of the concrecation in Scotland, that **• the promises of 
xioces were oolr considered binding bv tbem while thev iaToured 
siesr kindv interests :''* and althoui^ the descendants of the 
caeesh-re^nt continued to act on thk principle^ the people of 
ils^od had not forcotten the caution convev^ hr the words. 

To counteract the powing desire for seUh^Temment and se- 
cwiiy of property. James L cherisbed the prelacy and Itstened 
wiih delist to uie courtly bishop, who. in answer to tbe kin^^s 
Toyal ^orsdon, ** Hare I ikm a risrht to take the subject*s money 
wkbout his consent f*' said ^* certamlv, sire, for vou are tbe breath 

Tiat Charles I., so educated, br such teachers, should raise a 
Taaput of prelacy around the throne, the crown and what he bad 
^eea tauchc were his ri^rhts, to oppc^se the puritanism of the peo- 
ple aad the hberty of thou^t, was to be expected. The ray of 
mitiu when it bas entered into man, increases until it is a perfiKt 
liay. Imeresl. passion, selfishness, are the clouds which obscure 
Is^ and aroond Charles they fiMiued a reil thick as ni^rht. That be 
s£io«ld stretch the preros:ative to breaking: : raise up Laud and tbe 
ba^iops* or any others, as the instruments of his tyranny, and so 
thesn until he broa£:ht his head to the scanbid: that he shotild 

ploy shipHsiODey for the purpose of oppressing tbe Dutch, and 
the seas« by making: that petite pay him ibr tbe privileee 
of takmr food from iu may not stirprise us. He had been 
ti:ir^: and wiilia^!r believed that he h^d a ri^ht so to do. But 
iraii the people who had sought refup? in the wilds of New £n^ 
jaad from kin^y and priestly tyranny, shv^uld at the same tiroe^ 
be cstsrpin^ and exercising: power over tbe New Netherlands, and 
eocroachin^ upon men and their territory with no o:her pretence 
or claim than r.^; derivevi from j^ielicy acvi ir.onarchy. is an 
aoocoahr that mi2st i:ive us wn. 


Sir William Kieft and the New ?(ctlKriuiden vete aoeam t>r 
New Enelaod of " boftiie agzresnoa." He vcnr jootljr oomptrbd 
tbe accaaiioo to tint of the w<^ in the fabte, wba^ tetijmf & 
qoaiTel with the lamb, a desirable objeei tor his appedie, cbaizc< 
the de^ oted victim with baring disturbed the vaien of tbe Hieus 
from wiuch fats woii^fiip fra§ driDkin^, ai ike mmrctg Lj jg^ 
saxxiia^ to queach fai« ibirst at ao humble diftanoey lower con. 

Tac Endisfa piuitana had fbuDd hospitality, place of reface aac 
employment in preference to other fonifperSf among tiae pratcst- 
aDt republicans of UoUand. Durine their residence aiuone them 
thev learned that tbe Dutch had (bond and taken nnfiirarinn of k 
New BaUTia in America, aixl the Engiifh icfngeei were enooor- 
a^red to seek a New Enrland on the same oontinent hrroM ti* 
sea, where oo kin^ or prelate— fx> covrt of hi^ commisiiioB or 
star chamber would £eize on their propettv, or control their ei»- 
scieoces. Tbe Ma^-flower arrived at Plrmooth, a fiee oamaa- 
tioo for the ^orerament of the roiuBtarr exiles was (oniied on her 
deck. Thev landed on snow-corered rocks, and aaidfl wt 
wilds founded an empire. 

Tiie admirinz naiiTes receired their risiiers as ixiends ; ancL 
without compiebending imit motif es for desiring pi upc u i in the 
so:l, tbev gave, or sold, ibeir land for what was to tfaeni rainaUe. 
and to ti>e strajcrers of liule worth* Manj and sofe were the Mi- 
fliciioos of tbe iinle b&od of republicans, but ther were eonsoied 
bv ibe puriiy of tiieir mori'^es and ihe presence of civil and rtii- 
^ious liberty, T^ey e^LablisLed iaws for tbeir own ^Tersmem. 
Tbev founded a seminan' for ihelr cLildren's edocaiion. as the onh* 
securitT for ibe laws VAi} esiaLlisbed. Tbev increased and pros- 
pered : for iLe ^ood and ibe wise sourbt tiieir society. But ibr 
tbe jeaiou^y aiid iestrs of the £j^t Cbarjes, those giants, beiore 
wLiorn Le treii:bled, Hampden. Hazleri^. and Cromweilf woc^ 
have becosK! a peaoeful ponio:] of the I^y mouth band of brothers : 
perhaps Pym uiizLt Lave joined tbem, and ti^e tmbappy Wen:- 
wonl'i. «bo ces-ened **he caase of tbe people for riches, power, 
and Uie i^vt'i name of Strafford, mirbt have lived to rivet chains on 
his coiiutrv. 

It j^eensr siran^e :ri£:Hume couJd imarine ix> othermodve tor 
John Uaizipderi's de*Ire for a retreai in New England but that of 
hearln; lonr prayers and lonz se neons. Tbe bL*torian. when he 
wrote- knew of liie prosperity of lie colonies, aod eren piedicied 
Uieir i.':/3e:>er.C€rj<:e. Could he no: bave tivcu^bt and belierec 
ihci Htrrjpoer. wo-.c i^a^e employed himself in promoting 
nrof :.eritv ^zA ia-. l.-is lije foui^cation of that knowledee which 
to pre««trre a.-jd irjcreas* it. 

Happy and prosperous as the puritans weie in New Eq^ik:. 
they looked with envy on their neighbours of New Neihcrland, 


wbo had preceded them in settKng on a more genial soil, and be^ 
side rivers greater and better fitted for commerce than had fallen 
to their lot. The Dutch trading house, on Fresh or ConnecticBt 
river, excited their jealousy, and they founded pretensions on the 
claims made hy England to a right over the three great streams 
possessed by the Dutch — the Delaware, Hudson, and Connec- 
ticut. The latter being the nearest, was first invaded. Colonies 
traversed the wilderness firom Massachusetts, first to the Dutch 
Hmfft Goedrhape^ and began to build Hartford, and then farther 
south to New Haven^ and even to Delaware.* 

Writers, both English and American have endeavoured to cast 
ridicaie upon the complaints of Governor Kieft, made in his pro- 
tests and remonstrances to the government of New England ; yet 
the grievances he states are precisely those which a stronger 
neighbour, intending to drive ofi* a we^er from the soil he co- 
veted, would inflict upon him. The tiller of the earth is inter- 
rupted in his labour ; the horses are driven from their accustomed 
pasture in the meadows ; the servants of the weaker are beaten by 

* Screnl parchjtes were made of the Indiam doriog Kieft** admhustfatioii. In 
1643 tbe pcvipte oi Hempstead bougbt « large quantity of laud from tbe naiivet. He 
tntcfed into arttdea of agreement with Tmekp<m»9ic, chief of tbe lodisM of that 
Dan*, in ISSt, by which tbev pot tbemaclTes ooder the protection of tbe Dutch go- 
Temment, with all their laodt on Long taland* aa far a« the Dutch Kne extended, ec- 
conliai^ to tbe treaty of Hartford, promuir^ matnal asaiatance. This agreemeot was 
Bude «t tbe Fort, in New Amsterdam, Biaich IS, 1656. The yev More, tbe a^- 
cbcm of Sella acott (Bmokhaven) sold a diatrict of land in that quarter, and the 
t^stmart ofLamg Idmnd aold Great-neck to the same. 

In 1646 Kieft granted tbe town of Flushing to Thomas Huntington, John Hicks, 
and oibef% and empowcted them to chooae for their own goremment a tcmii or coo- 
■uble, with tbe powers of s saw/ in Holland, or constable in England, they paying 
one-tenth, if demanded, except lor one acre. 

The intelligent and patriotK industry of the Hon. Silas Wood, of Huntington, has 
given OS a picture of the sute of Long Uland about thia time. He saya that, in 
1646, at the first town-meeting held by tbe people of Gravesend, every inhabitani 
was (or waa ordered) to make twenty poles of fence, to enclose a coounon fttiiA lor 
canu and in 1648 a fence waa ordered, in like maimer, for a calf pasture. 

To show that tbe first settlers in this part of our sute were not obliged to cUmt 
their land, but, on ibe contrarr, were anxious to presenre forest trees, we are told 
that, in 1654, ** tbe town of Sooth Old passed a resolution, that no person abould cot 
irscs. or sell wood, from their armmon latids, for pipe-staves or beading, or other iMir 
potes, tu anv person not being a townsman, vitknut /Ac ttncHM liberty. And, five 
vears after, the town of Hontinj^on proliibited the cutting timber, for sale, within 
three miks of the aettlemeot.'^ And, in subsequent years, passed similar leaola- 
tioas. Orsterbsy and Newtown made similar laws on this subject. 

It was the custom of these early setilcrs of Long Island to employ berdsoMn, wbo 
drove their cattle to pasture. In 1653, and subUquently, the cattle of Hemiwtcad 
were driven as far as Cow-neck. (So named from the custom.) The cattle of Honi- 
i^gtoo vrere, at times, dnven to Horec-neck. 

.Vs the Indian mode of clearin-^ was not iu use with the icttler«. the bru^ and 
underwood increased to the diramation of the pasturage, and we find that, in 1673, 
the Kovemor and court of assize ordered, that the inhabitants of Long Island, from 
the age of sixteen to that of sixty, should turn out four day* in every year to cut 
down brush and underwood. Similar regulations were made by tbe towns, at Ta- 
fioos penoda. 

VOL. I. 12 


iliode of the stronger. Tbb was hard to bear by the fir&f pttr- 
cbaserand occupant; a member of a republic, wbich had recently 
thrown off the yoke of Spain, and carried her growing com- 
merce to tlie extremes of the earth: and to be borne from ibedcs- 
ceadants of exiles^ who, however prosperous, only flourisbed 
through the neglect of the mother countty, while sbe was eagaged 
ia civil contention.* 

Kiefi, as we have seen, was unequal to the contest with New 
England and New Sweden, and left the struggle to be eootinsed 
by an abler head and a firmer hand- 
Peter Stuyvesant is described by traditien, (and by all 
1647 our writers,) as brave and benest^ recently frooa Coiacoa, 
where he had been vice-director^ He had been woimded 
ID an attack upon St. Martinis, was a soldier and mariner, (ac- 
cording to the fashion* of thai day, when both professions were 
united in the same person, as in the celebrated Blake and noto- 
rious Monk,) and was likewise a scholar, of more depth thai 

' In !f)i5 Dr. Vandenlonk, who resided bcrc before mnd after this date, telb ot, 
thst tbe Dutch. knaiedUtely opon turning their aUention to agriculture, ioUndoced 
horses and cattle of rarioos breeds. Hogs, that have always bad poaacs ai oo of tba 
city, fattebcd, in VamleFdonk's time, upon aconis, on tbe same groaod when bow 
they precede tbe street cleaners ; bol the best porfc waa found then* aa now, that 
which was fed upon^ maiae. Sheep were more pkatiful in New EoglaDd than with 
the Dutch : and tbe Yankees already made good nsa of their wool. Goata wcrt pf»* 
furred to sheep by tbe Netherlanders of 1545. 

From the same author we may learns that Sir William Kicft, in 164-S, made a 
treaty with tbe Iroquois in Albany. He says. ** at the time when we were em^kj^ 
ed in conjunction with tbe magistrates and ofRcers of Rensselaerwyck, in n^pty ia fiiiff 
a treaty cHf peace with the Maqoas Indians, who were, and still are, tbe ficrcet aai 
atvongrst Indian nation in tbe country ; at wbich treaty thelMrcctor-general Williaa 
Kieft, on the*one part, and the chiefs of tbe Indian nations, of tbe neigbbooriog ii»- 
lians, on tbe other part, attended.*' They bad tbe services of^an interpreter, wbo 
understood all tbe dialects of the confederated Iroquois. This Indian imcrpraicr 
lodged in the same bouse with Kieft, and ono, in tbe presence of tbe go- 
▼emor and author, commenced bis toilet by jiainting his face, and, opon ezamiiniig 
the substat»ce be used, they thought, ** from its greasy and abinin^ appearance, tbat 
it contained some raluable metal.** They purchased a iiortion nf it from tbe lodian 
and gave it to a skilful doctor of Medicine, ** Johannes de H Montague, a comiaelkff 

Tbe lump of mineral pint was put in a cruciMe ati J tried by fire. It yielded tw9 
pieces of gold worth about three guilders. " This proof,** says the doctor, ** was kept 
aw ret ;** and, when the treaty was concluded, an officer and a few men were aeat 
ID tbe mountain or bill which the Indian interpreter designated as tbe place frea 
which the paint was taken, and a bucket.fnll was brought to tbe gold.4eekera. Tbe 
9tBe9t (fid not obsenre any indications of a mine baring been worked at ibe 
'****' f I?** yielded aa much as the firat experiment. The gOTemor sent a apeci- 
men of this paint, mineral, or orr, to the Netherlands. " by Arent Cooper/* wbo look 
passage from New Haven for Enplaud, and was never more heard of 

1^?!? ®i?i^'***"»n *^«^i wiled from the New Nciherlanda, which we know waa after 

?LV\L?«- Y* l« took with him, in tbe ship Princeas, specimens of this and 

n^V^' ^^*^** ^•^ ■" deposited at the bottom of tbe ocean. Tbe gM 

I!!SI.^«lu^ ^" •Pfewid again. I nouce this attcoHR '^ gold liuding for iUlHa- 

•oncal »alue, and net Jbf tbe worth of tbe nineial. 


cMier «ec«paiion would lead us to expect. He arrived as Go- 
vernor of New Netherlands, Curacoa and their dependencies, in 
May 1647. The loss of a leg impressed the colonists with a eon- 
finnation of his valour ; and the substitution of a member, en- 
circled with silver plates, has given rise to the fable of die zilber 
been^ or silver leg. 

His guccessful endeavours to conciliate the Indians was one 

K'omiaent cause of the jealousy of the neighbouring colonies of 
ew England, and of the atrocious charge which they and some 
of the Long Island English brought against him, of plotting to 
employ the savages for their destruction by a general massacre. 

I will endeavour to make as plain as possible to my reader the 
longHSondnued controversy between the New England commis- 
ftioaers and the New Netherlandcrs, which was necessarily conti- 
nued, from where Kieft's administradon left it, through the greater 
part of the rule of Petrus 8tuy vesant, taking colour more or less from 
the events passing in Europe, particularly in England and in Hol- 
land ; at times threatening war between the colonists of those 
nauons, and uniformly keeping them in a state of irritation. To 
be better understood, it will, perhaps, be best to keep this quarrel 
and its negotiations distinct from other matters.) 

The year before the arrival of Petrus Stuyvesant, 
1646 ** William Kieft Director-general, and the Senate of New 
Netherland for the States," addressed Theophilus Eaton, 
governor of the place called **the Red Hilts iti New Netherlands 
but by the English called New Havetij'* giving notice tliat the 
English ** without provocation, and contrary to the law of nations, 
and the league of amity existng between Holland and England,** 
had entered New Netherland, usurped divers places, done in- 
joriesy and not giving satisfaction when required : for these reasons, 
and *Miecau8e," says Kieft, '* you have determined to fasten your 
fool near Mauritvits river,'* to disturb trade, ** we protest against 
joa as breakers of the peace, and if you do not make reparation, 
we shall use such means as God afibrds, manfully to redress our- 
selves. Given at Fort Amsterdam, August the third, 1646." 

Eaton in his reply, sajrs, he knows no such river as Mauritius^ 
unless Kieft means what the English call Hudson's river. Nei- 
iber have ** we entered upon any place" to which *' you have 
any title, or in any way injured you." He however acknowledges 
that his countrymen have ^* lately built a small house upon Paw- 
gosett river, which falls into the sea in the midst of the English 
plantations" many leagues from the Bfanhattoes, or any part of 
Hudson's river. At this *' Small house," he says, they expect to 
*?ade, but not by force, the Indians being free to traffic with Dutch 
0r English : and that before building, purchase was made of the 
ao9 from the **true proprietors." He refers to former protests 

92 m. 

wmie bjr ibe Eo^ish, itaiiDg iojories received finooi die Dflld^li 
vfaich niwaiitfariofy aiHwer^ were returoed. He ofiers to wela 
tbe difliBfeoces to their Mipeiiors in Europe, aod faek aaeand 
llttX his ** Sorerei^ Lord« Cbaries, King of Great Bnum^ ^ad 
the Pariiaineoi now asembfed, niii maintain their <y«B rievB;** 
dated *^ New Ha? ea tbe twelfuj of Auzust, 1646, iiA ftrie.*" 

Taking tbe above ioto cooadeniioo, tbe coiniMiiopf n oi oe 
United New En^lacd coionies, (met according to tbe ronltAfi 
doo of 1G43,) addrttsed tbe Dotch Directc^'-geDerai, Sir Vi- 
liam Kieft, aiMl state thai tber bare leen a oooipbiat 
him bjr tbe colonj of MaflBacfaoaeas, of ii^ciries done in tbe 
binnis at HMttfoid^hj Kielt's aeem opon Fresb rifer. tlvee 

Kio which complaint ti>e eorernor had " retnned 
J further say, thai Kieft'2 a^eat has pvwn iwafieiaUhr 
and complain tint ** an Lkdiam captm^ liable to jmUie yaiiiiff , 
**wbo fled iiom her iztaKer' at Haitiord, is entenained s the 
Dttth boose *'* at H^nford ;''' and tbocizn reqcired to be ^ cmn 
vp** is, a« tbcT bear, ehber marned to, *^or abnsec bj ooe tdjam 
men. SmcJk a vrwuu u ^rt fjfiyo' wtojUcrt eaaU^ amd a m/vn om^ 
ndtraUt pirt than a huutr Tz^ furtber caaxfiam^ tbat Kietff 
agent dre^ bl^ rapier upon tbe Taurb at Hanibni, and ieiroke ii 
■poo their weapon?. Tijer cali ibis a ^^promd annrnt f and sai. 
thai if be had bees skin. ^ tik bkiod woold bate been 


>(jch was tbe state of a&ii? wben Sccvri 
1647 i:poQ uie ^oren^men: c^" New Xetberianc. 

niicd to be the compl«iiits reciprocated from tk 
and Enelish coiooisis, dohns tbe coo£ct between Cbanes ihr 
fnti and the parliament of England.* 

Bat when rorakr bad been pot down, and tbe jmriMiwiir 
a ccmscioasness of acting a port, lor which tbej were imk 
hgr tbe people, wished by tbe exenioc of tbeir power on 

to draw the anenrifm of men from tbemsehes. tbea tber 


■pon the fftairr of Holland ; and oar neisbbonrs of 
tboosht dier had a eood oppononiiT to prefer 
c h n ri p e f again^ tbe Dutch of New Neiberiand. who 
the direcsioo of Petnis Sturresam; ibr tboogb tber 
hia character stood fai^ ibr abilities, and that as an 

91 whidi \mm it «m da' Cief: wiil. ** C«rrwnK wbni we 

•• HHiaiiil crnm^m af wm,w^ mmb up tmm Eaif '* wtft ■iiuiliiiimr mi 

Ht « u» itrw jr. 

'•'■■fciii" ml Hie efluuDmi bigin. wmJ ako mlniifeTy or ibe ■p«i ;w i ngai w 
•vf thr Mtaum, aor wiffnim . m thai v have thtrm! witfaimi ezfneap ei 
voar faBanl awaumt mtoun tbe Inwto ai' !Ww Naiivriaad 
tinm ihadMiy af aarpteea, ■ otoar MapBia «a am. faar 


vetenn, he had been rewarded by the states with the government 
of their West India territories in the islands and on tlie continent, 
for services done, and blood shed in the cause of his country ; on 
the other hand they looked for support from tlie dominant party at 
home, in any attempt upon the Dutch colony. The commis- 
sioners being determined on a quarrel, charged this honourable 
gendeman with the base design of stimulating (he Indians to a 
massacre of all the English, whether in their own colonies, or in 
the towns of Long Island under the Dutch jurisdiction. Such a 
design would have been as foolish as it was atrocious. If Stuy- 
vesant wished to be on friendly terms with the savages, who sur- 
rounded him, it was botii politic and praiseworthy ; and if, in 
case the English proved hostile, he should determine to defend 
himself by tlie aid of the Indians, it would be only what pru- 
dence and necessity demanded from the weaker party, and what 
men in more tfdigktcncd days have done. But, by an examina- 
tion of the documents which have come down to us, I Gnd that 
the Dutch governor used every effort to preserve peace with his 
powerful neighbours, whether red or white. 

Wc must bear in mind, during this examination, that Oliver 
Cromwell put an end to the Rump parliament, and assumed the 
administration of English affairs in April, 1653. It was his wish 
to be at peace with Holland, and to bring about an union of the two 
republics of England and the Netherlands ; but his policy dictated 
previously a threatening aspect towards the Dutch colonies in 
America, and die New England commissioners, or Congress of 
Deputies from the New England colonies, showed no reluctance 
to enter into a war with Petrus Stuy vesant, but, a peace being con- 
cluded between Cromwell and the States, the intention was for a 
time suspended. 

After the arrival of Governor Stuyvesantas the Director-general 
of New Netherland, Sir William Kieft remained and acted as one 
of his council — until, at least, the latter part of July, 1647 ; and 
we must suppose that the sagacious ruler made himself master of 
all the particulars in dispute with Indians, Swedes, and English. 

On the 17th of June, the commissioners being in session at 
Boston, address Governor Stuyvesant in consequence of certain 
duties or customs imposed by the Government of New Amster- 
dam upon the traders to ** Manhattoes," which arc complained of 
as too high. The commissioners likewise complain of a ** disor- 
derly trade" carried on by the Dutch, in selling to the Indians 
« guns, powder, and shou" The letter is temperate, and they 
conclude it thus: *' With our due respects to yourself and the 
late Governor, Monsieur Kieft, we rest your loving friends, the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies." 


On the 25th of June, Gorernor Stujrresant expressed hb de«ire 
CO meet the Governor of Massachuseits mod otbei? " to recoocik 
preseDt, and to prevent all future occasions of contestation.'^ Bui 
no such happy meeting appears to ha%'e taken place ; and the 
commissioners loudly complain<Ml tiiat in October, lt>47, rfiuTie- 
sani demanded from New Haven certain fusjtives, ^* as if/^ sav 
the New England congress, ** the place and jurisdiction" had been 
kis ; whereas ihey claim as belonging to the Kings of England 
'* all this part of America called New England, in breadth from 
40 to 48 degrees of northerly kxitude, which they assert is granted 
to the English, and the inhabitants of New Haven bad right to 
improve a small portion thereof/' 

Stuyvesant, on his part, about the same time, October 12th, 
1647, stated very honesdv to the comoussionerE the claim made 
by the Dutch to all lands, rivers, and streams, from cape Henlopen 
to cape Cod. 

Such conflicting claims were very difficult to be adjosied: 
however, I find that, on the loth of No%'ember following, the 
Direcior-^neral of New Netherland professed to the Governor 
of New Haven his ** readiness for a (ayre and neighbourly com- 
posure of differences.'* It appears that he wrote other leners to 
the Governors of New Haven and Plymouth, desiring a meetinf 
in Connecticut, *' not doubting that mutual satisfaction woidd be 
giren to each other in ever}- respecu" 

These prospect were all illusory i for Stuyvesant com- 
164S plained next year that the English forbade the Indians of 
Long Island to sell any land to the Dutch, *'*' notwitb- 
staading,*' as he says, "the said land" was possesssed by the 
Netberlanders lon^ before any English came there. He further 
•ays, that on Coimecticut river they ha%'e so enclosed and po«- 
sosed the land that the commissioner of the Dutch and his family 
cnanot lire. 

On the lOth of September, 164S, the New Enziand corami«- 
liooerB, chough still subsciibing themselves the Governor's loving 
friends, tell him peremptorily that the traders, whether mariners 
or merchants, of the Dutch, may expect no more liberty within 
the English plantations than the English find at the Manhattoes: 
and that if, " upon search,** there is found in any Dutch vessel, 
within the English jurisdiction, any quantity of powder, shot, Ace. 
*' fit for that mischievous trade with the Indians,'* such merchan- 
dise shall be seized. 

Shortly after this, the commissioners determine that, as the 
Dutch wiU not permit their trade with the Indians within the New 
Netherlands, and charge great ctisttxns upon the English vessels, 
and '* force them to anchor in rery inconvenient places,** they 
mil bar the Dmch fiora trading with tkdr (the New Engbnders*') 
fiiBS, and ^ recommend to the several general conns that an- 

THftBATSw 9& 

swcrable preparations may be made, that either upon his" (tho 
Dutch Governor's) *' refusal to answer, or his not giving meet 
satisfaction, the colonies may seasonably provide for their safely 
and convenience." 

About tliis time a Dutch trader found it convenient to put hioH 
self under the protection and jurisdiction of the English colonies } 
and was in consequence considefed by Governor Stuyvesaat as a 
rebel. He had resided at Plymouth, but became a plaster of 
New Haven, and to that harbour ordered a vessel and cargo, put* 
chased in Holland, value X2000* Stuy vesant, who asserted the 
Dutch claim to New Haven, sent and by foree sefzed this vessel 
and cargo. Westcrkawsej die Dutch deserter, demanded of the 
New England commissioners letters of mark and reprisal upon his 
countrymen, but they rather thought best to address to tlie Dutch 
government a letter, complaining ef the trade carried on with In- 
dians, in selling them powder and shot, in conjunction with the 
treatment of Mr. fVestcrhowte. They assert the English right 
to the New Haven lands and harbour, and to all the English pla»* 
tadons and their appurtenances, from Cape Cod or Point Judith, 
both on the '* mayne," and the islands, as anciently granted by 
the kings of England to their subjects, and '* sence" duly pur* 
chased firom the Indians* They assert the right and title of New 
Haven colony to certain lands within the Delaware, by the Dutch 
called the South lliver,. and that it is Stuyvesant's fault that these 
diffsrences are not adjusted as he did not meet them '* al fioston 
as was propounded and desired,"they therefore are constraWied to 
provide for their own safety, and forbid all trade with the Indians 
for guns, powder and shot, within the limits of any of the United 

Accordingly they by law prohibit all foreigners, especially 
French and Dutch, from trading with the Indians within the juris- 
diction of the United Colonies, as such trade is to tlieir prejudice, 
because it strengthens and animates *' the Indians against them.** 
Governor Stuyvesant went to Hartford in September 
1650 1650, and sent a letter to the commissioners met at that 
place, but the letter having been written in council at 
Manbattoes, was dated New Netherland ; tliis the commissioners 
conceived a bar to further negotiation, as cktiming that Hartford 
was a part of New Netherland, and they so informed the Dutch 
Governor* He explained and dated from Connecticut* This 
being satisitctory, they proceeded* 

Stuyvesant asserted that the English intrusion upon Connec-' 
ticut, or Fresh Aivcr, was an injury done to the Dutch; as the 
West India Company of Amsterdam had bought and paid for the 
lands in question to *' the right proprietors, the native Americans^ 
before any other nation either bought or pretended right there' 


unto." To this, Edirard Hopkins, President, answered that the 
English right u> Connecticut river and said plantations, ** hath 
been often asserted^'* and is sufficientljr known, as the commis- 
sioners conceive, to English, Dutcli and Indians '^ in these pans;*' 
and, they, the commissioners, have not heard any thing of weigia 
sufficient to alter their claim. 

Other complaints arc answered in much the same manner. 
Stuyvesant in reply, says be has proofs of the first Dutch piir> 
chase, and seems willing to waive claim to Haitford, but inssa 
on the Tishi of trade with the Indians. 

These letters to and fro resulted in appointing delegates, two 
on each part, who agreed upon and settled the boundaries of the 
two nations in their colonial possessions in America, by what b 
called the treatv of Hartford. 

Stuyvesant dates his letters from " the house the Hope, on 
Connecticut, commonly called Fresh River/' And Hopkins^ 
president of the congress of commissioners, dates from " Haniord 
on Connecticut.^' 

By the articles of agreement, dated die 19th day of September 
1650, the disputes respecting claims on South river, or Delaware 
bav and river, are left undetermined ; but the boundan- line i» 
fixed between the contending colonists on Long Island, ** from the 
westermost part of the Oyster bay, soe and in a strait and direct 
line to tlie sea ;'* and upon the main land, a Ime ** to be^nn upon 
the west side of Greenwich bav, beinf: about four mUes from 
Stanford, and so to run a northerly line twenty miles up into the 
countr}', and after as it shall be atrreed by the two srovernments of 
Uie Dutch and of New Haven, provided the said linecome not with- 
in ten miles of Hudson*s river." The Dutch were likewise to 
enjoy '* all the lands in Hanford that they were actually possessed 
of; known or set out bv seriavne marks and bounds.'** 

The next vear, accordini: to their own statement, cer- 
1651 tain inhabitants **of New Haven and Satockett*' being 
** straitened in their respective plantations, and finding this 
part of the country full"— wishin:: to '* enlarsre tlie bounds of the 
United Colonies" and also ** the limits whereby the gospel mizht 
hare been carried and spread amonirst the Indians in that most 
southerly pan of New Eni;land'' hired a vessel, and '^ at least 50'* 
of them sailed in the sprins: for the Delaware. On iheir way they 
touched at New Amsterdam, which place they say they ^* mi::ht 
have avoided." But it seems tliat they had some doubts respect- 
m<r the lesralitv or nronrierv of their vova^re. notwiihsiandinc their 
tender care for tlie souls of the Indians, fur they had proiided 
themselves with a letter from *' their honoured Govemour" to the 

See Haiaid, vol. 9d. p 318. In which woifc all the docwMou we to be knod 


** Doleh GoTeraoar/* which letter thej seat to Stuyrestnt bj tiro 
mesacagofs. He immediatelj clapt them under ^ard, tnd sent 
lor the mister of the ressel thit was conTeying them, to extend 
the iimiis of New England on soil under bis government. The 
skipper and two more of the emigrants appearing, were confined 
in a priTate house, as were others that went to commune with 
them. The governor required ** their commission/* which he 
kept : and dismissing the poor people who were straightened in 
Connecticut, for that the country- was too full in the vear 1651. he 
sent them back to New Haven with a promise that if he found any 
persons intruding upon South Rirtr^ he would seiie their goods 
and send the adventurers to Holland. All thb is stated in a pe- 
tition from the wottld-be emigrants to the commissioners, mingled 
vith the usual complaints that the Dutch sold powder and shot to 
the Indians, and pretended a right to a country ** known to belong 
to Englishmen.*' 

The commissioners declared that the EnglUh had tlieir right to 
the Delaware by patent : and the inhabitants of New Haven to 
certain tncts of land by purchase from the Indians. A letter was 
therefore wrinen to ^* the Dutch Uovernour,'* protesting against 
his injurious proceedings, and requiring satisfaction therefor. 
Thev wrote to the New Haven men. savinsr that thev will not 
eater into immediate hostilitv with the Dutch, as tliev " would nc€ 
asm too quick.*^ But if they should see fit again to attempt the 
settlement on Delaware, **and for that end« should, at their own 
charge, transport together, loO, or at least 100. able men. with a 
meet ves&sel and ammunition,** bv ** authoritv of the Mairistratcs of 
New Haven :** then if the Dutch or Swedes oppose them, the 
commissioners will supply them with such number of soldiers as 
tiiey, the said commissioners. '• shall judge meet." 

Having thus cncouraired another invasion of South River, and 
that with arms, ammunition and soldiers, tiie commissioners wrote 
again to Stuyvesant, and acknowledged thit he had ** given notice 
to those of New Haven,*' that he would not permit settlements to 
W iinde on SowiA Rirtr ; but at the same time they protest against 
the Dutch claim, and complain of the govemor*s unneighbourly 

It mnst be remembered, that ihe?e encouragements given by 
the congress of commissioners to the people of New-Haven, to 
proceed to actual hostilities against the Dutch, and the pronuse 
of support by a bodv of troops, were made at a time when 
1652 the Ensrlish'parliamcni were triumpiiant over the Dutch 
republic ; and these hostile movement? were followed up 
by the change of a conspiracy entered into by Governor Stuy ve- 
to combine with the Indians in a plan for the deslnictioil 
of all the English colonists. 
I. 13 


Early id the jetr 1663, ibat 15, in March, wbeo ibcr 

1653 meet io congress at BcMtoo, and before the downfall of 

the rump parliament, the commissioners gravelj took into 

their consideration the rumor of the Dutch *^ engaging seTcril 

Indians to cut off the English." 

There can be no doubt but the Dutch West India Company bad 
directed Stuyvesant to engage the Indians for the defence of the 
colony if attacked by the English ; but it is equally certain that 
the prudent veteran exerted himself strenuously to preserre peace 
with his powerful neighbours* 

On the 19th of May, 1653, while yet the power of Engiaod 
was threatening destruction to the Hollanders, the coromiasionen 
of the united English colonies a^rain met at Boston. Ther aeai 
messengers, furnished with a number of queries to Nimnigrtet, a 
sachem of the Nanagansetts, to demand from biro whether the 
Dutch governor had engas:ed him, or any other of the Namgao- 
sett Indians, to join with him in fighting the Englisbf or had en- 
deavoured to form such a leairue or conspiracy, or had gives 
guns, powder, and lead to the Indians for that purpose f The 
commiiisioners further require of the sachem to come to Boston to 
ansiccr them. The same queries are put to other sachems. Ther 
all deny any such agreenrjent or proposition for engaging them ia 
war with the Ensrlti^h. These sachems do not choose to leave 
home 10 be examined bv the commissioners, but tbev send ibnr 
men. whom we inay suppose are of their council. In answer 10 
the question wiiy Sinni^rcrt went to Manliattoes the la^t winter, 
thei^e men answer, ^* to be cured of disease.'' He having heard 
of a French physicim who could heai him : that he ^ve wampum 
to the doctor, and some to the srovernor, who in return gave him 
cloiiiin::, ** but not one gun/' Bat Ninnigreet bought two guns 
of the Indians at Manhattoes. 

This'testimony does not appear to be ver}' conclusive ; but then 
an Indian of '*Roa(i bland" gives information that another Indian 
heard an Enfrlishman sa%' that the Dutchmen '* would cut off the 
English on Lonir Island,'' and that he heard Ninnicjeet say tint 
he heani that «hips had come from Holland to cut off the English. 
And Captain Simkins r-ays that the Rhode Island man said that 
the Dutch bad offered him one hui?f!red pounds a year to sei ve 
them. There is other testimony of equal importance. A squaw 
had sent word to the people of Weathersfield ^' to take care of 
themselveit, for the Dutch and Indians had confederated to cut 
them off/' 

L pon this the commissioners drew up a declaration which may 

be seen in full in Hazard's slate papers, detailing former griev- 

^'^^^^ff and accusing Stuyvesant of this conspiracy to deslror 
*em all. 


Tbey complain that the people of New Haven, having built a 
village, called Stanford, Kieft, in 1642, did challenge the place 
and set up die prince of Orange's arms there, which the English 
tore down. Then they complain of Kiefl's protest respecting 
Delaware bay, and of a variety of the acts and intentions of the 
late governor. 

They then speak of the disputes concerning Fresh, or Connec- 
ticut river, and in the decentk article they arrive at the atrocities 
of 8tuyvesant. He had in 1647, still claimed and excercised his 
authority within the English limits, and above all, had furnished 
the Indians with guns, powder, and lead. They affirm the right 
to settle on the Delaware, and complain of Stuyvesant's prohibi- 
tions in 1651. Then comes the charge of treachery atul cruelty f 
and they are presented in colours of blood against the Dutch gov- 
ernor. " By many concurrent and strong testimonies," the Dutch 
are charged with warring upon the English in Europe; and Stuy- 
vesant is accused, upon this undoubted testimony, with having 
engaged the Indians to massacre the English on Long island and 
New England. Nay, he was going to poison and bewitch them. 
Certain Indians said that Ninnigrcet had employed an '* artist" to 
exercise his art upon the English, and (as is implied,) render them 

E>werle8s by drugs and witchery : but Uncas^ the friend of the 
Dglish, discovered the conjurer, and having seized, slew him. 
Another proof of Stuyvesant's guilt is, that '* the Indians praise 
the Dutch and contemn the English :" and that Ninnigreet hath 
broaght '' wild fier from the Dutch," and had ordered his people 
to procure ammunidon and promised them plenty of rum ; further, 
that all the Indians grow insolent to the English — ;that the Dutch 
have threatened the English with '' East India breakfast" — and 
then the Amboyna affair is lugged in. The commissioners go on 
to say, that an Indian Sagamore on Long Island says so and so ; 
and 90 avid so an Indian squaw in Connecticut ; that the Indians of 
Long Island charge the plot upon the Dutch fiscal, and Captain 
UmderhiU told the fiscal of it, and was therefor ^^ fetched from 
Flashing by the fiscal with a guard of soldiers, and confined to 
the Manhattoes, till the relation he made at Hempstead was af- 
firmed to his face ; then without tryal or hearing, he was dismisied 
and all his charges bome.^^ Other Indian testimonies, and parti- 
cularly that of nine sagamores living near Manhattoes, who had 
aflbrmed that the Dutch had promised them guns, ammunition, and 
clocbing, if they would cut off the English. The Jec/aro/um con- 
cludes in terms disclaiming trust in the sincerity of the Dutch 
governor's professions, and still more those of his fiscal ; and 
the belief of the commissioners that Stujrvesant would only make 
a treaty with ihem until he has an opportunity to do them mis- 
chief, ** as the state of aflSurs either in Europe, betwixt the com- 


mon wealth of England and the Netherlands, or Acer, bctwiis Ae 
Colooies and the Dutch," may guide him. 

This dtclaradcm^ however, *' exercisetP^ some of the commis- 
aionersy and the Massachusetts delegates advised that the Dutch 
governor may have an opportunity given him to answer for hint- 
self *' before^ what was considered by them as, a Dedaraiifom 
of Warr 

Governor Stuyvesant wrote to the governors of Massacboaelts 
and New Haven in April, denying " the plot charged,*' and •ffier- 
ing '* to come or send to clear himself," and desiring '* some may 
be deputed tbidier to consider and examine what may be charged, 
and his answers." Accordingly Mr. Francis Newman, a magis- 
trate of New Haven, and Lu Davis, of Boston, were sent, with a 
commission and instructions, in form of a writing addressed ^to 
the right worshipful Peter Stuyvesant, Governor and General of 
the Dutch Province ; and to Monsieur Montaigne, and to Captain 
Newton, two of the Counsell for N. Netherland." 

In this writing, the commissioners state that the United £n* 
glish Colonies have often required reparation for former hostik 
afironts, but in vain. However, *' the evidence" of the hte 
treacherous conspiracy '' against them, their wives, and chil- 
dren, at a time when the governor was proposing a treaty fii 
peace, puts upon them ^''oiker remedies.^^ They then, alter enumer- 
ating grievances, go on to mention their deputies, who are to re- 
ceive and return the governor's answer^ They reproach him 
wiili making use of ^' heathen testimony," on another occasion, 
and say the Aco/Aeii testimony they act upon, is as good as tkm he 
had used. They do not forget Amboyna. They refer him to 
their deputies, and say they " shall expect speedy and just satis- 
faction" for all injuries past, and security for the future. They 
threaten measures for their safety, and will act according to the 
report of three deputies. 

To Newman, Levereit, and Davis they gave instructions to re- 
port all tliese grievances ; and instruct them that, if Stuyvesant 
refuses to go injterson to Sunford,or send '* indifierent" persons 
*' to receive evidence" thercj or in some other convenient place, 
*' you are to demand of him satisfaction and security :" which, if 
refused, the deputies are to report. 

Further instructions are given to the deputies at great length, 
respecting witnesses to be ready to convict the Dutch, and the 
testimony of the Indians with tiieir marks affixed. And two letters 
from Captain Underbill, *' which," they add, *' you conceal from 
all such as will take advantage against him." The commissioners 
from Plymouth signed the letter to the Dutch governor, but enter 
a protest against some of the grievances therein enumerated. 
The deputies being sent forth, the commissiooers determined 


the Dumber of soldiers to be leviedi fis; Massachusetts 833^ 
Plymouth 60, Connecticut 66, New Haven 42. And appointed 
officers to command. One of the deputies (Leverett) is recom- 
mended, '* as he will have opportunity," to spy out the Dutch 
force. Arms apportioned and all preparations for war made. 
When arrived at New Amsterdam, the three deputies address the 
governor and council from " the place of our residence, the Basses 
house in Manhattoes this 13th of May, 1653." They say, having 
desired the governor to pitch upon a place within the colonies of 
New England* and speedy time for '* producing evidence" to 
clear himself and his fiscal from the charges made ; which, he 
having declined, they ask that the place shall be Flushing or 
Hempstead, provided they may have security under his hand 
for liberty to call *' such to testify in the case, as we shall see 
meet. And the English Indians who* shall testify, shall remain 


The governor consents to these demands, provided the 
testimony is taken in presence of three commissioners of New 
Netherland, men understanding Dutch, English, and the Indian 
languages. And provided the witnesses be cfoss*questioned 
in the presence of these Dutch commissioners, according to 
the law of New Netherland. This is signed by Stuyvesant, 
Bryant Newton, Rouvigeer, Van Ransaellaer, (John Baptist,) 
Van Carloe, Beeckman, Wolferslen, Alard .Anthony, Rulker 
Jacob, and Peter Stuyvesant. Dated 23d May, 1653. 

The New England deputies object to an examination before, 
or in presence of the commissioners appointed by Stuyvesant. 
They appear to think they were to try him and bis Fiscal, they 
sitting as judges. They object to the cross-examination of wit- 
nesses according to the law of New Netherland ; and next day. 
May 24th, they. write to Stuyvesant demanding ''full satisfaction" 
for all former and present injuries, and '' security for the time to 
come," and that he cause to be delivered to them '* the body of 
Thomas Newton, a capital offender, in one of the colonies of New 
England," and ktstly^ they demand a speedy answer. 

To this, Carrill Vanbrige, secretary, the same day, answers 
that the governor and council, before replying, require a true copy 
of the commission of the deputies, and their instructions ; that 
the Dutch government may know, as the secretary says, ''whether 
or noe your honours have anything more to propound." The 
deputies send a copy of their commission, but refuse theiir instruc- 
tions. The governor, the same day, (24th May) answers, that be 
and his council hoped that the assurance they had given of inno- 
cence from any such treacherous design as was imputed to them, 
would have been satis&ctory to the commissioners and " all chris- 
Uat^ feopk.*^ That they still desire to give full evidence of their 


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•': v'.s:'^. '.'>.»• :'t Taiers. and 

r' ■.;i*> ••■^•>f-. ■ .i±'-T!e;: :o iheir 

3.-:-*f T.p.: •• •*'■ *''*='^ '. «"-. " r :.- F.:j ->;: 'u-ni^^r said be- 

^.,,. 1* ^n.: -I? :ir.r-.r)an}onF ".-.;..: -.,-.- ..i^ce-^nir.c ire Indian 
,...^ ■• ^ut tnev xere m:?tanen. rrr r.e ti:..: iisdersrand ai 
-■f«; Dyj-ctimm." 

if the KnjiLsh on Lon;: Island ha«: thi* notion of a 

y ia certain. Captain John L'nderhill resided 

great consternation was expressed by several 


communities. The deputies from New England took depositions 
IS to their fears. The people of Herop-^tead sent by Richard 
Alexander Knowles, and those of Middlebrou^xh by Robert Coo 
and Richard Jessop. to know from the commissioners of tlie Uni- 
ted Colonies, if England demanded their subjection, how ibey 
could act by Dutch laws: and what tliey weie to do *' having so 
man V enemies*' aroimd them ? Thev ask the favour of twenty or ten 
mea and a conMnander to fniiJi them^ and ask if the commissioners 
can afibrd them *^ powder and shott f They profess their de* 
sire •' to cleave to New England/' and desire '* corne" and pro- 
TisioD« thev eivin? ** securitv that it shall be for tlie En&:lish only." 

Underbill wrote to the commissioners offering urrice to them 
and the parliament, (^^^Y *3d.) *' 1 am like Jephthah, forced to 
br mv life in mv hands to save English blood from destruction ;*' 
be prays God to move their hearts to riuJictiie ^^ the common 
cause of England against the Dutch.*' He says he has reqtiested 
assistance from **Ro3d Island**' and he ** shall be tender in shed- 
ding blood/* but requests them to ^* make haste." 

In the mean time the general court of Massachusetts appointed 
a committee to consult with the commissioners respecting: the dif- 
ference with the Dutch : to which the commissioners agree fAovgrA 
tkey think ii unnecesstiry/. A consultation is held, and notwith- 
standing Mr. Eaton states the ** multiplied injuries and treacherous 
febehoods of the Dutch in these paits/* and their ** bloody plot/* 
with the " tHsolt-ncies^ treacheries^ an«l bitter enmitt/^ of the Dutch 
ia Europe : and the fears of the English who liave placed them- 
selres within the Dutch jurisdiction in New Netherland ; partic- 
ibrly C^jptain I'ltJerhiirs danger from his national love and his 
application to Rhode Island. And likewise, notwithstanding the 
itateraent to tlie same effect made by General Dennison, the Sla^^ 
uuhusetts men sav. that thev *' do not understand" that the United 
Colonies ** are called to make a present war with the Dutch.'* 
Happily Massachusetts was of too much importance to be di9- 

The English colonists in the immediate vicinity of ?^ew Nether- 
had were most adverse to the Dutch. The trearr of Hartford 
hul run a line of division trom the west of i^vsterbav to the sea. 
oo Long Island, and at Greenwich on the main, north from the 
aKHilh of Bvnim River, to within ten miles of the Hudson. These 
borderers, and the English who had settled in the towns on hons 
Iibnd under the Dutch jurisdiction, were averse to the laws of 
Holiandt and were inflamed by the prevalence of little-understood 
republican principle in the commonwealth of Ensfland. Massa- 
chusetts was not so irritable or rash. In the mean time, Siuy- 
t sent Mr. Augustus Heerman to Boston, with a letter to the 
in which he complains gently of the baste of the 


deputies* " who would not aneud one half daj" to tike Ui n^ 
8wer, and then be proceeds in detail to consider all the cfaai^pf 
made against faim by ibe deputies. Manv of them he consxlen 
as put at rest bv the treaty of Hartford. The charge of a bloody 
plot, he terms ahsvrd ; be points out the impropriety of memkiD- 
io^ the affair of Amfxjinux ; says if the deputies had taken proper 
measures, tliev mi^ht hare been convinced of the innocence of the 
Dutch government in respect to conspiring with the Indians. He 
sends an abstract of the New Endand intrusions from 1633, in 
temperate language, and apologises, saying he thought all this 
settled at Hartford, and irould have conrmaunicated with the depu- 
ties, but for their hasty departure *' after supper, about 9 o'clock 
in the evening:, without waiting for his letter to their principals.*' 

The commissioners of the United Colonies are called together 
at Boston, on the 3d June, 1653, and acknowledge the receiptof 
the above. Thev sav Stuvvesant agreed that Greenwich should 
come in New Haren jurisdiction : and his denial of the '* barba- 
rous plot" will weizh little agamst the eridenccfj and they muststifl 
" seek due satisfaction.*^ 

A question is *' propounded"' to the general coun of Massachu- 
setts, wlieiiier tr:e commisii oners have power to ensrane the United 
Colonie.' in a war r And the general court determine in the neg- 
ative. Tiic oiijer three colonies make objections ; but Massacbu- 
sett-? persi-'i* in refuFin^r ?uch j>ower to the commiirrioners, and 
the fi:?r[i;j:e i* carried on umo r^f-piernber of lG-53. On the 12 A 
September, 10-j-^. the commU^ioner:? *end messengers to -V|jj»ii- 
STcet, to inquire into information received, that Le and his Nana- 
zansettf had invaded the Lonz Island Indian?, killed a sachem 
2nd several other*, carrying away ^ome a* captives. They re- 
quire i'' •fAa<«i. Mtjcum, and SirtT.i^rccr. or two of ihcra. to repair 
to Ho-ti'«n to an*-.ver the charge. 

Arioui thi^ time tne Khode l.-iand men seized a vessel belonrinc 
to Piy mouth at fiysterbay : apparently on pretence of her canyiar 
provi-jr.n to the Dutch. Further, under commis?ioi: from Rhode 
Island, one Baxter make? prize of a Dutch ves^l. and the Neih- 
erlanders 6t out two vessels, which blockade Baxter in Fair- 
field harbour. In consequence, the commissioners direct hostile 
measures against these vessels from the Manhattoes, in consideia- 
lion of the continued open war between thf commonwealth of 
EoKiand and the Netheriands. 

The messenzer? «em to the Narragansett^. requ'uinr the sa- 
^iwnii to come to Boston, and forthwith to set \ree iije captiie lo- 
dinMoTLong Island, are received witi. tnreai*. *' Thomas Staun- 
toOff with his rapier in the scabbard, struck at the WollVtaiJ on 
tbe Imd of a Pequot Indian/* and a Nanagansen threatened the 
by " cocking his gun ;'* while another Indian '' drew 


his bow with an arrow in it/' But the messengers persevere and 
deliver the commands of the commissioners to Ninnigreetj who 
had replied to a former message, ''What have the English to do 
to demand my prisoners f" So now he said, " Why do the En- 
glish slight me, and respect the Long Islanders and the Mohi- 
cans f w hy do they inquire the ground of my tear on the Long 
Islanders f have they not heard that the Long Islanders mur- 
thered one of ray men?" And he refused to come to ^Uhe 
bayy Mixam excused himself from the journey. 

It appears from the English account of this feud, that the Long 
Island Sachems sent a Narragansett as prisoner to Hartford, charg- 
ing him with attempting to shoot "the Sagamore of Shinnicock" 
Whereupon he was tried, and put to death at Hartford by the. 
Long Island Iridians, who burnt his body. For this, Ninnigreet 
had crossed to the Island and attacked them, as above $ and in 
revenge, burnt one of his captives. The commissioners ** con- 
ceive themselves called by God to make present itar against Nin- 
nigreet the Niantucke Sachem }*' and the United Colonies levy 
250 men for the purpose. Here again Massachusetts interfered, 
and declared that they did not see any "obligation of the English 
towards the Long Islanders," or any reason for making war upon 

But September 24th, upon a petition from New Haven, the 
commissioners conclude that they have just cause of war against 
the Dutch ; and declare that Massachusetts has broken the league. 
They further press the war against Ninnigreet. However, the 
war against the Manhattoes is deferred, notwithstanding "sharp" 
and tedious "disputes" among the colonies ; and the wisdom of 
Massachusetts prevails. 

The Commonwealths of England and Holland had 
1654 been engaged in a naval war from 1652, in which some- 
times Tromp and De Ruyter^ and sometitnes Blake and 
Monk, were victorious ; but uniformly, humanity and the contend- 
ing nations suffered. " The two republics," says Hume, " were 
not inflamed by any national antipathy, and their interests very 
little interfered,*' yet more furious or bldody combats have sel- 
dom been recorded than those of the 29th of November, when 
Tromp defeated Blake, although inferiour in force ; or of the 
Idth of February, 1653, when Blake, Dean and Monk van- 
quished Tromp and De Ruyter ; 2.000 men on each part were 
slain, besides, of course, a much greater number maimed or 
groaning under grievous wounds. "Never on any occasion," 
says the historian, " did the power and vigour of the Dutch re- 
public appear in a more conspicuous light." But their commerce 
Was cut up, their fisheries suspended, and all the evils suffered of 

VOL.1. 14 ,^^ 


a fierce cootentiou wiih a neighbouring enemy niore povrerial tluu 

Cromwell was declared protector while this war between Hoi- 
land and England raged ; and although he entertained the notion 
of forming a coalition with the States, still the war continued, aod 
also negotiations for a peace were carried on. The protector de- 
signed, before a treaty was concluded, to wrest New Amsterdam 
and all the territories the Dutch held in America from the Stales. 
He accordingly made requisitions on New England for aid io 
1654. I find in Hazard's state papers, a leuer from Thomis 
Welles, a magistrate of Connecticut, (and afterwards govemoiir,) 
dated HarUbrd, June 10th, 1654, to Major Robert Sedgeworth 
and Captain John Leverett, saying, the colony agreed to furaieh 
aid, and wishing to know the number of men wanted. He sajs, 
'* it is thought by some who know the strength of the Dutch, that 
this service will require at least 500 land-soldiers. Captain Uo- 
derhill and John Young, who are gone towards the bay, can best 
inform you of the state of tilings at the Manbattoes.^' 

But Cromwell concluded a treaty of peace with the Dutch, al- 
though Holland had refused his ofifer of an union even more inti- 
mate ; for he wished the two lepublics to become one. This 
tfcaty of course put an end to the projected conquest of New 
Netherland, and Petrus Stuyvesant was for the present unmo- 
lested, although Captain John Underbill appears to ha%'e been 
anxious to put on his helmet, corslet, bufi* jerkin, bandelier and 
sword, whenever fighting was the fashion. 

Although the New Netherlands had been, long before Euro- 
pean discover}', more populous than many parts of America, 
the wild animals in 1648 were yet in abundance, and afforded 
food for the inhabitants, and skins for trade with the Dutch, 
as well as objects for their observation and curiosity. Their 
own country, rescued from the sea, was destitute of the bear, 
the panther, wolf, fox, racoon, beaver and deer. Here 
they saw the last mentioned beautiful animal in great numbers, 
though hunted by the Indians incessantly, and in the winter de- 
stroyed by the wolves, scarcely less numerous than the timid 
creatures they pursued. The wolves hunted in troops, and with 
the sairacity of other chcitseurs, encircled a given space, and by 
closing in, made prey of the deer within the cround they had en- 
compassed, unless a lake or river gave him a chance of escape. 
If in the pursuit, the flying animal arrived at a piece of water or 
a stream not fordable, the wolf was obliged to stop and see his 
intended prey escape. The Indian, in his canoe* chased the deer 
over river or lake, and if the poor creature is about to gain the 
shore and baffle the pursuer, he shouts and yells as in the day of 
battle, and the'echo from the woods, bewilders the animal to his 


destruction ; he turns from the shore which would have been au 
asylum, and the hunter pierces him with arrows. 

At the commencement of the 6th chapter, we have seen the 
progress made by the Swedes upon the Delaware. To this in- 
trusion Kiefi could only oppose his protest : but Governour Stuy- 
vesant had more power. In 1651 the Dutch built Fort Cassimer, 
on the site of the present town of Newcastle, within a short dis- 
tance of the Swedish Fort at the mouth of Brandywine river ; 
but the Swedes attacked and overpowered the garrison, and Sluy- 
vesant was ordered by the West India Company to reduce the 
Swedes in the South river under the Dutch jurisdiction. 

leaving made his preparations, the gallant soldier sailed 
1655 from New Amsterdam with an armament, and at tiie head 
of 600 men, reduced all the Swedish fortresses, the in- 
habitants generally remaining as subjects of the Netherlands, the 
most honourable terms having been granted to Governour Ri- 

On the 9th of September, Stuyvesant's armament appeared be- 
fore Fort Cassimer, where he landed his troops, and summoned 
the garrison, which surrendered on the 16ih. The Governour of 
New Netherland immediately proceeded to Fort Christina, which 
Risingh surrendered on the 25th, and was conveyed to Europe ; 
and such of the inhabitants of the Swedish Colony as did not 
choose to swear fidelity to the States General, removed to Mary- 
land and Delaware. Lieutenant Governours ruled this country 
for the Dutch, the first, Johan Paul Jaquet, who was succeeded 
by Alrucks Hinnojossa and William Beekman, who in 165S pur- 
chased Cape Henlopen from the natives, and fortified it. 

Governour Stuyvesant had a delicate game to play with Lord 
Baltimore's Commission, and with Sir William Berkely, Gover- 
nour of Virginia. Beekman was ordered to surrender to Lord 
Baltimore's grant, but he required dme to consult his principal, 
and evaded the demand. In 1660, Governor Stuyvesant 

1660 endeavoured to enter into a treaty with Virginia, and to 
procure an acknowledgment of the Dutch boundaries. 

Berkely treated the advances civilly, but avoided the question of 
boundaries, and sent Sir Henry Moody to New Amsterdam to 
further the commercial intercourse. 

Governour Stuyvesant wrote to the Dutch West India 

1661 Company in 1661, that he had not yet begun the fort at 
Oyster bay, because the English of New England lay the 

boundary line agreed upon at Hartford in 1650, one mile and a 
half more to the westward than he thinks just ; and because the 
West India Company seem not content with tliat treaty. He 
mentions a report that Lord Stirling was soliciting the King of 
England to confirm the grant made to bis father, of the whole of 

108 ES0PU8. 

Loog Island. Further, that the grant made by England to Lord 
Baltimore, of the land on South river, (Delaware) bad been con- 
firmed to him, and that England intends an invasion of New 

Esopus was one of die earliest settlements made by agricultiu- 
ists in the New Netherlands. The plantations were laid waste 
by die Indians. Some of the inhabitants were killed, and odien 
led away captive. The Iroquois, particularly tlie nearest Mo- 
hawks, came to the aid of the Dutch, declaring themselves 

Stuyvesant was pressed on all sides, and his employers at home 
afforded him no help. Although the people of the city of Nev 
Amsterdam had in part a popular government, popular freedom 
did not exist in the province. The people were poor and spirit- 
less. The New England notions of popular rights had spread 
as the English increased on Long Island and in the city. The 
Director-general obeyed the commands of his superiors in Hd- 
land, and ruled with the best intent ; but it was apparent tliat his 
will was law, and men had begun to tliink that they ought to have 
a share in governing themselves. Stuyvesant was willing as far 
as his instructions would admit, and a Convention was csdied bj 
him about this time, and another in 1664; but before this, ru- 
mours of an invasion from England and a change of govemmenl 

• See H3zard. 

* In the Library of the New York Historical Societr, among Uie Miller papcn. I 
6nd a newspaper in Dutch, dated September 17th, 1661. Judge Ezben Ben»on 
tnnalites one paragraph thus: '*Oo Monday last, arrired in the Tezel thm whip 
**yuarini," from New Netherlands laden with Tobacco and some Pelir;. The sh.p 
Frou and the ship Klock lav ready to sail, and may be daily expected, faaTing beeu 
seen, as is supposed, near Fairhill. In the Froti came passengera Mr. Winibrop. 
Go? emour of Connecticut, and the Rer. Mr. Stone, as agents to bn Majesty of En- 
gland. The trade m Tobacco has been tolerable ; but that in Peltry indifferent. In 
•Terr other res|)eci. matter* are in good condition. In the Soput the cultivation of 
the land proceeds briskly, as it docs aUo on the Sooth River. In the beginning ol 
the summer there was a great storm m New England, in which a number of sAips 
were lost." 

This newspaper is called ** Ilaerlemse Saterdacghse Courant.** The Rer. Doctor 
Miller writes, jodge Benson ** told me that from all be could gather, that there srcrt 
many colonista who settled before m New Amsterdam and Fort Aurania. (AlbaiiT) 
yet the first husbandmen who came over on their own account, and at their own n«k, 
were some who went snd settled st Etvptf The other colonists at New York and 
Albany were either soldiers, or some who came out with Reoseller, or subordinate 
to some other great man." ** Judge Benson is ttereuadcd that no plan of peroMneut 
ttlonization was distinctly ondertaken in New Netherland until about 1630 and 1633. 
when Mr. Van Renseller, the original patroon, came orer with Van CortJandt, (tbe 
latter had boen bred a carpenur.) and brought a number of low people, lodcntod 
•onranls and others, for the purpo»e of planting colonies, as *he Dutch called them. 
Tbe firet set of free, independent /amicrf (the Jodge thinks,) were those who came 
OT« afker Vaa ReBeeller aomo yeara, and teftlod at E avp m t , Tbero they wciv 
Urg«ly in the way of ntainf tobacco.** 

Aa early m 1616, aottlera fixed theniMlTea in Eaopot, and a raiiiistcr wasMU^ 
liihed m my m 1661 Sw ThMMa F. Ootdoa. 



had mcfaad the people, for they mw the oeceasicy of die pro- 
vijace sttbaiittiDg, tod most of them wished it. Some lor the sake 
oC chaDs:e, and many hoping to enjoy the free government of New 

The GoTernour, erer faithful to the West India Company and 
to the States General, represented the truth to them — he told 
them that the English on Long Island were disaffected to them ; 
thii Connecticut had purchased as far as Hudson^s River of the 
Indiaos— that the Dutch were not well affected to the present 
OKKle of government, and that his weakness u-as too apparent.* 

In this year the Indians near Esopus, who had for some 
1663 time evinced discontent with their Dutch neighbours, seem 
to have united in a plan for exterminating the whites, 
la the men til of June, while they amused tlie people with a ne- 
godation for better neighbourhood, they seized the opportunity, 
while tlie men of the village were at their agricultural employ- 
Bwnt abroad, to enter, as ^us said, under pretence of trade, and 
in a ver%' short ume killed or carried off captive sixty-fire per- 
lOiB. The Neiherlanders, who from anterior hostilities had been 
Uuced to erect a fort, rallied and seized their arms : but the 
■uives, as if intending further aggression, likewise erected a pal- 
iiaded fortification, and were probably increasing in force, when 
Martin Crygicr arriving from New Amsterdam with troops sent 
bv Governour Stuvvesant, the red men fled to tlie mountains. 

Dunne part of this summer the Dirertor-greneral repaired to 
Esopus, and by sending out parties, not only kept the superior 
Bsmbers of the enemy in check, but made inroads among tlie hill 
biiBesses, destrayed the Indian villages and forts, laid waste and 
honit their fields and magazines of maize, killed many of their 
warriors, released the Dutch captives to the number of twenty - 
tvoy and captured eleven of the enemy. These vigorous operar 
lioBs were followed by a truce in December, and a treaty of peace 
the May following. 

Daring this pressure upon the people of Esopus, such was the 
dncooient of the inhabitants of Long Island, that they refused to 
embodr the militia for defence of the colonv on tlie Hudson, or 
tten to send troops to New Amsterdam. 

The powers with which the West India Company and the 
'^'^Bs General bad invested their Director-general, had by this 
r caused great discontent among the people of the province, 
particulajiiy upon Long Island. He had a sovereign voice 
in the appointment of officers and framing laws. Churches and 
ikeir ministers were at his disposal. Indian tides were extinguished 


no Qi 

only by his permission. Grams for landa, and taxes ibr ibe sup- 
port of ^oremment, depended on him. He was only responsiUr 
to superiors beyond sea. 

The Ensiish settlers under ihe Duich jurisdiclion unviliinclr 
submined. They applied for a share in The srovernraeni. Tiier 
claimed the prlvjlere a? of riiiiii. They embodied their crieTince* 
in memorials to fiovernour .Stuyresant. and to the Slates Genefd. 
The goi'ernour denounced the meetings on Loni' Island as iileeiL 
He proiiibited similar meetini'^s. He obeyed his inslruciions- and 
mi^ht trulv sav that the senlements had been made kno^inzlTii 
to the nature of iIjc Dutch Erovernmeni. But lije desire lor selJ- 
frovemmem could not be saiisDf d by appeals lo ciirumstdntei 
under which the seltJemenLs were formed. The EniiJisi: apd Nc» 
England notions prevailed. Discontent increased. The ]m 
were contemned, as not emanatinsr from irje people. The Ea- 
glish towns of Locs: Island ^-ent deputies to a convention in No- 
vember. 160-3, and appeared so formidable that the goiemourdid 
not venture to disperse them. 

Keiisious complaints were added to civil. The Direciow- 
ecneral were required by tijeir superior* to mciiniain "the Rt* 
formed reiision, in conformity to tiie word and the decrees of 
the Synod of Dortrecht. and not to tolerate in publick any otbef 
sect." Here was no room for the admiitance ol' anv discovered 
truth : and the irovernour had bound i.imseif. as L^uai. to eiiclude 
any lijht not discovered by hi? e-^iployers. Laws to impon 
were promnlzated. and tjnes decreed Tor prearr.inj or ^iienainc 
on anv doctrines but those of trje Svnod. Lutheran* were im- 
prisoned, and a cleri^'man of that church banished. The Dutch 
West Imiia Company thoujht they had ?une too far. and n 
ciously permitted ihcm to pray afi«rr tiieir ow n n.anner. ir, :hiir o 
hr»uitrs. But thf Quakers. <who uere verv far. ai that time, irom 
beinz the quiet. fcTOO-J citizens they now are. i \^ho thought they 
had sot all tiic lii'Iii in their •»\\n haniis. ar.d were determined lo 
introduce it everv- where, in despite of synods, priests, or zover- 
Dours. caused Stuwesant no little trocbie. as tiiev iiaii done the 
keepers of men's conscienres elsewhere, and elicited acu from 
the Dutch Director. :»- weli as from :lie n:iers of New and tHd 
Enffiand. which can hardlv \>e believed in the vesr 1^3i♦. Rich- 
■rd Smith was imprisoned (16-56) in Massachusetts, but iet out of 
prison **to return to his family at Southampton." in tne hope that 
the luasistniies will be careful to keep out Sathan and his instro- 
Dient^- In 16-57 the Commisssoners of New E norland ordered that 
aJi quakeDK, ranters anii such iiereticks. be remoied I'rom the dis- 
trict-- "^ey inltst. In 1C-3S liio ?ame rec« a 
/tir l>3* which the accursed and pernicious sect of Quakers be baa- 
Uhe^ upon pain ofdeath if tbev return. In 1660, Plvmouth enacied 

QUAKKBS. 1 1 1 

laws against bringing Quakers into the colony, and those who shall 
entertain them. Massachusetts had done the same, under penalty 
of fine and imprisonment to the introducer or entertainer, and the 
punishment for the first ^'ofiTence, inflicted upon every male 
Quaker, of having one of his ears cut ofif^ and being kept att 
work in the house of correction till he can be sent away at his 
own charge ;" and for the second ofiTence the other ear is to be 
cutSfiT, and the correction again applied. '* Every woman Qua- 
ker" is doomed to be whipt, and- the same mode of mending 
used. And for the third offence, both males and females are to 
have ** their tongues bored through with a hot Iron," and to be 
confined *' close at worke" till sent away at their own charge. 
At Plymouth, Humphrey Norton and John Rouse, Quakers, 
were whipt and imprisoned because they refused to pay for it. 
In Massachusetts, persons siding with the Quakers, and absent- 
ing themselves from '* the publick ordinances," having been fined, 
asserting that they have no estates, and resolving not to work, the 
Court impowers the treasurers of counties, '* to sell th^e said 
persons to any of the English nation at Virginia and Barbddoes." 
And in October^ 1659, the question being put in Court, '* whether 
Wm. Robinson, Marmaduke Stevenson, and Mary Dyer, the 
persons now in prison, who have been convicted for Quakers, 
and banished this jurisdiction on pain of Death, should be put to 
Death according as the law provides in that case ? The Court 
resolved this question irf the affirmative." Accordingly the gov- 
ernour pronounced sentence upon the prisoners, they being before 
him in '' open Court," and an order and warrants were issued for 
tlieir execution^ On the petition of Wm. Dyer, the son of Mary, 
he or some other person is permitted within forty-eight hours to 
convey her out of the jurisdiction ; but in the mean time, " she shall 
be carried to the place of execution, and there to stand upon the 
gallows with a rope about her neck till the rest be executed ; and 
then to return to the prison and remain as aforesaid."* 

During this period, when the New England Colonies banished, 
whipt, cut off the e^rs, bored the tongues, sold for slaves, and 
put to death, the Quakers, tliey had multiplied on Long Island, 
the govemour's efforts and his oath of office notwithstanding. Far 
be it from me to justify oppression by showing greater oppression 
elsewhere. But the opinions and maxims of days of compara- 
tive daricness must plead for the individual who is influenced by 
them, however much we at the present day pity or detest such 

Stuyvesant issued a mandate forbidding all persons from at- 

' See Hutrd or tlie Recordt^ 


teading or holdiiig comreoticlef io aoj buildifig or in aar field « 
wood* uoder peiuiliy of fifir pnldm fine, to be dovbM mi 
quadrupled, and after a third offence eobjecliDr the ofieodgr ti 
arbitrarr puDbhrnenL Many pereoos suffered fines, u pptiw^" 
ment and bauishmenu At Flushio? the maffistrates justified the 
Quakers, lo Jamaica, where onanv of the sect dwelt, their mm- 
iuj^s were dispersed br the sheriff John Bowne was espalrialed, 
and sent lo Holland, from whence he returned after harine suf- 
fered much ; and the eovemour's superiors thouefat fit to repri- 
nnnd him. All these discontents prepared the war for the evcfli 
of 1604. 

On the 7th Juljr, 1659, the Commtsriooen of Ae 
1659 United New Ensbnd Colonies sent a lener to Gorernar 
io Stuyresant, from Hartford, sayini? tber piesume he has 
1663 beard from the Dutch of " Fort of Orania/' that 
New Engrland people had been lately seeking ''some 
place for plantation within the bounds" of Massachusetts Cob- 
ny, *' which is from the latitude of 42 degrees and 'iO amr 
utes ; and so northerly extends itself from E. to W. in ioncirade 
through the roaine land of America from the Atlantic ocion to the 
6. or W. Sea.*' Massachusetts had granted liberty to *' erect a 
plantation in those parts,*' and intended "to effect the same.** The 
Commissioners therefore desire liberty for these planters (as ihef 
would not tntrench on Dutch rifrhts) to pass up Hudson rirer. by 
the Dutch fort* and towns, paying moderate duties. This the 
commissioners think a reasonable request, and that a denial wouM 
interrupt neigrhbourty and amicable correspondence. They say 
thev conceive that the agreement made at Hartford, "that the 
Eneiish should not come within 10 miles of Hudson's Rirer. 
does prejudice the right of Massachusetts in the upland cotratry, 
nor Bri*e anv risrht to the Dutch there;" thaf treatv onh-, tber 
say, intending the settlement between New Netherland and Con- 
necticut, and not concerning Massachusetts in anr war. 

I find no immediate answer to these pretensions. But Ban- 
croft says in his history, that Connecticut, in 1663, *^ rpgardlesi 
of the provisional treaty, claimed We$t Chatter ^ and was ad- 
vancing towards the Hudson ; and that Stuyvesant repaired to 
Boston and entered his complaints." And I find* that on July 
drh he complained before the commissioners, that the Enelisfa 
Colonies did not observe the treatv made at Hartford in 
n>oO, and requested to know if the commissioners accounted the 
«aifj treaty a« remaining in force. John Winthrop and John En- 
dicoti. Commissioners for Connecticut, craved the United Com- 

* Hnui, vol a. p. 471 


missioners not to decide immediately ; but the CommissionerSy 
" saving the right of Connecticut by their charter," do account 
the agreement of 1760 to be binding. Still Connecticut main- 
tained its claim; and so did Massachusetts. ''Where then is 
New Netherland?" say the Dutch. "We do not know," reply 
the English.* 

In 1657, Oysterbay and Huntmgton were, by permission of 
the commissioners, received into the jurisdiction of New Haven. 
In 1660, liberty was granted by the Commissioners of the United 
Colonies for the jurisdiction of Connecticut to take Huntington 
and'Sautauket into her government. 

The Commissioners of the United New England 'Colonies 
having advised that the claims of the Dutch and of Connecticut 
should be deferred until 1664, and then brought before the 
Court or Congress for judgment, Govemour Stuyvesant replied 
on the 21st of September, 1663, that he wished a friendly and 
neighbourly . settlement of differences concerning " East D<nfe^ 
by the English called Wtst Chester ^^^ and all other disputes, '^that 
the parties may live in peace in the Wilderness where so many 
barbarous Indians dwell." He requests of the commissioners a 
categorical answer, whether the treaty of Hartford, made in 1650, 
remains " firm and binding," and whether the patent of Hart(ord» 
newly obtained, shall extend westward. He says the answer al- 
ready given is not so decisive as he expected. He is willing to 
abide by the treaty of Hartford, if the rights of the United Neth- 
erlands and the Dutch West India Company are held sacred- 
He declines the proposition of deferring the decision until 1664, 
but is willing for the prevention of strife to submit the question to 
impartial arbitration. This letter is dated at Boston. 

On the 23d he writes again, hoping that ''in consideration of 
the happy good understanding between Holland and England, th^ 
matter of limits," which he had come to Boston for the purpose 
of finally adjusting, '' might be settled." But he found the de- 
mands of the commissioners no way answerable to the rights of 
his superiors. He therefore again urged the referring the matter 
to the two European governments. He desired to know whether 
there might not be such correspondence in America with the 
goods and growth ^'of this poor Country," as is admitted in 
Europe ; and union against danger from Indians. In reply the 
commissioners say that their demand in respect of limits is less 
than their patent authorizes ; that they cannot act in respect to 
trade, but according to act of Parliament, and that as to confede^ 
racy respecting the Indians, it shall be presented to the General 

* See AUmbj Recoxdi, l6th vol. p. 292, tnd Bencioft. 
VOL. I. 15 


Court. The Commbsioners of Connecticut make a similar aa* 
awer to Stu}'ve2aDt*8 proposals. The Colony of New Hava 
was not at this time merged in that of Connecticut, and m 
averse to such a measure. 

But while Stuy vesant was endeavouring to promote the imaot 
of Holland in New Netherlands and relied upon the pacificatioa 
and professions of friendship between England and Hollasdy the 
profligate and faithless Charles the Second, with that liberalinr 
which distinguishes monarchs, magnanimously gave to bis hn^ 
tber James that which his Majesty did not possess, bad do rigia- 
ful claims to, and could not use for the immediate giatificatioo of 
his sensuality, the whole of the New Netherlands, and that part of 
Coimecticut lying westward of Connecticut River- 
James, finding that all Long Island had been previoodj 
1664 given to to the Earl of Stirling, bought that claim ior 
^300. As to the Dutch rights of discovery or pones- 
aion, they were disregarded ; and while Holland confided in the 
treaties with England, her fleets were committing piracies opoa 
the Dutch possessions in Africa, and wresting from them the 
whole New Netherland. 

The Royal Duke sent Colonel Richard Nicolls, with a squadraa 
which carried commissioners to New England, and had orders wkk 
the assistance of Massachusetts to take possession of tbe Dnxh 
province. MassachusetUf, ever opposed to the government of tht 
Stuarts, pretended inability to as«i^t in tbe reduction of the DvnA 
setdements : this opposition to the commissioners was contiBued 
after the seizure of New Netherland, and its charter was pleaded 
against the royal authority. 

Lord Clarendon says that the royal commissioners sent out lo 
the colonies in 1664, found those of the north already *' hardened 
into republics.^' The truth is, that the people were republicaw 
from the first. The first government founded in New Enfland 
was democradc. England interfered as much as she coulcC but 
the people persevered in republicanism, always struerplinc acainst 
the power which had driven them from their homes, and still pur- 
sued them. Tbe Dutch of New Netherland were covemed bv 
oflicers appointed by the tradin^^ company that sent them out, aaid 
by tbe States General, but they had certain privileges secured lo 
Ibem ; they knew their rights as men ; and when they submined 
to England, they jealously watched the encroachments both of 
church and sute, which were anempted on the liberties secured 
bj the capitubtion. 

Chancellor Kent has observed that the conquest of New Netb* 
eriand proved to the inhabitant:: ven* fortunate. They were relieved 
from controversy with their encroachin:: English neichbors ; had 
tbe privileges of English subjects, (or were entitled to them,) and 


in 1 few years participated in the blessings of a representative gov- 
ernment. *^ Ihey exchanged," he saj's, ^' their, JRoman jurispru- 
dence for the freer spirit of the Knavish common law." 

The instnictjons of Charles II to NicoUs, Carteret, Carr, Cart- 
wright, and Chaverick, were, that the Dutch be reduced to an entire 
obedience. ^* It is high time,'* his majesty saj's, ** to put them out 
of capacity of doing such mischief," as they had done elsewhere. 
Their right is altogether disclaimed.* 

Althougli Massachusetts had e\^ded the order to assist the Com- 
missioners in subduing New Netherland, John Winthrop, the 
amiable and accomplished governor of Connecdcut, joined the ex- 
pedition personally, and aided it by a body of troo{)S, who were 
subsequendy landed and encamped near Brooklyn. 

Uovemour Stu^-vesant had procured intelligence of the approach 
of an Kn<Hi$h squadron, with hostile intendons, and consisting of 
tiro vessels, of fifty gims each, and one of forty, with six hundred 
soldiers, besides a full complement of men as sailors. He had 
assembled his Council and Burgomasters, repaired and fiuntshed 
his fortress, and taken such measures for defence as his spirit and 
experience dictated. The fleet anchored in Gravesend Bay. Stuy- 
vesant sent a deputauon, consisting of John De Clyer, one of his 
Council, the Rev. John Megapolensis, Major Vandergrefif and some 
others, requesting to know the intention of their approach without 
ghring notice to the magistrates. 

Nicolls issued a proclamadon, dated on board his majesty's ship, 
the *^ Gu^ifiv," statins: that the Commissioners were sent to receive 
into his niajesty*s obedience, all foreigners who have, without his 
majesty's consent, seated themselves among his majest}'*8 subjects ; 
promising to all who will submit to his majesty's government, pro- 
tection by his majest}''s laws, with security to property, '* ancl all 
other privileges wiUi his majesty's subjects." And to the Govemour 
and Council ^^ of the Manhattans," be addressed a letter by his 
deputies, to let diem know that ^^his majesty of Great Britain,'* 
had commanded him to require the surrender of all places, in poa- 
tession of the Dutch, into his hands : lie therefore demands the 
loim and forts, promising to all who shall readily submit, estate, 
life, and libertv ; odierwise, the miseries of war. An answer is 
requested by return of "Colonel Cieorge Carteret, one of Ins ma- 
jesty's Commissioners m America," and Messrs. Uobert Needham, 
Edward Gmves, and Thomas Delavali. 

Govemour 8tu}'>'esant promised an answer on the morrow, and 
imroediately convened his Council. He proposed a defence, and, 
fearing the terms oflfered by the surrender would be acceptable to 

See Ilazmrd, 2 Vol. p. (UO. 



the p«!oplfi, vrhn»e dlarontent with the goveniraent of tbe States k 
WM weii aware of, refused to snbmk to them the sunmnaf d 

Goremour Winthrop. who probably had joined in this 
with the hope of preventino: bloodshed by his bterposidoo. 
to the Dutch Director, recommending acceptance of the 
oAered, and a aurrender by capituladon. These terms S 
refused to communicate to tlie buriihers, and issued his orden tar 
the defence of the place entrusted to him. 

On the ^d of Au^st, the Council again met, and demanded to 
know the terms offered by NicolU. The fiforemour a^ain refised. 
and tore the summons to pieces before them. To the Commit 
aioneni he wrote a lener, stating the Dutch claims to the proTince, 
and concludinc^ with hus determination to defend the fort and ritr.* 

It u-as in vain that Petrus Stu\'\'esant endeavoured to infuse bk 
own flpirit into the people of the colony, who had already made op 
their minds that if their property- could be secured to them. 
1604 a chancre of {rovemment was for their interest. In vain he 
represented that the Fnthrrhwd required resistance to Ea- 
glifih injustice ! In vain he asked, how a surrender, without « 
stmccle, would be viewed in the land of their fathers r The subjedf 
of Kntrland wore already minirled amoni: tliose of the States* aal 
all wished for the promised ridit* of Enirlishmen. The prodana- 
tion of Nirolls had its eiroct. Hide, who commanded the squadroo 
undtT Nicolls, was ordered to attack llie fort. Stuvvesant sent 
deputies with a serond letter, proposinir delay and accomniodatxKi. 
But Nicolls knew full well the tiisi>isit'ton of the people, and an- 
swered tiiat he would onlv treat of surrender. 

The next dav, the :ir>ih of Auirust. the (iovemour of New Neih- 
eriand a::reed to a surrender, with an oveqwwerinj: force arrayed in 
hostility iK'fon* him. and no disposition evinced by those withiocaU 
or view, to support him. 

Mieulls hud said. '* oi\ Thursdav I will see vou at Manhattoes* 
with my shifis.'* The armament entered the harbour, and the stunk 
old cuvernour vielded to neeessitv and surrendered. After tbe ca- 
pitulation huii bivn a::nvd to hy the madstrates. he reluctamhr 
sicneil it. On tlie -ul of September. New Amsterdam became 
New York, and the ion was called ".James." On tlie :?4th. Fort 
l>ran::e surrendered, and tivk tiie name of Albanv : and eariv in 
(.Vtober, the static me nt? on the Delaware capitulated. "^ 

Althou:;h Siuv\esam did not show lo hi* burgomasters the 
Irrms offertnl by Nieolls, or the letter of ad\ ice tmm Govemour 
^Vinlh^op of Connecticut, there can be no doubt that the reasons 

5r* \{»p*'ii«fi\ J * S^?»» App<*iKi:& R 




for surremjer, which the latter gave, had great weight with the 
Director General of New Netherland. 

When the terms of surrender were signed by the English depu- 
ties, who met the deputies of the Dutch at Govemour Stuyvesant's 
house, in the Bowery, although favourable, and agreed to by those 
he had nominated, (John De Decker, Cornelius Shenwyck, James 
Coupease, Nicholas Verleet, Samuel Megapolensis, and Olofie S. 
Van .Kortlandt,) he yet withheld his signature for two days. At 
length the compact was concluded, and to the above mentioned 
names, and those of Robert Carr, George Carteret, John Win- 
throp, Samuel Wyllis, Thomas Clarke, and John Pinchon, was 
added that of Petrus Stuyvesant. 

By these articles, it was agreed that the States General and West 
India Company should enjoy all their fast property except that in 
forts, and all arms and ammunition belonging to them at the time of 
surrender to be transported or paid for. That the public buildings 
should contii^ue for the uses intended. That the people should en- 
joy all property as before, with the privilege of removing if they cho«e 
so to do, and any public officer if he wished to go to England 
should be conveyed in his majesty's frigates. That people might 
freely come from the Netherlands and plant in this colony. That 
ships and goods should be received and depart for six months, as 
theretofore. That the Dutch should enjoy liberty of conscience and 
church discipline. That no Dutchman or ship should be pressed into 
military service. That no soldiers should be quartered on the towns- 
men without being paid for. That the Dutch should enjoy their own 
laws of inheritance, and public records should be kept as usual, nei- 
ther should any decision of Court heretofore made be called in ques- 
tion. That the Dutch should have liberty of traffic with the Eng- 
lish and Indians. That any public debt of the town should be paid 
as theretofore. That Magistrates should continue until the time of 
election, and then be chosen by the people as before, said officers 
taking the oath to his majesty of England. That contracts thereto- 
fore made should be determined by Dutch usage. That the military 
should march out with their arms, drums beating, colors flying, and 
lighted matches ; and that if any of them chose to become planters 
they should have 50 acres of land and become free denizens. That 
the fort Aurania, (Albany) should be levelled, but if any persons 
should have property therein they should enjoy it. That soldiers (Mr 
others wishing to go to Europe should have free passport from Col. 
R. NicoUs. That the copy of the king's grant to his royal highness, 
and his royal highness's commission to Richard Nicolls, testiiSed by 
Mr. Winthrop, should be delivered to the Hon. Mr. Stuyvesant, the 
present govemour ; these articles were signed by Col. Nicolls^ and 
fort and town were accordingly delivered to him. 

The inhabitants of New Netherland very generally became sub- 


jects of Great Britain. Govemour Stuyvesant remained oo hb 
estate ; and after a voyage to Holland, passed the remainder of his 
life on his estate in the Bowerv. At his death his remains were in- 
terred within a chapel which he had erected upon his own land. 
Chief Justice Smith,* writing about 1757, says, that die Stuyve gi rt 
estate was at that ume possessed by the govemour's great grandson 
'^ Gerardus Stu^-^'esant, a man of probity, who had been elected iMd 
the Ma^tracy above thirty years successively ."t 


Connecticut u confinrd within limits hy the Duke of York — Candwi 
of Nicolh — Discontent of the Towns — Francis Lordace^ Go»- 
-emoitr — Continuation of the Histonj oftlie Irotjuois till 1671— 
The Iter. Mr. James — The Lutheran Church in New York. 

At the time of the hostile seizure of New Nedierland by the arms 
of Charles II, En<rland and Holland were in a state of peace. Not- 
withstanding which, Charles granted to his broUier James the whole 
territory, with part of Connecticut. .Tames, finding that Long bland 
had been alreadv riven to the Earl of Stirlinir, boujrht it as we hare 
noticed above, for C^JOO.f The grant to James, Duke of York, 
gave to him and his assigns the power of trovemment, and he as- 
signed tliat part of New Netherland now called New Jersey, 
1664 to Lord Berklev and Sir Gcorire Carteret. 

Bv the surrender to Richard Nicolls, and the mandate of 
Charles, Connecticut lost all her territory on Loup: Island, and part 
o/ what she had seized on the main, her boundaries being fixed on 
one side by tlie Sound, and on the other by a line running north 
from the Sound at Mamaroneck Creek, and another confining her 
within ten miles of the Hudson Kiver. 

Nicolls, under tlie style of Deputy Ciovernour for his royal high* 
ness, James, Duke of York, during his short stay in New York, 
filled his coffers by new grant*^ of land and by making the posses- 
sors of former grants pay him for confirmations. He had likewise 

* 8e« hid Hi^aory of New-York. 

t The pemr tree which now utandii at the corner of 13th utreet and 3d Av-eirae, 
marks the spot of the old i^ovemoiir'8 garden, and wax probably brought from Hol- 
Und, when ne repaired tliitlier to arcoiint to hi.H superiors, which he did imnM- 
4iiately after the fiiirronder. See Appetulur !.. 

I &•€ MSS. papers, N. Y. lli*t Ubrary. 


a joint power with Carr, Carteret and Maverick, to settle contested 
boundaries of certain great patents, a further source of wealth. 
He instituted a race-course and races at Hem^tead, on Lon^ 
Island ; and his successor in the government, appointed by procla- 
mation, directed to the Justices, that races should take place in the 
month of May ; and that subscriptions be taken' of all such as 
were disposed to run for ''a crown in silver, or the value in good 

He ordained that henceforth all purchases made of the Indians 
should be by agreement with the Sachems and recorded before the 
Govemour* Purchasers, to encourage diero, were made free from 
assessments for five years. Liberty of conscience wad promised, 
and the townships were allowed to frame their own laWs for cases 
within themselves. He particularly encouraged setdements on the 
west side of Hudson river, near Esopus. Ministers wefer X& he 
supported in every township, each man paying his propordon oC 
the salary agreed upon. Officers, civil and military, were to be 
chosen by the freeholders of the town. The municipal privileges- 
of Albany remained untouched ; and he prudently changed' 
1665 tlie mode of government in New York by degrees, and in- 
troduced a Mayor, five Aldermen, and a Sheriff, instead of 
a Scout, Burgomasters, and Schepens. Thomas Willet, an Eng^ 
lishman, was appointed Mayor by the Govemour ; the five Burgo-^ 
masters were transformed to Aldermen, and the Scout to a Sheriff* 

Captain John Underbill, being now a resident of C ^er Ba^ 
had the appointment of High Constable of the North Kiding on 
Long Island. 

The govemour chose his own council to suit himself, and pos- 
sessed both execuUve and legislative powers. The Court of As- 
size was composed of justices appointed by the "" govemour, and 
dependent on him. This court only served to lessen his responsi- 

Nicolls called a convention of two deputies from each town to 
meet him at Hempstead^ but conceded no liberty to the people. 
The assembly merely settled the limits of the towns, and then 
signed a loyal address to the duke. Their constituents scorned 
them for their servility.* 

The seizure of New Netherland in time of profound peacoi 
caused an open war between England and Holland, which being 
proclaimed in London, notice was sent to Nicolls, at New Fork, 
with information from the ministry that the terrible De Ru3rter was 
to be sent to wrest New York from the English. This apprehen'*' 
sion proved without foundation, and by the peace of Breda, con* 

• Sm Wood» and N. Y. Hiit. Coltootioair 


eluded 21st July, 16G7, the prorince was ceded to En^and in fin 
of Surinam. During the war, however, NicoUs confiecated the 

Gpeiiy of the Dutch \Ve?t India Company in New York, wfaick 
been assured to them bv die treaty with Govemour Sr 

Although the people of New York were disappointed 'of thdr 
expectations by the non-establishment of a representative goren- 
ment, Nicolls appears upon the whole to have conducted UmMir 
with uncommon moderation, considering that he was in fact a 
despot. After three year? in America, the govemour recunied la 
Endand, in favour with liis master?, who appointed Coioael Fraa- 
cis Lovelace to succeed him. The king sent Nicolls a present of 
jC200, and from his monument in Amphill church, Bedfordsfaiie, 
England, it appears that he had the honour of serving Chailes ia 
his infiunous war against Holland, undertaken by command of 
Louis XI^^ whose pensioner he %^'as ; for on that monument 
Richard Nicolls is recorded to have been killed on board the Data 
of York's ship, in a fi^ht witli the Dutch, in 1672. 

I find no effort made by Nicolls to promote literature in the Co- 
kmy, except that he licensed John ^^hute, an English schoolmas- 
ter, 10 open a school in Albany, for the piupose of tforhm^ 
the people Enzlifh ; and warranted him that he should be the onk 
En^iish schoolmaster in the place and be paid as much as any 
teacher of Dutch. His care of relisnon is proved, as well as hv 
liberal opinions, by authorizuii: the Lutherans to send for a preacher 
of their sect, and bv hi« order to tiie maiostrates of New York to 

raise 1.20U iniiWer? for the support of ministers 
1667 Colonel Francis Lovelace arrived in New York, com- 
missioned by tiie Duke of York as his deput}' croveraour. 
He appears to have followed tiie instructions of his master, and to 
have made as much out of tlie people as circiunstances would ad- 
mit, exercisins: the unlimited autliority established by Nicolls, levy- 
ing taxes and imposing duties witliout consulting: the inhabitants. 
They, however, had imbibed different notions of eovem- 
1669 ment and of tlie ri;:lits of tiie people, and meetings were 
held in the \*arious tonus, and a ]>etition agreed upon ibr 

At the surrender of tlie Colony, the inhabitants were promised 
s protection to |)erson and properi}*. all tlie other privileges of 
majest}'*5 English subjects. Tlie fieople contended that a 
participation in le^rislation n^s one of tliose privilegies. They 
ibund their English £:ovemour as arbitran* as the Dutch Di- 
rector-general. They resoked to complain to the court of 
asBize : and on the 9ih of November, 1699, the towns of 
Hemp^ead, Jamaica, 0\sier Bay. Flushing, Newtown. Gravel- 
end, West Chester, and East Chester, severally petitioned for re^ 
dren. They reprobated the exclusion of the people from any 

Lovelace's administration. 121 

share in legislation. They were assured by some trifling conces- 
sions, but denied redress in all the important points. 
1670 The court ordered contributions from the Long Island 
towns to repair the fort at New York. The people already 
deemed all taxation without representation, tyranny. They, in 
town meetings, resolved not to contribute unless their privileges 
should be obtained. The people of Huntington assigned as the 
reason for their refusal " because they were deprived of the liberty 
of Englishmen." The other towns protested to like efiect The 
resolutions of Flushing, Hempstead, and Jamaica, were Taid be- 
fore the court of sessions of the West riding ; (the West riding 
was constituted of Staten Island, Newtown, and King's County,) 
and *' that court, assisted by the secretary of the Colony and one 
of the council," adjudged the representations scandalous, iKegal,. 
and seditious ; and ordered the papers to be presented to the 
govemour and council, to proceed on as they should think might best 
tend to suppress such mischief. The papers were laid by Gover- 
nour Lovelace before his council, who ordered them to be burnt by 
the hangman. 

The opinions of Lovelace were similar to these Shakspeare puts 
in the mouth of Richard HI. K the people were at ease and had 
leisure, they were to be '^ grumbling (cnaves" and find fault with 
those Heaven had set over them. To keep them in order, says 
the govemour, '^ lay such taxes upon them as may not give them 
liber^ to entertain any other thoughts but how to discharge them."* 

I will call the attention of my reader to the natives of New York 
and the neighbourhood. Mr. Gallatin tells us that about this time 
the Indians of Massachusetts carried on even offensive operations 
against the Iroquois. Six hundred men marched into the Mo- 
hawk country and attacked one of the forts. They were repulsed 
with considerable loss : but, two years after, peace was made 
between tliese hostile tribes by tlie interference of the English 
and Dutch at Albany ; and the subsequent alliance of the Iro- 
quois with the British, after they had become permanendy pos- 
sessed of New York, appears to have preserved the New Eng- 
land Indians from further attacks. 

A brief statement from father Charlevoixt of the affairs of Ca- 
nada and the Indians of New York, or tlieir neighbours, up to this 
period appears necessary. 

In 1650, M. Lanson was govemour of New France. At t&is 
time the Iroquois proceeded to Trois Rivieres, attacked the set- 
dement, and carried off the commandant of .the place prisoner. 
Montreal was only saved by the timely arrival of one hundred sol- 

* Letter to Sir Robert Carr. f Hist, of Canada. 

VOL I. 16 

s cvxiiuiiiiexi UK if iKV'LUxk^ T:.< ih;vMiJac«t5^ ^^iiJ n»"o 

I ihfc? unw ifie Fnrivh r\xY:\ i\! sixvoun? toin Ikkik^ sikI 
tie Iiuquob wtTt* %ic«rv\vcvi *rv <!::ill-jx>x. 

Ihiria; ibe \ cat? 1 ihv4 i;u: 1 ^>>, u htc NIc^sL? nra> adiiisiini: New 
1 vwi to die <vn eniuKr*; of Jaiute>« aiiiKbcr i»ovcr«our Kx>k the coui- 
ia C^suvlft. briaiiini: s^uixviLr? :o 'iae Cv^ioay. He causeii 
» to be erecK\i 4i Trvv-> Kix :t:K^ iixl ;t: Sorvl : bisi he found 
torts wix^Id cv>c <;*>p t:x> I.-vxjix>L5^ ainJ ihcir iccurskms^ ineaw 
A a k:\.JL>kHi of Ux Ir cou:::n" wna? iWierRiiiieJ on, and 
MI5 uude 50 CK^n^juor ihvs^* ruiiilcNi 5aL\":tp:V« The lRX|iiot$ 
ibe iTiipeixiLac >:or.r- u^ ■^:v^ c:;: :; s^r.: tw-o of their chie& 
to Queoec. While these wrurrlvv:^ wvre eateitadaed bv the Gorer- 
BMir as a H?a5£, ihe fare of a Frv:x*:j or.oer. >upjx\?ed to be killetl 
by the ladkaf. wa> b*;ul:v.\i i::A>» ih:e of the Irv>^u«,>i5 $;icheD» 
aiose* and 'i:Uk;c h:< ixikcvi rxv. inr. £o::. orU\i, •• Th:> k the buid 
siew hiu'i!** "\ou >:**i"/. klV, ::o r.;o:v/* 5!;3id dx^ Ooieroour, 
orvie:^ :::ir. :o be < o:: 'J'.o >j\m. 
Prwtraao:^ for ovcrv'*".:<I::::rj:he l:vv;.:o:< irort* rei0.y in 16€i6y 
aad iz tie de;^. of winter. oi\ivieti i:r.v^ se^^crii jxi.rk**, the trcmps 
aawhe^ owr ihe fn.>£e:: like^ aVa* ihrou;^ :he wiloenws?? to 611 
s^oc ;be eaeiuy. i>r:e ixviy v^f :he Ciniviii:". forvivs K^s: their war, 
awt afor »^i2K;cr>.-^ <evtri! o.iy> witjy^u: ftW* appriiacbed the 
kiMivr MohiwkcjL5:ie b\ :*:k* vi:rvv:;o:: of Ov rireraUnie aboTV d» 
i ia a weak. >i::kini:. >:iJ>i::- cx>:v.:Dv>n. wouid ha^"e inevi- 
bcv Uees cut on. b;:t iha: a Di;:v'h;::in. i>t" Ov coine of Corfaer, 
^dranoevi bt\v.K:Ki oi\ i'!ir;i::v>n ir.:o rie \vi\:erno55>* ai:d kMmed 
a s«tzki::>e£:; wherv Sk^h<::!*vri*:v n\>w i>* CoHser. touched with 
tbesr eixxikk>r.« f;;r.:i5::;\! "^heiu >:>e*:cr a::vi uxxi* aiKt by rvpairin^ 
u> lie Mob&wk oasilo, rx;^:v<<':.:e\i Lv-5 JKi>-a:x-ir.^ ivinv as onh' in- 
aeoded to cai! "Jiteir inen:ivvi, w:iie a .zrv^zer fv>At? ki: ujxhi their 
toVTis ajhl ci5;Ie fr.^iu ht-::^r up t:>e ri^tr. The Iikiiaas bein; 
ihas preventcvi frvKii i:?^!Crv>} i:vc the e\r-i::5:t\i Ca^viviiaas, the 
Duatiuaan *;:pjv.<.v. Lx*:: wi:!*^ p:^.n i>k>::>* \v>.k>. ii^^kd theni 
a^ain to ake u> their ix:jvil-x\i s-iv^'-v >hxvt> i:-,d :r-ikc t^ir escape 
to Caoida. Cvvi^t-r hivi hi> j*::*^ :::e::: i:» ::v :vio.j^ of the Mo- 
iuvks iTid i:^ ih^* \ivir.:rv of tikir l^v, cr o^:.t:. He w-i^ a j:i 
ttvo<;rI:e of L^i* Ir^x^^x^is, iiu ihj.:^:v: :: >i> vi:;:y to >ivo 
Eurvxvcir;>« wS.* oou'ii do: i: ;>.:> siiv.e hirr. his Inolian h^sends 
wr.o \trk iii.ilv e2<:s;xv. S :".iki'.^ ihe lo<: ca their 
iV h^Hv.e. Fro::; u:l> i:^ii:*> /*.u:v, S.*r.:::ovUviv hi> bv manv 

: i:x- n..::>. ir-d ini :*..,.:.:< i.i :: o ;vv>p> ol" Ae pro- 
risk:^ •• i"- -V.:"." T':k^ Irs.^ ;...!> >;Vxo of« A:\i to* the co- 
Twnours of New Yorx bv s>>o !ui:x* im' CiX-!i«r. as ihev caUed the 
French of Carja^ii i::d ih^'r c-^^ t rx^ur? l>xx«heo. The co- 


vemours of Canada, iii gratitude, offered to Mr. Corlaer an advanta- 
geous settlement, which he accepted ; but in passing Lake Cham- 
plain, was drowned. 

The result of tlie first attack upon the Iroquois, was only some 
Bkirmishes, in which tlie Indians lost their deserted wigwams, ind 
the French, one officer and several soldiers. But the main bodj 
of their army moved through the wilderness with '* all the pride, 
pomp and circumstance of glorious war," and doubtless felt as if 
marching to conquest. With 1200 French disciplined soldias, 
glittering m gold and its imitation, their white imiforms roockiii([ 
the snow, and their colours flouting the storm, Mons. de Trmcj led 
the main battle accompanied by the Chevalier de Chauraont, ind 
other officers, equally gay and gallant An equal number of Ca- 
nadians accompanied the European troops, as rangers and scoots. 
One hundred friendly Indians attended them. Mons. de Coor- 
celles led 100 men as the advance. Messrs. Sorel and Ber- 
thier commanded tlie resen-e, Tracy was tlie general of the 
whole. Two field pieces accompanied this array, which was fin^ 
nished with all that the province could afford. 

But before they could reach tlieir enemy provisions failed, and 
the French approached the Iroquois towns half famished. Thdr 
Algonquins had only sened to give the alarm to the nearest town, 
the inhabitants of which fled. The anny entered the first village 
in order of battle, drums beatinir, and colours flying. They found 
some old men, women and children, such as could not fly. These 
they made prisoners. They however relieved their hunger by 
plenty of provisions accumulated by the Indians for winter. Ma|!:a- 
zines of corn were found buried, " enouirh/* savs Charlevoix, " JBm" 
the colony for tAvo years." The Euro|)eans could only admire the 
Indian dwellings, and bum them. CJuided by their Algonkins, 
they entered a second and a third deserted village, but at the fourth 
a stand was made by the A\'arriours. It appears that resistance was 
feeble. The extraordinar}- force of the French army caused the 
Iroquois to fly to their swamps, where they could not be followed 
— at least in battle array. Tlie cabins were given to tlie fianies, 
and as much destruction spread around as possible ; and then M. 
de Tracy thinking that he had sufficiently displayed the power of 
France, and tliereby could, with the forts on tlie St. LawTence and 
elsewhere, keep the savages in check, retired with his army to Mon- 
treal, having lost but one officer and a few soldiers. 

Colden, in his histor}* of the Five Nations, says, that M. 
de Courcelles added to the enmity of the Iroquois by hanging 
Agnriatay a chief who had gone to Canada as an ambassador to 
9pologize for the breach of the peace on the |>art of the Mohawks. 

During tlie year 1067, M. Perot ascended beyond the Mich* 

ami cuhivateU the trienii;>faip of ibe laJbtt^ b dat qmr- 
arr. Ttw ae\t vmir ftMiod the Mohawk viUau:e$ renewed* iml the 
l!\i«xtM» more detenniDett &ieud$ u> the £ii^:&h and foes lo die 
FreacJi dan ever« if |wi««$ib(e. 

Tbe ^ireiu prepsinUMw$ for die eiipedkioii emted in no adraua^ 
wnaofvw. The French coun ^seni out more troops lo Canmliu 
ani tDsoraetHNCfe^ were^veuiodiminbh die niunbetsoirdie Iroquoe 
a» BM>ch as piMs»bIe« and to $end such a$ were nade prtMMMts to 
Fraoce, thai they uii^t be made to smr im tke ku^*s ^tmlUf$^ 

A moporanr pettce« howe^-er, w;fe» luaincained between the Fhe 
NuMNK and Canada* ami the rulers of that uuvinre seat ilmr 
pnese^ a^ ${He$ aud uus$UHarie> amon^ the lndiai»> while the 
Dttke of YoAl ordered hb ^reriKHUs ^ to cire thesw priests aD the 
cfKvHira^?nuent in their power :*' thu;^ ««^»$tin^ the French is the 
fkui of ^rtinin^ to their interests the people who were the tMihrbamer 
betw^^tt titem and the ix4oafe$t$ of New York* and who* if eoiM|iier> 
c«L refxiove\i« or j^tined over K> the French interest, would erenlift- 
aSy ^Te tbem the i>rv>vince James had just seized* and probnhiv 
ail the EitriK^ ov>UHiies» 

The ^>venx>ur of Mir\Fa.:>d :?em Col. Coursev to AOanr to sain 
friendship of the Iroqui.>fi> ^^r that pro«~inee« and Mr^rinia : but 
the $;ft:hetife$ juid the Colonel were in ftiendiv con fo i en ce ^ a 
partT of yoim^w^urrkHtr«Lwhowefeout amife»n^theiik5eheswHhb^ 
me, hotfises arrd caking $eal(x£s> ^U in with some Su^uehanuaks^ 
fiieotily ti.> Maryland* kiUevi tour of them and brou:j:ht home sis » 
prisvfxers. Fi*v t>t* these oapdves tiLliiir to the lot of the Senecn» 
were <ecic back to Mar> !a£!d : but the iHteivlas ke^H the one that 
fiell a> meir share. Another ivur part^~ of Ir\H)uob attacked the 
Lt iILniace w::h Vincinia* but a b^xly i>f colonises from Mr- 
foil upon the Irvxjuots* Jefoauxi them with sfatiucfaler* and 
<ocue (>risiH:iers« In letum. the IiKltaik^ murdered the Mr- 
p^jucers^ tureii their itwellin^ and bore odf in triuiuph Shu' 
icaipi« and sL\ pr^^sers. Thb ^eeofe^ to have interrupted the ne- 
codatiocfe^ at th^j^ time. 

There ap^^ears to have exited a jealotcs^y amon^ the EkMi* 
MrtkruLarh the coloofc^cs of New York, in regard to the Dutch of 
^chereccady, who were charsred with nusre(>re:sentln^ the inlen- 
boiK of the Kn^tish towards the Iroquo^ 

The ^>venxmettK of Mnrinla mKiicu: that the confodciiied 

V^ 1 ludiai^s ol' New York ovmdnued troublesotae, seal two ««»- 

t!e"WL:, Messrs. Kemtal and Littleton, to Albanr* for the 

parpoi^ of* r\*:vw*!^^ triefKiship with them* and inn\ 

fi • :o aid them aiKl regulate the adairs of New Yctk in 

tisBLC T^sirttrr. IWtore leavinj: aw city of New York to embark on 
dus tvrii^His voyjure* Lovelace apixxmed Coruelh» Heinwick. 
who WIS one of his comtseu to aduunisief the QOvennKnt during 



Iiin nliMMirtr ; hu( in cz^*s of any thins e!UraoniiiiajTr he ra id- 
pill IK {4'(i (II !>cnil Co t^R:^ ifiii emour. The ^arruoo, bj these inBOuc- 
lioiii^, i'i not III be medtileil with, ^^ hnt lt»ft fo Orpi. MnmmAM4g4» 
frnwiL'^ The fiite of :he*e in-syiirtion* is JuIt 19ih, l*>71. A 
paiiii wa* driven (o a ;%ouiij: Iniiian to \Lsit the Maqiia^ (Mohsvfci) 
aiul a pa4.«a^e wa.-^ .iven him v^irh the ^oreraour to ARaor. 

In hi* speech to the Iro^^uoLs Mr. Kendal cnmplauied of sie 
bri^tilitie^ which hail been rofnmliitrti bv them : buu he «i>i. far 
per^uaiiion ot' the ::ovemour of New York, the fovemmenc of Vw" 
^nia wouiii excusie them, provided such injuries were TtSniati 
from in future : pre^aL^ as usual were dven to the ItwIaiM and 
peare promi^il. 

Mr. Linleton dieii at Albanv. and the Indians in token of ca»- 
dolence pres^nteii to Mr. Ken«bl a belt of U*frk ycMimymau Pi»- 
fe<sion5 of frienA-ihip were reneweii by ipeerhes and beb* ; b« 
neither the < hK>ndac3^ nor the i >neidas were present at th» trcar 
as it Ls called. \ocwith.^tar.<i:n;; the^e reremiiriles, the Inxpa» 
were kept at variance with \'lrrJiia. by the ina^riie* of the Freaca 
prierrt* residir,: an'.onj them, panic -.lariy with the Unoada^a:* aad 

To the h« T.our of the Rev. >f r. Janes, of Ea.*t Hampcoo, it 'o 
rerordeti ih:i: he receive*! the tiiank* of Cio^. Lovelace tor hi* en- 
deavors to iri.-:ru»"t ihr: IritiLin.*- T»ie zovem'^Jir iikewiae requestii! 
a copy f^i :iie •' 'tr.-i hL-i:". ^f^. .I^r.i^- dnAri up for their 
."iome t:lia:"-r' "f :i.e Il.'.r: •■i..!!: r- rrATi'liieii ft>r :i*eir 
L'lrir rrj.-,-..-:. ::;.i: :.v-ie '^ '."k' :. :_• .: r.e -e;.: ti Fln^land to be 
ed, \'. > -"-i:r«: :r.j: •'..:■ la^oLr- ••:' >f.-- J •...-:-•; ha.i been crowned 
w*th jre.i: ?:-;•"•: e>-- A* t^.»rre "»*' r.o prlnrcr .-. N'^'.v York, tae zo«- 
err.ijur ^av-i he r.iii ^•':' ''"T^^t.^ ti- L'-^'.-tr.. ';..: ::.:.. !^' :::e rtf^rt wouid 
Le iinavaiiinj. Ir. fi*': i: > ^^c.l ki.-'Ar. ^.-i: :.- rn^i.- v of due Ear- 
IL*h £«i\emmer.: -iLn « ::ri_:-d v.e !:itri«ti ;•:!•■.*: -if : rir.tiiii presses 
into the crjir/ie*: ar.ii 1: v* i^ ...-.: if--r.v ir :• i..^'. New Yont re- 
ceived ih»- tir-t e*tabiisi-..T.-.:: ••:' "...- •:! * tV«-:.. P:.i]!pr*ia- 

Iiii rurd Niroll- r..ii5. iririp.j . > ■.. -Tsil'jr.. jiven permissic'a 
to liic Luiheran-i ••:' Nr'.v \ irfk -..i ^nii :'••: .i . ..r:L?tcr to Europe, and 

in thl* \eir Mr. Ji* i.o Fi:..."i ■"/*.• i.-ri •.'..•. 
Id6'.> The ::"ier." .r :■-. : .-i . -....i:...r. r;.uie known thai ti>p 
IN-verf-:'.!! ( l* '.Lcr'ian v»7i.- L.u'.ve'i :o exerrL**? his olSce a5 
pa.«tor. a* it waai ih** pleiL-'.re r-f :1>: •: .kr ::.i: :he L;.!herar-« ^hiCK^i 
he loleratni in New York, and pr'.i.'..L'ei :.'."<:!-.r. :i> :r.e set- 
a5 Ion J a- :i:ev -behavr- nriie:.-. : ir.d i.^ ]«tr.j d> :.> rr.ral hiih- 
ne»* «tiaii n -* ^nifr *<f'ri^'^rtM,'^ O"*. •=.-".•• .r Li>*te!a« e. \^r>^.KT a>i^< 
fl jwjLf to t:.^ n-\»-rf:rii ::»''r.:!en."::: :*» _*•• !•• A !?■!."}. •.^rikh ne -iid. 
bm iinha{i{> y enjare<l in runtri.^*^."-; w.:r. :;.e .Tiir-itraies* of jsat 
plar*'. u'.o fud auT.^rriw-d in** " cori?. rnr nation of a ;;:arr!aje" be- 
iwfrn UnmfT Uff^, and Adnii^:z' Ar*^r:z. " ':i\s wife acrordin^ 


>D the Inr d* die lamL*^* For this ofirnce Fabric iiisi fined Mr, ihtcm 
lOOO Rxx«<dciBar5siiKi the Ciovcrooiir suspended Mr. Fahricius bora 
liw ex«rciiie of lus imnuaeritl fimcdons in ARunr, until his friead» 
flkcMiU M t eaiede with iht iiiyu:tsmtes of tfauphce. and they shooU 
hr vilEBir ifau he be restored. But in the mean time he is aUovned 
l» pRiack B New York. It appears bowerer, that >Ir. Fabriciva 
was AasaMfied vitfa the pnoTiace^ and his coap^e^ruion mith him, 
far fae ed^ cxercisied tbe Ubem- pren br preaching: a iaievrell «er- 
Hb, be&uv depardnc, ia^iailed anotber minisier, Mr.BenMr- 
AnoU and tbe poirmour gmre to Mr. Marcin Hoffinan per- 
apoo ** petition of the minister and dders of the Lntbenn' 
<drarcb of Nev ^ ork,"*^ to gd to Dela^rare ior tbe puipose of sofi- 
ciM: b e ^f fa rri ons to afisist ibem in buildini: a place of woRhipi. 
h appears that Mr. Remardus Arint bad nevlr anived, and the 
acrvfied Mr. Fabricius of certain misdemeaDours wUch 
the soremour xo cull bis council tojreiber, with tbe aider- 
^ and otber crave persciDS** who limited the preacbinf; of 
Fdkricnff 10 a &re«reD semton, and bis AmctioDS to in<tiHing a 

TIk officers of tbe Dutch Church peQixHied tbe corer- 
K71 * Door mud coiiiici]« far leave to kv a rate, or tax. on tbe con- 
p c yiftion far tbe suppcHi of ministerss nepaiis of ibe cbuirfab 
of ibe poor: permiftsion was accordinebr given. Tbe 
bad pievioushv upon application of tbe eldei^ and dtm- 
cbuirb ** to lake sonte care'* for providinc them onbo- 
otfered 1000 piilders^ per amumi, with boose and 
any such as would coaie over. 
from the minutes of tbe council, we know that k 
of Mr. Lawreace, tbe mavor. with Measi^ Willet, 
r/Boooe. Wluiefiekl, Delvrall, Van Kuyrai, and Matins 

Charles tbe II. having cjitered into a war with HoUand, 

onkrs arrivfid ao Lovelace to put tbe province in a state of 

defeaoe. Tbe fart ai New York was, as we have seen, in- 

an C-apiain Manninc : and the co^~ernour solicited pecuniaiy 

the counties for nepairini: the defences of the ciiy. M" 

s*C4irin ol' Alhanv, and a small u 

token far the f^c-unn ot' Alhanv. and a smali tort 
10 be enected at Anihonv"s Nose, or near 11 on tbe 

' Marruk^t!* ««riT >f0fn.7.u^V5' bcribir ir»K Uh" fc<«(fBear 



HfJlamd rt-rrmq^m Srtr AmMerdam — Th^ fort — Garrwm 
m^iwifd hy OqiimH Ma^tting — AVif Oramgt — Amihmy Cda 
— Agaim rntfrrtd to the. E/tgiuh, amd Amdrfm appoimim m dk 
DmIx of Yorl^M gm'crmffur — T^ath wu^imfrt om LMmg hlamiymd 
avyliau'um for a rqnrettsntaiirc amamUtj Jekitd bjf ^ ^* 


1673 The war of 1 G72, comnfeiiced br ClnHes the IL 

the Dutrhy (by onler of Loub XIV.) uniler the wnm ii- 
Toloitf pretence?, produced the surrender of New York to a sqaadraa 
from Hcrfland of five i^hip?, commanded by Jacob Benkes mi. 
Cornelius Evertse, junior, Commodores : and Anthony Cohc, 
Kichotas Boes and Abraham Frederick Van Zye, Captains.* 

Ebelini^ the Dutch HL«torian, say?, when Benkes and Etomw 
took New York for the «taie» of Holland, they called toeetber the 
ctril ofiicers, and the Dutch con^}ueror5 were received with jojr. 
The commissionjK were renewed, and three Courts of Jastioe es- 
tablished: at New Ami?tel, Delaware Bay, or Sooth River; 0^ 
land, and E^opu^. Lr^'clace had permusion to return to Fncfarf. 
where he wax not well received, and wais puni.«hed for the los J 
the prm'ince, thoutrh no provision had been made to enable 
to defend it. HI? co<^>d« were seized to satLsfy a ?maU claim 
the kinz had on liim.t 

It will be recollected that the triwn5 of Lonz L«land when called 
upon to aid Lo%'elace in re[jairinir the defences of the city, refosed. 
It will be remembered that the Ton fiad fortv-^ix cannon, and «s 
isarrisoned by one romjMny of re:nilar s^ildier?. commanded by 
Captain Manning. The Dutch •^{iia^iron came to anchor a: rkaaei 
bhnd, probably at the wateririz place near the present QuarantzDe 
ground. .Some communicaiion-r by me:=i=?ai:e or letter passed be- 
tween the cornmrjdore:? and ^^anninz. afurr which the «hip< came 
op, the troop? were landfrd, ar.d the- fort :riven up to them. 

I find an enir}- in the rfecretarj'* i^lfiice of the Corporatmi of 
New York, in the foliowinz word>, "July -i^yiYi, \t^mz Wednesday 

* I «iO r«nark of [hiuria ifa^ t^nn:zn;.on " •^" w^ imd iwis* 
■niH y with "tiEti." *ad meuM in En«L*A m-o : \ZiU^ tb« Dov& cAvuno^/re m 
«alW Ererti^. Wy^r'Mtn. or ET*rt:»oB Tb«: Knr:_*n •** ;b \ik*. nuknn^t F:tJ 
for tte von ofJvD*^ : uwi Gtiwnl U'.nrif"p .n W*}. I* r*.;*^ Fi:/ ohn. bejevf 
•on of J<>lui. Kobj^ruu^n. Witwn. *?r »f* Lk^»L«^ Fln2li*b *• Mir " a :*r« 
Tb« t**r.«*n* or ,N«tw Vr.rk. w»f*- a*ie E^jorc I'.T-.' 

• See Louof ? »ofk pu^..-I#v'i ;s I7*.i6 


in the fi>reiioon, the Mayor and Aldermen having received a letter 
from the Admiral and Commander of the fleet, now ridings under 
Stat en Island^ did thereupon summon the chiefs of the inhabitants 
to appear at the State House, and communicated the said letter 
unto them, which was from word to word as followeth."* Here 
fellows the letter or summons of the commodores, in Dutch, 
signed Jacob Benkes, Comelis Evertsen d* Jonge," — ^A me- 
morandum closes the page thus: *^ memorandum." ''On the 
90th day of July, stilo veterj', ano. 1673, was the fort and citjr 
of New York taken by the Dutch.'' In these transacdons, the 
goremour's name does not appear. He was permitted to retiun 
to Europe with admiral or commodore, Benkes. The city was 
called New Orange, and Anthony Oolve Was commissioned as 
mremour of the province, at the fort, now named Fort ''William 

The magistrates and constables from New Jersey, Long Island, 
Esopus and Albany, appeared at New Orange, and swore allegi- 
ance to the States General, and the Prince of Orange ; but Gover- 
oour Col\*e ruled a very short time : a treat}' of peace was signed 
at Westminster, between England and the States Greneral, which 
restored to either part}', any and all countries, towns, forts, edc 
" that have or shall be taken on both sides since the time that the 

late unhappy war broke out." 
1674 Peace was concluded on the 9th of Februaiy, 1674, and 

James to remove any question that might arise from the 
Dutch occupadon, obtained a new patent from his brother, and im- 
mediately appointed Sir Edmund Andros as the Govemonr for Ins 
province, now again. New York ; and he was commissioned to 
raise 100 men as a garrison for the fort, again called fort James. 
The qualifications of Andros for carr}'ing in effect the designs of 
the Duke of York must have been previously known, for two days 
after the renewal of the patent he was commissioned. This new 
patent confirmed to the Duke the power to enact all such ordinances 
as he or his assigns should think fit, vnth appeal to the King and 
Council. No persons could trade with the province but by his 
permission ; and he could establish such imposts as he deemed 
necessar}-. The Duke's instructions to Andros required him, says 

• 8e« Appendix. M. 

t When BenkM and EvertM urired at New York, and Manniiif wure a dwtd 
the fort, they took an Englkh Teasel of New England. The Connecticat |OT«ni- 
ment sient mejwengers to the Dutch admiral, remonstrating aninst sobiectiBg tiM 
Ejiglbih of Long Uland ; and against the capture of the vessel. The Dutch ecNS- 
nander answered, that they were commiaaioned to do all dama^ to tfa« Esdirii 
by land and »ea ; that if the towns of Long Island, did not submit the^ wobM re- 
ihicc them : and wondered that any question was made as to their taking tsemiea 
ikipii : Connectknt raised her nulitia and sent troops to Long Island to prottct the 

VOL. 1. 17 


Thoms F. Gordon, ** to respect the estates of the cdooHii," and 
to distribute justice^ m the king's name, according lo ihe fonai Cip 
tabliflhed by his predecessors. 

The province was resigned to Andros by Anthony Cohre» on tin 
Slst of October, 1674, according to Chier Justice Smith, and the 
first records of council after the English government was le-MO^ 
lished, are dated on that day, and it was &en that the ibrt wit m^ 
rendered to Andros. It was at this council ordered that all 
trates, who were b office when the Dutch came, should 
for six months from that time. Orders were likewise i»ued 

the oath of allegiance should be taken by the inhahkaaSk 
1675 In addidon to the punishment of Lovelace in ^-■g^'^, 

Andros had orders to seize the estate of the ex-govemov far 
the benefit of the Duke of York; but Manning had repaired to Eng- 
land, and so far found favour with the king, that the traitor retamed 
CD New York and underwent the form of a trial, which (although he 
confessed that he had treacherousfy surrendered the foft, aiad h 
was proved that his garrison was willing to defend it) resulted in a 
sentence which spared life, liberty and property — he only suflering 
the disgrace of having his sword broken, while held by the execv 
doner over his head, in fit)nt of the town house at Coenties Slip. 
May we not conjecture that the needy and profligate Charles was 

Kicified by receiving part of the bribe Manning had taken from the 
utch ? for we know that the king was as mercenary as he was 
debauched and profuse. To satisfy the Duke, it was neeessaiy 
that the traitor should return to the scene of his treason and un- 
dergo the disgrace above mentioned. The punishment must have 
been ordered to be thus slight, compared with the offence, for it 
was not conformable to the character of Sir Edmund to be n^rci- 
fol : his pride and cruelty were soon made conspicuous. His ordcn 
were to be as humane as was consistent with the Duke's interest^ 
and to use punishment rather as a means of terror than an instra- 
ment of cruelty. 

On the 17th of October, 1675, ''Edmund Androas, Esq., 
Seigneur of Saumarez," by virtue of authority derived from the 
Duke of York, appointed Mr. William Der\'all to be Mayor, 
Messrs. Gabriel Minvielle, Nicholas De Meyer, Thomas Gibha» 
Thomas Lewis, and Stephanus Van Cortlandt, to be Aldermen. 
John Sharpe was appointed Sheriff. It was ordered that four al- 
dermen should be a Court of Sessions. 

The Council at this time was Mr. Lawrence, Capt Brockholst, 
Capt. Dyre, with the Mayor, Aldermen and Secretar}*. 

Nicholas Bayard, with Messrs. Cornelius Steinwick, Jcrfiannet 
Depeyster, Johannes Van Biu^h, Cornelius Luyk, Wm. Beekman, 
Jaopb Kip, and Anionius De Mill, had been chaiged, in the pro* 
ceding March, with endeavouring to disturb the peace of the 


Chief Justice Smith, tells us, in his Hist, of N. Y-9 that James 
^' probably to serve the popish cause," recommended a clergyman 
of the name of Rensaellaer, to fill one of the churches of New 
York or Albany ; he appears to have chosen Albany, and laid claim 
to the colanie or manor of Rensaellerwycke, a tract of land extending, 
says Smith, *^ twenty-four miles upon Hudson's River, and as 
many on each side." This claim was referred to legal de- 
cision, and subsequently decided against the clergyman, and in 
favour of Kilian Van Rensaellaer. His church preferment was 
equally unsuccessful, although he was supported by Andros. The 
congregation of the Dutch Church, among whom appears Jacob 
Leisler, opposed this protegee of the DuJce of York, and put 
forward, as the champion of the classis of Amsterdam, (nominally, 
but probably of the protestant religion,) Dominie Niewenhuyt who 
objected to Rensaellaer as having received an episcopal ordination* 
The magistrates of Albany, as well as his people, sided with Niew- 
enhuyt, who was summoned to New York, and by frequent jour^ 
neys so harrassed, that the inhabitants of the city took part with 
him. At Albany the magistrates threw Rensaellaer into prison, oa 
a charge of certain *' dubious words" spoken by him in a sermon* 
Andros released him, and brought a suit for false imprisonment, 
requiring bail of each magistrate to the amount of £6000^ and 
imprisoning Jacob Leisler for refusing. From this it appears that 
Leisler was, in 1675, a magistrate of Albany, and a jealous suppor- 
ter of the liberty of the people and of the protestant cause. Tha 
popular voice finally prevailed, and Andros gave up the contest* 
Smith in his History of N. Y., very justly observes that these po- 
pish measures might have caused the violent convulsions in 168&-9, 
in which Leisler bore so conspicuous a part. 

The indication of a determination on the part of the people to 
assert their rights was as apparent as the disposition of Andros and 
his master, to subvert both civil and religious freedom. The in- 
habitants of Long Island called town meetings, and those who had 
formerly been under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, where Charles 
had carelessly, or from the whim of the moment, given Winthrop 
authority to establish a representative government, resolved to ad- 
here to that province ; but this James would not allow, and the 
whole island was subjected to the government of New Yoric. An^ 
dros laid the claims of these people (many of whom had setded on 
the island as Connecticut men^ before the Duke, but James repiiedf 
** I cannot but suspect assemblies would be of dan^rous com^ 
quence : nothing being more known than the aptness of such bodifli 
to assume to themselves many privileges which prove destructive 
to, or very often disturb the peace of government when thej are 
allowed. Neither do I see any use for them. Things that need 
redress, may be sure to find it at the quarter sessions," (over which 


the gOTernour, appointed by the Duke, presided,) ^* or by 
to myself.'' 

Andros sent a very cUdl letter to the goTemment of Conneciiciav 
infivming them that he claimed for the Duke of York as brmMm 
the Connecticut River. The messenger was directed to defiiv 
this letter to the general court without hinting its contents until ad- 
mitted to an audience. Andros foresaw that the claim wouU be i^ 
sisted ; but nothing daunted he equipped an armed force 
to reduce the fort at Saybrook, and proceeded with it to take 
session of the liver described as the limits of his government: 
on the 9th of July, 1675, he appeared with his vessels and 
<9posite the forL The miUtia of the neighboiuiiood quickly m* 
paired to the place, which was ungarrisoned, and Captain Bdl 
promptly took the command, hoisted the kings colours and mads 
show of resistance. 

The time for a formal summons, and as formal reply, gave op- 
portunity for hastily convening the general court and sending a pio- 
test against Andros*s proceeding, and orders to resist the Duke*t 
govemour, so that when the hostile summons was made and the 
king's colours hoisted by Andros, Bull answered by displaying the 
same standard and refusing to surrender, while Andros lay ioacdve 
opposite the fort. On receiving the protest, he asked and obtained 
permission to land, when he was met by Bull and others. A refer- 
rence was proposed which Andros refused, and ordered his patent 
to be read. Bull forbade the readin<r. Andros^s officer persisted, 
and was again commanded to desb^t, and in such manner as assured 
obedience. Andros seeing he must retreat or fight, chose the pru- 
dent part, and beins: accompanied to his boat by Bull and his mili- 
tia, the goveniour of New ^'ork sailed to the shore of Long Island. 

Some of the merchant's of New York denied the legality of duties 
imposed arbitrarily. The grand jur}- indicted Dyer the collector 
as a traitor, for encroaching upon the liberties of English subjects. 
He was sent home for trial ; but no accuser followed. Meantime 
for a few months, die harbour was free — a free port. 

The opposition of the people caused Andros to make a 
1678 voyage to England for instructions; he came back with 

to orders to proceed as heretofore, but the duke condesendcd 
1683 to limit the arbitran' imposts that had been exacted to three 
years. This provoked universal disgust, and the next year, 
upon the increase of the duties, the people showed increased dis- 
pleasure with a government in which they had no voice. He at- 
tempted to reform the Reformed Dutch Church, but was obliged to 
abandon what he asserted was his prerogrative. 

New Jersey had been assigned to others, and the assigns of James 
were vested with powers equal to those granted by patent to him ; 
yet by his countenance, if not instructions, his govemour of New 


donoan's administration. 133 

York assumed authority over both East and West Jersey. Philip 
Carteret had wisely encouraged a direct trade with England, instead 
of circuitous unportations through New York. This Andros en- 
deavoured to suppress by seizing the vessels of East Jersey. These 
efforts to make his province tributary was resisted by Carteret, upon 
which Andros had him seized in his place of residence, Elizabetb- 
town, and borne off prisoner toNew York to answer for his conduct. 
The duke being obliged to acknowledge his assignment, made a 
pretence that he could not grant full prerogative to Sir George Car^ 
teret, but yielded the point as one of courtesy and friendship. An- 
dros made the quakers of West Jersey pay toll on the Delaware, but 
they applied to England and were redressed. Every where the 
people struggled for rights and deserved to be free. The represen- 
tative government of West Jersey which had been established in 
1675, was continued, by the good sense of the proprietors. They 
were free, for they even elected their governour. 


Govemaur Dangan — Thejirst representative Assembly — Charter of 
Liberties — Canadian chairs — Fort Frontignac — French Mis- 
iionariesj Priests and Jesuits among the Iroquois — Dongan coun-^ 
teracts the views of James — The Gasemours of Virginia and 
New York meet t/ie Iroqtwis at Albany — They profess to be, and 
are, independent : the interpreter represent them as otherwise— Ex;- 
pediuon of M. Barre against the Iroquois — His distress — He is 
reproved by an Indian — Dongan protests against a French fort at 
Niagara — De Nonville's expedition — Dongan recalled. 

1683 GovERNouB Andros returned to England in the full 
favour of James, Duke of York ; and was soon after sent 
by Charles to introduce a system of tyranny into New England- 
Colonel Thomas Dongan, a professed papist, but a wiser man 
than his master, was commissioned as governour of the Duke^a 
province of New York, September 30th, 1682, but did not arrive 
until the 25th of August, 1683 ; and the records of the New Yoik 
Common Council inform us, that he was pleased to appoint the 
magistrates to meet him at the City Hall, (Coenties Slip,) when he 
read and published his commission ; and the magistrates waited 
upon him to the fort and invited him to dine with them at the City 
Hall. Dongan was instructed by James, through the advice of 
William Penn, to call an assembly of representatives. 

- - !ii^»* ■ !:ii w.) ' . '• -ti ---i*'V'.!iih' iifri»rf*?i! us Ji?«»^ 

,. -.1 .\ ::i;':i?! ,'■.-■... '. '.i* iiiim I'mi- ot' int- 

11 .. iiTr'- -i-f- . .1 i.'i -■• - .:"'i'-.i-}ii iiihu*rii'f* iv^r I'.f 

. INC > iL'iriione* in A:.;frir:a- fVr.."!* :hiiier. rlie Ai:n:ini. 

tc*4 *.: liivour wiih Uie pe^-toreH rftaart* ; "Jie morR. for otTnc 

... . ..ouieti l»v <.'rmnw«*il : an^l rlie aon. thmujn i -iiuker and s 

-.civ, •jiibueti vvirh llhfrral r>ri:iririi'*s. wq» :iiiceneffi !o bff 

uv.^ .. iit?ii •nipn-inir 'vh:u wa.a In opc.^r-irloa ro 'lie xriU ^ ha 

^vv.-i:; ifi« iirnnienT oppO'j'irion of ?:.«^ provinre fji^ -H*venlofbii 

v^x...i«., iiMi "UK '':i:". yjv ^ .•••=•; >.-*:-'• :!•-»::.•=: '^.-ir'.-iii: i ; . u« ;3roffniM4 

'U.-..-- .:i\<' v"i :-/-.■■ • .-■■ >.%■ .-■' •- •' :" }'-nr.- i/.ii '?n>thjced 

.,. ...i.«Hi .1 ]ut >■.••. 'i- - •■' f>'- _•■ '.'.'-. ;■■ .^ .vii t»j lix 

. .- .Jit M' » ■: • .:'■ > ■ ■.:.-■■: ■-:•.'■ F. .:•:•:»* :i:ar,<i 

... .It. ; iiiii ii:? .::-..-i:o.',- <;:.■: >.f'V- -'ifUM wfiijri^ :o the p«*r?'x:a*ioi» 

'•Mil. itf ')ei,-:z -.i-of': of ::,c Ijikf/- .^iverc-ljm. Thus by a» 

v.>o.iMi»ii if li^iaivcr. fii'l a M.-otv-fj Rruji^n Ca'iioiio prin^'e sirt 

...iw?* u I |jaiJi;?U':al co'.rrnoiir f'*r ♦•TT;sii:i-;j:nj a repres^nunoo of 

It. H^-iipii? itf 1 portion of t:;-!: i:o'.rrrirri#Til whirh he desired to be 

«vM >^t-ii •.••.'•s.vo'-c'ijv ov*rr i:.'r-j. 

>(uii-.iii Mvir.r 'i-' i'i-t rr*r-ii:!o::''ri arriv^-fl. hr.r-n pr-'*^ :a:rr.eii. and 
• • • 

,?ii lit .•'"•»■:■:.-.-:'•..' iv ::; J. •■••'.•::'.•. •-.r*." s^.v- Banrrotl. in 
I., MiMitr ..•'::..■- ['..iv-.: ^* :•■ -. •• r-.f'.-r ^! j'^l.-'itT-in wa.a nr*: orcu- 
... u, nil.' i".- ;: '.'i.'.ry y«'.:r- 7;f:» r !:■• Tt-i fi»i?i;:rd ''f :he pnpular 
♦iii»riii'«r '•} '.':.:' I) :'f'",. th'* rtjir'-'«iir"/. • - of !.•.*• j-^'^r-le mel in 

.v«L 1111)1/ ■ 

T'li; t-i.*':nrrji\ fon-i.-tf-fi of 17 iij« i!;li* r-, :i:.ii iif". rr »-\'"eeiipci 57 
.tuwii iw ihe cominenceinent of th^' revolutionary war. Ii exercised 
% ,iliit;«fcion»ry power ^ to llw L'ranl of .fcupplie-* for the ^iippon of 
:y^ottuiMtBU This wa.s a ron.-tant -oiirr»* of difffrenre between the 
i^ytfiiibtief and the covr?rnours ; t})«* laitiT irivnriahiy wi.shins: for a 
l^^'fiiuneiit pro%'ision. Kietrhor t>ei:an the !*triii;L'le, a.« we .''hall »ee. 
[% i^Mi umI h continued aji Ion:; a? Kngland appointed govenioiirs 
i9r S^w York. 

'Vhe Charter of Liberiie? declared. " Supreme T-<e£n?laiJve power 
4iiUi fcfever reiiide in the ctivcrnoiir. rfmnril, and people, met in 
liiMiiirml assembly. Vs\*'rv frft'holdcr and fn-f-rnan shsdl vote for 
iiHif^*entaiive<« without restraint. Nf» freeman .«hall suffer but by 
iuUgaaent of hi* peen« ; and all trial* ."hall he by a jurv- nf twelve 
iiMMi* No lax !»hall be a.*«»*s^d on any pretrnrr whatever. h«ji by 
llm wtMiaeiit of the aMembly. No seaman or tidier ^hali be quar- 


tered on the inhabitants against their will. No martial law shall 
exist. No person professing faith in God, by Jesus Christ, shall 
at any time be any ways disquieted or questioned for any diflbrence 
of opinion/'* But James ascended the throne of England and 
showed his true character. A direct tax was decreed by 
1686 an ordinance. Fees and quitrents were extorted by ques* 
tioning titles to real estate : and the yeomen of Easthampton 
having protei^ against this tyranny, six wete arraigned before the 

It will not be uncharitable to suppose, that although James jrield- 
ed to the advice of Penn, and to what seemed to be present ne- 
cessity, he had determined to seize the first opportimity for estab- 
lishing an arbitrary government in New York ; for, Andros 
the late govemour, was deputed by Charles, with powers which 
subverted all the charters of New England ; and he landed 
in Boston as govemour of all those colonies. Glittering with 
gold, and surrounded by scarlet minions, he prepared to over* 
throw the liberties so cherished by the Puritans. He was empow- 
ered and instructed by James, upon his accession to the crown, to 
remove or appoint members of the Council ; and (having created 
that body) to make laws, levy taxes, and controul the Milida, with 
the consent of counsellors appointed by himself. To this same 
(Govemour Andros, with the same powers, did James, as King of 
England, consign New York ; although, as Duke of York, he had 
granted to the province an Assembly of representatives with other 

It was the great desire of James to introduce the Roman Catholic 
religion into New York, and Dongan was commissioned by him 
with that view ; but the Deputy Govemour proceeded with more 
caution in America than was pleasing to his master. This caused 
his removal in 1686, when James succeeded to the throne. We 
shall see that the artifices of France to gain the Iroquois by the in- 
troduction of Jesuits, though seconded by James, were opposed 
by his govemour, who said that the opposition of the Five Nations to 
Canada was the safeguard of New York. This opposition was one 
cause for Dongan's removal, though undoubtedly the principal was 
the desire to make New Yoric and all Upper Canada one govern- 

To return to the year 1683. Soon after the arrival of Govemour 
Dongan, he summoned the general assembly and made known: dio 
duke's instmctions for the gratification of the people. During^ the 
session, many important enactments were promulgated.^ 

On the 28th of November, the Governours of New York and 

* Albany Records. t See Wood. t See Appendix N. 


Connecticut settled tlie boiindar)' line, confining: the htier 

to the east of Byram Hiver, and of a line twenty miles eutwaid rf 

the Hudson.* 

The transactions of Governour Dongan with the Iroqnoisy and i 
opposition to the French of Canada, were of scarcely leas i 
ance than the pacification of the people of his province, bjr tbs 
tablishment of representation. 

I have already mentioned the erection of foits, intended fay Ai 
French to protect them from the Iroquois. Among tbese^ 
pretence of a post for trading, M. de Courcelles obtained 
sion from the chiefs of the confederacy to build a fort on 
territories, at Cadaraqui, or Lake Ontario ; which Coimt 
afterwards completed and called Fort Frontignac. TUs 
the northwestern bank of the Su Lawrence, where the river 
the waters of the lake. In 167 S, M. De la Salle rebuilt it of 
and it had four bastions : its circumference was a quarter sf a 
French league ; in front were several small islands, a haibovy 
behind it a morass. 

The French introduced their missionaries wherever and 
ever they could among the Iroquois, and notwithstanding that 

Stress orders were obtained from James to Don^ran, the g of Ctn oM' 
bimd it necessary to counteract them as much as possible. At a 
councU he held with the Indians, he complained of these prierti as 
disturbers of the peace and the instigators of murder. He spobli 
the Iroquois with the words and in the tone of a master, and roifaadB 
them to entertain the Jesuits and others sent by the French : b«l 
the Iroquois were far from acknowledginfr his or any Euiopeao an- 

1684 Lord Effingham, Crovemour of Virginia, traveHed fenr 
hundred miles to treat with the Indians ; and on the 13th of 
July, 16S4, eight sachems of the Mohawks, three of the QneidHv 
three of the Onondagas, and three of the Cayutras, met his lorddupat 
Albany, the Governour of New York and the magistrates of AJbany 
being present. Colden gives the speeches on this occasion at 
length. Lord Effinehain, reproached the Iroquois with branch 
of promise, inasmuch as they had attacked his Indiaiu and 
the Virginia settlers. He attributes lo the influence of Governour 
Dongan the withholding of his vcn^reance and his not destroying their 
whole combined nations. The plirasc of laughing in one's sleeve, 
will not apply to an Indian ; but I do not doubt that in private they 
turned into ridicule the *^ big words*' of his lordship. The Sb- 
hawks, however, thought fit to exonerate themselves and cast die 
blame upon the other tribes. They never had broken their en- 

'Set Appendu O 


gagements ; they would always be obedient to Corlear^ the Gov* 
ernour of New York. . 

'. So said the interpreter: but I doubt if the Mohawks ever thanked, 
in earnest, the Gpvemour of Vii^ia for forgiving their transgres- 
sions. However, hatchets were buried for the Oneidas, Onon-* 
4agas, and Cayugas. The Mohawks say that they bury none, as 
they had never broken the chain. Dongan had gained the affection 
of the Iroquois, and he artfully procured their consent to his putting 
the Duke of York's arms upon the castles. He meant this as a 
mark of submission ; tliey considered it as a kind of charm against 
French power. . The French Jesuits had prevailed upon a portion 
oif the Ih)quois to be what they called converts to Christianity. 
These had separated from the Iroquois and congregated under the 
protectiQn of Canada, opposite to Montreal, under the tide of 
" praying Indians," or Caughnaivaghas, The Govemour of New 
York requested the Iroquois to call these stragglers home. The 
sachems desired Dongan, as he was in friendship with Canada, to 
call upon the Caughnawaghas to rejom their proper tribes. In the 
course of these speeches, the interpreter makes the Iroquois ack- 
nowledge themselves subject to New York. Now^ the Indians 
always declared tliat they were independent. Each- man felt, 
though united to his tribe and to the confederacy, '^ I am myself 
alone !" An Iroquois orator had said to Dongan's deputy, ^^ He 
that made the world, gave me the earth I occupy. I respect both 
the French and English ; but no one has a right to command me!'* 
Deputies from the Senecas arrived before the speech making was 
over, and joined with the others in talks and treaties. They agree 
to stay away from Virginia, for Corlear^s sake. 

While these conferences were going on at Albany, a message 
arrived from M. De la Barrc, the present Govemour of Canada, 
complaining that the Iroquois carried on a series of hostilities 
against the Miamies and other western Indians, in alliance with the. 
French. Dongan communicated this message to the Iroquois,jgnd 
they retorted by saying that the French Indians interfered with their 
hunters; that the French supplied the Miamies and others with 
powder; and acknowledged that the Iroquois hunters took the 
powder from tlie French traders. '^ Onondio calls us children," 
they said, *' and at the same time sends ammunition to our ene- 
mies to kill us." , " 
1685 M. De la Barre, however, did not confine himself to 
complaints. He, at two successive applications to the 
court, obtained 900 soldiers from France. He projected an expedi- 
tion which should take vengeance on tlie Iroquois, if not destroy 
them. . Letters were procured from the Duke of York, command*- 
iog Dongan not to oppose the intention of the French i general, 
which was to fall on the Senecas first, and by his spies, the priests, 
VOL. 1. 18 


fo persuade the Oneidas and other tribes to remain nmiil u 
friends. His spies informed him tliat Indians would stand hreati 
other in union, if he approached with an army ; and funher, ikc 
Dongan had promised to support them. Charlevoix say* rim Ai I 
Govemour of New York had dis^sted the Iroquois bv taDuiit ^ I 
them as if they were English subjects, and had been fold ths 
Ononthio was the Iroquois' father, and Corlear their brother, bmikf 
had DO master. De la Barre had marched with seventeen 
men, French, Canadians, and Indians, and eveiy warlike 
mem to fort Frontignac, where he was to be joined by the 
•T Michilimflckinac and their friends, with an overwhehning 
He delayed to no purpose, or worse, for he exhausted Us pravi- 
sion and his allies failed him. He crossed to the south side of the 
entrance of the lake, near the present Sackett^s harbour* but loig 
ealled Port Famine^ from the distress of the French armv. Sick- 
ness had attacked them on tlie north side of the St. Lawrence, 
and starvation was added to it on the south borders. Don- 
gan had given notice to the Iroquois of De la Barrels appraach, 
and they were on the alert. The French govemour foand k 
necessaiy, instead of proceeding to the Indians, to call upon iImh 
to send deputies to a friendly treat}'. Donsran endeavoured to pR- 
vent this ; and, accordindy, the >iohawks and ^>enecas refbaed to 
meet the French {rcneral : but the other tribes, among wbom Je- 
suits and priests had been received, persuaded the Oneidas>, Om»- 
daeas, and Cavusras to send some of their chiefs to council. Ther 
accordingly came to the French canip« and saw its distress. But 
De la Barre addressed the deputies as if he was in force and eqoal 
to their destruction. He told tliem that the kin? had sent him to 
smoke the pipe of peace with the Five Nations. pro\*ided they would 
give entire satisfaction and reparation for the injuries done his snb- 
jeots, and promise for the future never to molest them : that they, 
(the Iroquois.) had robbed and abused the kinir's children, the Illi- 
nois, the Miamies, and the French traders, and he came to demand 
satisfaction : if denied, he was ordered to declare war. He eno- 
merated the injuries inflicted on die kin::'s children, demanding 
that the prisoner? taken from the French Indians should be sent 
back, or he threatens ven^reance. He addressed himself paiticu- 
lariy to an Onondaga chief, venerable from aire, and wise from obser- 
vation, who understood the design on which De la Barre had come, 
and the cause of his proposing peace instead of \«Teaking intended 
destruction. He had seen the distress of tlie French armv, and 
answered the general in a tone of sarcasm and contempt. 

It is not often I shall intrude an Indian talk in my padres, but 
this as given by Colden, and copied by William Smith,* is too cood 

• JIi>!crT :•: .N\\v Yi?ik. Vl-I I p 7^. e!<. 


kd Qm«c« dtti (be SUB iad bur.:: up ill cbe iimssts viiich Kndor 

Lve$iHO«e to cho F?vix''h« or iheu ibe iskk^s had sq 

xm Isisks^ dui: Lvy hia ^urrvxiaded o>ur cfesdes and 

iBfMSfiibie fcr u^ :o p?c <9uc oc' ibeoL Ye$« YopMww&a^ 

ianp OEt-ymi :s«x Ji&ii cbe cun^\«uy iM ««tQ$ so $rei& 

brvH^tic Tou so CLT. Now vvk: 4k ttadeceired* iaact 

C«y«c;i5«. i.>k>ac;&cx9^ Ocsetekss. utd Mii^vkk tie yet 
I ihwrt" vuo. ui ccx'tr r^jkU'^e. K>r hnacii^ hack iiin> tbeir 

:rt vvKU piifoeoei5i5«ir» wiMmil fiwoi their 

li w £sai>wr &?c wHi, chic vou xfic uaJer cnMuid that omr- 

■idbet tbftc bt$ U'^a $o v^cbea d\ed ia tbi^ hlood of iha 

Heur« YvaiKKtokv 1 oo ikk sl^^r^v I same my eye» 
iuflu vhka enlUti^L^o^ uif* ciKxmei^ go me « <nm 
3e Mfed v'tf' 1 cvvu^vtuY «x <oI%ii<ei^ «:x> ${Maks as if he 
£* He sav^cbi; be oolv oiuie :o tbe ktke lo smoke oa 
cilusiec \i:sh tbie i^QoooLcxs^ Bu: GxiT-jiifuti javs* dfaat ha 
cviacnr%\ u^c he «;ts :o kixvk chr-m oa UK head* it skk* 
aoi wvi4kcri>r\i ±je in::* oc" lie Fwoch- 
^ 1 Me YoaDtL^odio nrir:^ ia a cLinp o< 5£ck caesu vfaose Enaa 
dbr Griu Spin: iuts sft%>^i by Lrriodz^ chss sAckoetss oa tbeaBL Hear* 
T(MHHai&>: our wvcuea aid ciken c!^Ir clubv^ our chikiren and qU 
aea Ijaai carr^ their bov^ a£^ xm>v^ uiro civ heart ot yoar 
t oar wirrA.HU^ had ooc cb^^Lrrr^eo. :beiii« jlzo kepc cheta back^ 
jwir sKst^ecifer* lV;J:ue$i^<*« oaax^ co our c-j&>de^ Ic fe$ doDe» aad 
I aam j^ui Ji^ U::ur« Yooaockiitfk ve ;>Iui:ce£v\i c&ooe oc che FiC9cli» 
vat rx>M -JriK£ vMrri^v. r^:^ »a\:^T« xad bidl »> tbe Tvichmai 
md Cauccutificks^ 'c<c4u$e tishKe anEHfe> miiibc hdve c«k( as our lives. 
Henna m IhIcw cbe exirjtLH< o£ c^ Je>uLc$« who ^care all the kagt 
oc nun Cfvouicc :o our c45cLe$« Le<c ^ «ir<i^kea lodiaw sboald 
fancck aecs oc l>> hoid. Our «-:irrAXKD> h&v^* im4 bearer eaoufgli 
"U g«T aiY ill chiese iru:* :bic ±ieT ba\ e ukeit* lod ocr old meo aia 
■oc inxi o< ae 'wur^ Tbus "ceil vn?^rYe> inv woc^is* 

-We c-JlTTjoi.: ^s? Ezrla^i i:::^> ocir iaies :o nade there with iha 
ITavivs* izsi Quizo^rbiRKs as ;hif A^ibxkiKrks bco(u:b( the Fieacli 
» OCT o-is^e;^ ;o cirry cc che vao^\ «^-ii oe Ecuit^ »y it 
zfteirs. We i:v b<>ni ^eif : we selcxr dcpesxi oc YoanonJio 

" We vjjY io wbew wv- pieftSk^. i:>i oorry with i» whom 
ji^i.?*:\ it\: bvA lavi seii witic wif p>*i?e : if vvhlt Allies he 
sia^ :'^ *~:s<: ii^tv. jbs 5'jbcb. oxwovuxi CDer^ :o ^^VK^ive ao oihe 
jv -• :>:•':•'-*. Tri-s beh Bie5eo~e^ ai> worv^s*. 

•• \\ ;■ v~ocifvi :rf Twirhcnr.o? iixi Caicajiifcrks oa ^ hni, 
SfCi .:<< rv y hi>i .'u: ^:owa c&e cee* oif pevioe* which were the iaM 
cc y^ ^:::2:^^ . Xiio* bife kuocec i:x beaven oa oar hadi : fhajf 






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But this summer De la Barre was superceded by the Marquis 
de Nonville, who arrived with a re-inrorcement of troops. He 
proceeded to fort Frontignac to be near and observe the Iroquois ; 
and the result of his intelligence from the spies was, that he must 
chastise the offenders. He wrote to the king that the colony waa^ 
in a deplorable condition, that the Indians who mingled with the 
French, did not become French ; but the Frenchmen who mingled 
with the Indians became altogetlier savages. He proposed erecting 
a stone fort at Niagara, for at least 700 men, to exclude the English 
from the Lakes, and aid in subduing the Five Nations, by thus hav- 
ing a garrison at each end of Lake Ontario. By these strong 
places in the midst of the country of the Iroquois, fort Cadaraqui, 
or Frontignac, commanding the lower pass, and fort Niagara the 
upper, he thought to prevent the Indians from carrying their peltry 
to the traders of New York, and the cominand of the Lake hie 

1686 On the 26th of May, 1686, Goyemour Dongan wrote 
to De Nonville, from New York, staying, the Five Nations 
were convinced by the accumulation of stores and provisions at 
Cadaraqui, that an expedition against them was intended ; and as 
these people were subjects of England, an attack upon them would 
be considered as an infraction of the peace between France and 
Great Britain. The Governour of New York further expressed 
his astonishment, that the French should (;hink of building a fort 
at Niagara, a place within the territory of New York. 

The noble marquis, according to Charlevoix, jesuitically denied 
the intended expedition against the Iroquois, in his answer. He 
said, these Indians were fearful, as they knew that they deserved 
chastisement ; that the stores carried to Cadaraqui were necessary 
to that post ; that ill-disposed persons gave Dongan false intelli- 
gence ; and as to the sovereignty over the country, France had 
taken possession of it before the English arrived at New York; 
the kuigs, their masters, were at peace, and it was not for the lieu- 
tenants to disturb them. 

Dongan was not deceived by the professions of De Nonville ; 
but, in a council at Albany, advised the Iroquois to be prepared^ 
and to have the first blow, by striking the French and their allies, 
the Miamies, and other tribes. He likewise endeavoured to draw 
the Caughnawahgaa from Canada by oflfering them lands, and i»o- 
mising to protect them in their religion, as his master was a goodl 
Catholick. The Iroquois attacked the Illinois and Miamies as 
advised ; and the French missionaries informed De Nonville 
of all Dongan's movements and those of the Indians. 

This information, and a visit from the missionary, determined 
Jthe marqms to hasten his grand expedition : and, in the meantime. 

bii icuminy pv^ iiilutc|iied tbe EaglMi tradoBf 
nodsy md nnriHiiied them* Xbis ww ooumnrto Asmmi^ 
Fnaee and EngfanJ, in wUch k w«i saqpobaed ikat 
tnde m Ameria sboold be free to bodi Mtioos. Of 
cenpfauned loudljr, as if his aggu'wiuiii bjr ineaBi cf 
f liinifd as Engfaib sobjcctSy weie not eqoaDjr iiifracttui 

peace and tieatj. 
1^67 The plan of die Marquis deKoonOe WW to 

cenecas first ; for dns purpose, he direv troopa 
laqni, and at the same time advanced a i htmlmwm wp 
tf hold the Mohawks in check. But, in obedienc e to 
Ae BMMt Christian kitt|^, to diminish the nmnben of 
byfgfymeans^twDTiDagcs that weiewithm a fewleagaeaof 
Q a iaiiu were surprised while in perfect secuiitji, and the 
canied off bjr a bodj of three hundred Canacfians. 
were, in part, doomed to the torments of the stake, and Ae 
dcTi to prevent intdKgence of the movements of the Frcwd^ 
m ohe mence to the express orders of Loois ie Grand, wow 
to Fiance for his majesnr's gallies.* 

Fnrther to Mind the Iroquois, the Marqins sent back Ae i 
sionaiy (who had visted him with inteDigence,) to die 
with assurance* of friendship and presents in token of goad 
He found them prepared for war bjr the messengers of 
who had taken aaroMtage of his absence, to pot them on 
against the French. But, savs CharieToix, *'*' the 
changed the foce of aSurs.^' The Onondagas were qoieied and 
pared bjr the Jesuit spj to become the victizns of the swonland 

This bosineas being accomplished to bs mind, the priest 
to De NomriOe for fnrther instmctioDs, leaving his brodMr 
daga. The principal emissary was sent back with 
entice the chie6 of the Iroquois to a pretended friendij 
Cadaraqid, and to send his brother to Canada to be in 
the hosdie designs of the marquis should be apparent. 

The profasuoos of the Goveroour of Canada, made dwonghhia 
apgr, the misriooary, and the presents which were alwvys giwj n to 
the Indians, enticed a number of the chie& of the Fivw Ko* 
tiooB to the fort at Cadaraqm, where they were seised, aeaa m 
chains to Quebec, and embarked for France, to becooK gtlqr 

The designs of De XonviOe could no longer be 
This last act of treachery made the Iroquois irrecoocih 
all Frenchmen. The secondary miasionary had «»»^*i»^ too 

* Hirt.«rfi€wri 

DB nonville's expedition. 143 

at Onondaga : he was secured and doomed to the torture. Bound 
to the stake, the priest had already felt the flames and the knife, 
when a woman^ who had probably experienced those doctrines he 
professed, and prompted by those feelings of the sex which are 
recorded by Ledyard as existing in Africa, and by Captain John 
Smith, in the Pocohontas of Virginia, interceded for him and he was 

Lamberville, the priest who had been the instrument of De Non- 
ville in sending the chiefs and others to the trap prepared for their 
destruction at Cadaraqui, was still found at Onondaga and brought 
before a council of their wise men. A chief thus addressed him : 
•• We have cause to treat you as an enemy ; but we cannot resolve 
to do it We are willing to believe that you were deceived, arid 
were not a party in the treachery of your countrymen. We are 
willing to believe you innocent, and that you detest the treason of 
which you have been made the instrument. However, it is best 
that you depart from among us. When our young men have sung 
their war song, some among them may look upon you as a traitor, 
and we may not be able to restrain them. Go ! we will send 
guides to see you in safety to your friends." Such was the 
contrast between the savage and the civilized man, on this occa- 

At length the preparations of the Govemour-general of Canada 
seem to have been completed. The Chevalier De Tonti had 
been sent among the Illinois to lead them down on the south side 
of Lake Erie to the neighbourhood of the Senecas, that being ready 
to co-operate with the army frem Canada, they might cut off the' 
retreat of the women and children. M. De Luth was ordered to' 
entrench himself near Detroit, and collect the Indians of that quarter, 
who were enemies to the Iroquois, and had suffered from them. 
M. Durantaye was ordered to collect the Indians of Michilimacki- 
nac, and to inarch to Niagara. 

On the 11th of June, the French army moved from Montreal 
and its neighbourhood, in batteaux and canoes. Of the king's 
troops, there were 832. Those Who have seen the discipline, die 
uniform, the equipments of the French officers and soldiers of the 
old regime : the brilliant white and gold, the nodding plumes^ the 
flaundng colours, and the seducing music of the railitaiy band, may 
form some idea of this dazzling parade as it passed through the 
untamed wilderness, or over the bosom of solitary rivers and'dea- 
like lakes. 

One thousand Canadians, as rangers, and 300 Indiansf accompa- 
nied this main body, besideis the usual array of attendants and camp 

From Cadaraqui the army entered Lake Ontario the 2dd of 
June, and, in two divisions, passed up the north and south sides of 

144 DB sostillb's mxTEmrunu 

duf wood-enclosed sea. The vrbole hnded it 
ibmiiiip in bmle amy, marched in all die piide oTi 
to crush die Seneca imioii. In front was die main bodj^ of 
pean aoUiefs, accompanied bv die Canadian langen: 
and camp iblknrerE brooelit up die lear. 

AD was silence on die put of die Seoecaa, and Ae Fi 
imasimnz dm die wamours had fled, pushed on 10 ovenake 
ores or dieir women and children. Bnt snddenh' from tke 
and boshes, die diickeis and fai^fa n^ass on eidier ade of the 
host, a deadhr fire was poured from an iniisiUeeDeiiir; bat 
the fint oonfosion of suqinse was past, die war-whoop 
sides. The front and rear were insandr chaiced br the 
The Older of march was broken ; the banalions sooefat the 
of the woods, and fired on each other. TfaisUind 
oak* remedied br the lansen and Indians of the French, 
the Senecas in dieLr own mode and caused diem 10 retreat. Wlm 
ofder was iesu>mL the marquis was so moefa discouiand hj 
m, thai be advanced do fanber that dar. 
lus save the Iroqwiis time 10 bum tbeir liDare and 
what tbev dee=>eid laosz t>recioasw Tbe anor marciied iiao a 

mm 4» 

of desobdon. but found two ojd nien, wbo were deliremi 
ttieir alje?. 

Aiier destrojinz the corn of uie n^ridioQitiood, the na^ 
qnis led his troops back to ti/e banks of the lake, eiutm d a 
ton. wjih fa-jr bastions. 0:1 tbe souib-ea^- side of tbe nrvtt «f 
Xiacara. wbere be kft Kw ro«u wi-Ja eijin monrJas" p 
le be blwrked up br the Iroqiiois. and 5iial:y. aLi but 
perish bv iuiujie. 

2*MPon afier thi« fiiihJess asd difnacefd eTpechJon of De 3 
Tfile, a councij of tbe Five Narjoa? iDei GoTenior Dosxiaa ac^ 
He fold ifaen thai the losse? of tbe Seoeca? were esnrely owiof ia 
their nakinz ir»i3«r* wjib Vft Frei5ci2 whi»ui his conseot. and aoi 
arowin? Uierriseires fcr EnriiM : fw if liie Frtich oos^sdeied 
as such, the}' wouJ<j do: dire 10 invade ibem. He spoke v 
as Endi*4i ftubj^&cts. aiid ine^i to pe.^u^de tbeni tLat tbnr 
oonld oohr l«; aw-jred bj tiielr iciriK/wledrLir tbe Kinir of Ear- 
laad as ibeir mast^T. He zc'r^stc *jjezr.. as tbev w<e.-e az 
Canada, noi 10 kill kny of 'ibe yr^z-'.n «bo iiizta uiij 
hands, but to keep tbeu far crxiiisaiirc** Vj rrrUsise their own 
He adtiied them 10 make p^sace -^rrji ztj^ we^sem iDdiaaa. aad 
tfaerebv veaken tbeii Frexx.b t:>t::.Y. cr.i f'.^r tiie «r:>e pivpoie. 10 
caO home the Cauefanawaeias: buuif'j^evwoGid not come, he hoB 
that the Iroqma hifnr mktzr r^ io \nJih thntu He wkbes then 10 
assign a pte-i o^ Lti*: Oauino. "s* bert be r.':2T buiic a ion at winch 
he mav keep stores— endendr poistinc to Osweeo. He pomfe oic 
a way to saciiie dwir com from their enemief. bf bisriH ix in te 


woods far from their villages. He tells them that the French priests 
were spies upon them and him, and congratulates them upon having 
dismissed such inmates, at the same time offering to send missiona- 
ries for their instruction. He reminds the Iroquois that the French 
now have forts at "Oniagara," Cadaraqui, Trois Rivieres, and 
Montreal, and required them to guard against the frontier fort- 

Charlevoix says that Dongan threatened De Nonville that he 
would openly support the Iroquois, if the Govemour of Canada 
attacked them : but the marquis laughed at the threat. He sent 
Mohawks, gained to his views — probably Caughnawahgas — 
among the Iroquois, and by his arts kept them from committing 
hostilities for a time. Chambly was, however, soon after beset, 
several houses burnt, and captives carried to Albany. The 
Onondagas surprised some of the garrison of Fort Frontignac, or 
Cadaraqui, and avowedly kept them to exchange for tlie warriours 
sent to the French gallies. The Jesuits tried to persuade the In- 
dians tliat their friends were not sent to the gallies, but were still at 
Quebec, though tliey knew the contrary, and in token of friend- 
ship, presented them with two belts of wampum. These, however, 
Were sent to New York, and Dongan wrote to De Nonville for an 
explanation. He pretended he did not know, and sent a priest to 
New York as a spy, with orders to return home by the way of 
the Mohawk country : but he was sent back to Canada by another 

1688 This spy-priest was the Fere VaiUdTU, viho came liere 
early in 1688. By him Dongan informed De Konville 
that the only terms on which the Five Nations would make peace 
with France, was the return of the chiefs, treacherously seized and 
sent to the galleys ; die demolition of forts Cadaraqui and Niagaira ; 
satisfaction to the Senecas for their losses ; and giving up the 
Caughnawahgas that they might be again received by the tribes 
they belonged to. 

James II counteracted the efforts of Dongan for the good of his 
province, and ordered him to prevent the Iroquois from attending 
a council in Canada, to hear the proposals of De Nonville for a 
peace. Accordingly, a cessation of arms was agreed upon, and ah 
exchange of prisoners. Twelve hundred of the Iroquois attended 
the council at Montreal. When this army of deputies arrived at 
Cadaraqui they demanded an officer to conduct them to Montreal, 
apd the commandant sent his lieutenant, who, upon embarking^, 
found himself in the midst of a host of Indians. At Montreal, De 
Nonville met them. The orator of the Iroquois told the governbiir 
that the confederates were in condition to exterminate the French, 
or drive them into the sea. ** But I," he said, " have obtained 
permission to give you warning, that you may avoid this veYigearice 

VOL I. 19 ^^^ • 


by accepting the terms of peace offered by Carlear, I give joi 
four days to resolve." 

This speech, «ay.s Charlevoix, and 1,200 Iroquois ready to M 
upon Montreal, threw the Canadians into consternation. DcXoo- 
vUle proposed peace, if the Indians in his alliance should be 
included and suffered to supply Cadaraqui with provisioiii. 
Kiagara he agreed to abandon. These terms were accepted, 
and he wrote home to solicit the return of the Indian gaDej 

While these nesrotiaiion? were jroins: on, a chief of the Mklul- 
mackinacks contrived to enra^re the Iroquois by seizing some of 
their ambassadors, and pretendinir that he did it by order of De 
Konville. The consequence was, that in July a lar^e body of Iro- 
quois fell upon the Island of Montreal when the habifaru veere m 
perfect security, murdered men, women, and children, destroying 
every thing to the very ^tes of the fort. They slew one thousaod 
persons, and carried off twenty-seven prisoners, who were btmt 

Never was Canada' so weak. The French colonists had 
assimilated themselves to the Indians around them, and becoming 
Courcurs dc Bols^ married squaws, and their children became 

The Iroquois, flushed with success, and enraged at the real and 
supposed indiLmities offered them, aL^in, in the following autumn, 
laid waste the lower part of the Island of Montreal, and seemed 
only to lack in knowledire of the art of attacking fortified places, to 
effect the overthrow of the French in Canada. 

In the mean time, Don'^^an wa- recalled hv .lames, and DeXoo- 
ville departed for France, fully persuaded that the only way to stib- 
ject or destroy the Irr)qiioi.- was hy the conquest of New York. 
Charlevoix savs, that he -latpd that Andros, the successor of Don- 
gan, not !)einL: a pa]»i>t. would be more inimical than his predeces- 
sor. He said 1,'J<70 French soMieis. and :inO Canadians, led by 
himself, would pass hy the Sorel and Lake Chamjilain under pre- 
tence of attackini: the Irwjuois ; hut to them he would profess 
friendship, hut enmity to tlie Knirlish. Albany, he said, had only 
a defence of palisades and a small fort of four bastions, defended 
by 500 ^Idiers, (an estimate far too great.) and -300 inhabitants, 
(meaninir, I suppose, fit to hear arms.) New York was represented 
as having a force of eiirht companies, half horse and half foot ; the 
town not enclosed, and with a fort of four bastions, mounted with 
cannon. This port taken, would give his master the best situation 
in Amerira. The inhabitants, he said, were principally Dutch, 
conquered hy the English, who would join with llie Prince of 
^)ranL'f\ smd if\nh from James TI. 


The Court of France approved die marquis's plans, and ap- 
pointed Count Frontignac to put them in execution.* 

* It M eakaUted that oiHXrHK) HnpienoL^ oscnpod from their butrhen and 

ciM«iioiier», to enrich other countries hv their vinne and imlnstry. In America, 

8 » « tii CaroIinA i* «uppi>sed to ha\e had more than any other colony, hot New York 

«!• enriched by the J:iy#. and thousands of her best citizens. 

Ib the rear i^Sc>. James 11. and his friend JetTritf*. enriched Mar^iand bytheric- 

lof Monraooth's rrhetlion. who were rot hanred. James fixed tkeir price at BOt 

XIO. and prohibited their heme si>t at liberty until they had serred out 

for which they were condemned to sKiviiy — at least ten years. James re- 

that hundreds were han«:ed. and tint hundreds would be sold to fill his cot- 

Bat James and Jewries lud a rival in the .Mayor of Bristol, who made a trade 

the accused, that he mieht sell them to the plantations. This, Jeffries 

■ot permit. Kidnanping. too. was another source of population for the 

colomes. and Bristol had a full shnre in ihh trndo. 

In July, the iiovemours of Virginia and New York met the afent of Mas- 
nchusetts at Albany, and held council witli the Iroquois. * New York hemine 
te bond of New England and Virgini:i. 

"After the fort was buih by the Dutch." says Mr. .\bee1. "persons who came 
erer from Holland to settle in America, for the purpose of tradinc with the natirea 
for fiuiuctc. and who could not n^side in the fort, built hou<es under the walls of 

the fort, and formed the first street, which they called IVari street." 
1636 The city had extended to a number of streets. The following sixteen are 
mentioned : — PraH, BntaJtmf, Hifk stmt. Lotr strrft. Bntrtrs strecr, 
f't, ExeimHer. Stamf. Kims. \ftr. lUartr. Marktireit. BnVfjf^. Bnmd, SwM, 
or SmitJk's^if. The uiembers of the Dutch church, in 16^. were 3S4 
and 7(>2 children." 

"* We are*informed" says the same MSS.. ** that the Dutch, in imitation of whit 
wnsdone in Holland, built' dykes in Broad street, nearlv as far up as the City HaD." or 
where the Castom House is now. ^ l^:%^^ erecting, "'t'he posts were found standing 
^Nintten or twelve feel from the houseson eachside of the street, not lon^r af o." (that 
ia. when Mr. Abeel wrote> •* u hen the street was new paved." Mr. Abeel speaks 
•f the cftT as he saw it in 1744. The wall, or rather palisades, from **the North 
BiTer. near Trinity church." extended aloni? Wall street to the East River. '* la 
1744. it had palisades, with block bottles, surroundine it from river to river; (nm 
■ear the air-4umace to the ship yards, at the edse of what was called the meadows 
OB the weei ade. Not lonj[ before this, the water out of the Freslnwater Poad, 
BOW called JTslttr." at the time he wn^te. ** ran down to both rivers, fre^endj 
' so wide as to require logs to be laid across to walk over.** 

149 MBAffUSEff or JAMBS n. 


The iigctfy o/" Jame* — Faroyrs the French riftrv, rdigiom 
polthcal—DoctjinK* of Romt in ojj»ofifion to Ptlj-gocemM 
Succeu ofJaiM* in infrod*/cif'Sr th/.M doctriM* — Alarm and 
amce in En^larui: in S^w York — Jorob L^i^hr rait^tthe 
{^ WUliam III — OjtjfO^ifion mnS^. ^*u thf. omc^rt r>f 
zaUion ofAUxtrnf — B^iu'/rd — VuhConlundt — PkiHi 
Ut — letter from Etfrland, a'ithirizyp^ th prtt^-Ht ruler to 
till further orders — Ln.'Ur. Lv:>tt^rinht'Gor*.mour — ItAcrtlit 
ingston — hevfhrf proc/f dings — Bayard'* jutition, 

16S5 James II, succeeded hi.- brother Charles, in 1 6S5. Tb 
people of New York rejoiced in the change : but soon icNnd 
that as king, he had ror::oL or violated with impunit} '. that which ai 
Duke, James pledged hirnffelf to perform. Under the titles of Yoik 
and AJbaDv, he had promised tlje people of his? province a 

tion ; but, jeruitically mii'ht tiiink or profess, that the kinc' 
1696 not bound by the proirji-^*-* of the riubjecu He inrested i)oB- 
gan with a new cornrni-vsion. by which, (with his Covivri/, and 
die governour's council were ijI? friends, favourites, or creatures,) 
he might enact law> and impo?e taxes. The novemour was ex- 
pseady enjoined to suffer no priniin:;r-pre<rs, (the dread of tiTants,) 
to be put up. There ha? always existed, as if by instinct, in the 
breasts of the usurpers upon tlie rizhti of man, a fear that he should 
be instructed. 

The bigot!}' of .Jam e? wai? such, that he cave facility to the poli- 
tical views of the Frenrh, by his orders to Don:.^n. Amone the 
other modes of intrrnlucini' j»r»|j*Ty into the province, which was 
the aim and wish of Jr;inr-i, he order* d Govcrnour Doncan toiavour 
the introduction of prie-t- an<l i'^uir- aiuorii' ilie Iroquois: but the 
povemoiir, althon::h hirn'r-lf ;j jiijii-t. and \\lillni' to aid in brinsinf 
over the colonist- to uit- r*rll_'Ii»n of himself and master, was too 
prudent, a- a pt)li!l'i:m. not to -vc that liif: intention of the French 
wa* to i^ain ilie Fi^e .\aij<in- from i!je Eii^li.-li interest, by pushing 
their emis^arie^ arnoni' vu.m, uijilor pretence of propa^rating the 
Christian reli.'ion. Duii juii -aw that the Jesuits acted as spies for 
the govt:rnour^ of Canada, and counteracted the efforts oftheEne- 
Ibh to introduce and increase the trade of the pronnce he governed, 
as well as to overcome, in the Iroquois, that jealousy of France, 
which made them a frontier rampart to New York in time of war. 


Though active in otherwise promoting the king^s religious views, 
he had too much good sense to be blinded, whatever his master 
might be, by the pretence, which only covered (in the eyes of the 
bigot king,) the designs of France for the extension of her domin- 
ions. The govcmour insisted that the French should not hold 
conferences, under the pretence of making treaties, with the Iro- 
quois, without his inter\'ention ; and in this persisted, although his 
conduct was offensive to these proud confederated republicans, who 
declared with manly dignity, tliat they were free to negociate with 
wbom they pleased, without consulting either French or English. 

The Iroquois were, however, attached to the inhabitants of New 
York — an attachment commenced with the Dutch — besides, they 
nerer forgave the alliance of Champlain with their enemies, nor the 
tretcberous seizure of their sachems by order of Louis XIV. 
They likewise considered the supplies of arms, ammunition, and 
necessaries which the French of Canada carried to the ancient ene- 
mies of the Five Nations, as injurious and amounting to acts of 

The govemour of Canada prepared to chastise this in- 
16S8 terference of Dongan, who solicited permission to sup- 
port the Iroquois in their hostile demonstradons towards 
Canada. But the French Government at home had sufficient 
influence with James, to counteract the pnident measures of the 
govemour of New York. They concluded a treaty of neutrality^ 
hj which neither England nor France was to assist such Indians, 
as were at war with die other. 

These successful ne^tiadons of France, with the continued 
preparations of the government of Canada, under Frontignac, all 
served in the sequel, to inflict those misfortunes on New York, 
which were attributed to Jacob Leisler. 

Dongan did not give up the point, but continued his exertions 
among the Iroquois, whose alliance he saw was so necessaiy to 
New 1 ork. This, with his continuing in other respects, not to 
uess the arbitrary measures of James, caused the king to add New 
York, to the other dominions alreadv entrusted to the more com- 
pliant, or more t}'rannic disposition of Sir Edmund Andros, and 
thus to supercede Dongan, at a time when the discontents of the 

Ejple, and their fears of popery were ready to break forth in Eng 
d, to the overthrow of James ; and in America, to the suspen- 
Bon of both his govemours, and annihilation of his government 

The gcnim of popery is well known to be altogether favourable 
to kingly power; and, of course, ever in opposition to civil libeitjr. 
Submission without consideration, or any reference to reason, is 
the doctrine of Rome. Obedience to the dictates of reason, was a 
creed early introduced into America, and remains the safeguard of 
her prosperity. 




tfaolirkjL** The kinc t*niri:>:t i? :::o covmncntof S-.t^'Jand chiefl\- to 
cowipjt? from ihe pTx>:r*:.»r.: !o ihf lio:r.v.'! rr/.h^-^-ick ivH^on, He 
ds^rusi!^ f:\vn : ho i r c ir. : v v'*^ : -.: f r.: < f \ ^ :\ h:> V ro: he r?-*! :i-!a w , R a- 

s of ;:u'* ':*. ;\:\: i":"!!" v.:":;\ \> cro ?.:!i :v.!'»u\i !o ho thrown 
Ofvn lo p:i:vi5:>. T'v-: Wv.z \\>>v:'.\i\\ \V.c ]\y\\cT a: will of ilfepenan. 
with ihc it-^trs, wli'.oh *:...: :-i^-.^. o?r;ib".;>;:Ovi :o oxcludo men fitiin 
• irho pn>!V5><ii »ho f;;i:>. o:" lli^:v.i\ r.nd araonc oiher promo- 
of periH"^n< of ihn: ortvil, ho l ro*.:^:-.: fo;:r l.oni*, Powi^^ Amu* 

Th» pi\>mo::on of Ho::*?.:".:*:* o:^ o:;o ha:"!ii. and ovchision of 
IVicesxints on the other, \\i:':\v:: ^to. ;*:»:, hiiiviotV. T}u><e\vho had no 
icSpon. Tv> prv»ft>5 iho o:rx\"»? \\i-.ioh a\u> i^n^r.Tublo : and otbeis 
vouki tbiloAv i:: \:\c\t irA::\ ;o >\\r:! ::*.o ;v\vor of ivninnv. Bv 
Ais« 1 do ro: !tjo,- n ;o ;:>>i*r: *>.:•.: ,:ri v, V.o n">'.>:od Janu"^ in Enj^ 
hud* or ux^k iv.\n \v::h l.risltr :-.^. Nt^\ York, did ?o frx^r.i rcli^ous. 
areren honc*<: ir.o::\o* : ar.d fir K^ :: :":\>r.i u> now ai this distance 
ef Qioe to i:r.;M:r!^ tho iva^::\c< of Sv':\:\'.or, iho wonhv MavoT 
ef Albany, and oihoT^^. \^ h.o •./.:::::: co::>:r.:-r ii their di::y to oppose the 
gv f em nioni of l-ei>'ir, ;i.:h.o;:^h ivr:".ded lo i^} the people of 
Kew York* un:il liio !:r.,i! dc:or.':::\i:iv>n of \Vl:;:a:n III should be 

Ahhouch the «:v.vor5::v of Oxf^^rd wr»s l\>i::'!d bv oath not to 
any orioor of the f.»i:h of Ko:..r. yet Jaines oxjvUed the 
FeBows oi Mard;*.:en Co^.c^o. for rt f;:>h':^ to eKvt a jx^pish pre- 
lidenx of his an:vi::',r;::r. Ar;d uher. -Ae k::ow :h.n Sir K. Hares, 
aad Lord Stsnderi^r.d, >\'.:h the St*o:eh Ksr'.s of Murrav. Perth, and 
Meifort. A\f chano^ their ri*V.j:o:*. ^or prv^fes^io:^ ^ to aotx^nodaie 
tbenuehes to the \-ev^s of :he k:.:-. r^.u! nunv inlerioun 
did folkw ihoir exaTwle. sh:." we ^•..•v.v'iso 'l.r, Poi^.^r-^n, Jaroe*** 
am^UK, hid U*ss inl?;:e:)ee o\ er :ha^ rh.:' ■.;^^e^. ih.e Connlamits, tbe 
Ba\*ani>. anii ovher ?.>'y;rl:^;: '.:u:t k^: :;.e ■/ro\; of New Yoit? 

We kiKw :',.;: c- - .: ; '.::.\ ::ie e::iif o::kvr of the eiistomSv- 
andmanv other? i:i o:::ee \> c rt^ .i\ ou i\: ivip:>:<. ti*v^: to !iiention Don- 
fan fahnselO ^^^^ '-'^^ J-'^" kr.ow.": in:e:-.::o:: of J.::v.i>s, was, to iniit>- 
oow thai reVurlon. Wo iike^ise know :iu: ij>e ^-xnen^^iir of New 
York. >R"as more Iike?y :o ivW^'.v •.>'.:>':* :h:>?o\:e«> thAu his master, 
15 beini: more prudent, a::d hu\:r.^ .u:o;^:ed v/.eans nu'^ro iikoly to 
WK< eed : ami no km^w iht^ drtvid uhiieh Ivvji Duteh and Knciitk 
at that lime, if nvM hiasse\i bv ;^r:\,i;o a:^i >;ews, had of tbe 
intToducuon of iIh* taiiJi and dor.v.rion of ;^o;vr} ; aini that thej 
who wenp not of ct>nsc«juoTH"o e:'!o»;«.h. :o l»o pi;n*h.ascd by office, 
money, or titles and rccei\o\i oo;;n la\o;ir. musisufiex all the 

Is ol' sJa^en and jxM^sccuiior.. Ti.o ^^^tr} . :ho jvoplc of igure. 


fti OCT "srere ujea ttTT-^c. ■=?*.•% *:."^i^*r a-reacj 3 

s:*:*: «^i: '--: -'.vtrr-. ...■^ --.v. L:.s:!v.r r-'.^^er: kZxZ rsrasec n 

fci53*rl:' or i*r. i.M- iv ir:::.!: = :r!:.*-.'.r ::*r-_* -j> "0^ izmfiuBSL. 

po:: Lr - .:^>.. D>/-i--:\-.i::. ljl: j-r.i.-*-:^';.' pj^vtlrSii u-m«:<2ioic 
naei.: 10 itjc c :---::- if Ko.v.t:- T-^r I'^yi.^ of Lc-riz liiiaczii 

wt.-'e "•*: ir.r^iujii' of ir.r ;: ..vli:^ '.f Nr^r York- ^iio 
tLe s^TTi r%'::-^i :.'.t.v. of v.t ".-^ ■?:::*::,-- '.:. E^rli-i. 17 viija 
JtiTj** -Rti •-:,'Sr';-^-Lv '-*►:.--'..•--:.- l:. : V.'l:_i_-:L -if 
i g.r-r v-.!^ ii Jrlr.;". I* v. ^i -^"r - •'" - - v i." V - '•=■■' -^ ^ *■ ' \ 
semi zaj: rj^L tr.z i .'. i.t;- A:.::->. I' -sC erz-iArtscxr 
ijopfc.* Lie .rf: V-T L'".''*rr-."f::.: .f N"^v. Vori; ir. iif^ isiMf cf 

prrerx/ii-* cf i-ov. N'f»^ E.'.r.i-'.t '^.i N-='j Yi.'i:- Ni:rj&i»»:it 
ies* pop-lcT -J-»- ir.r L'-.-.^r: -. .: : \r : :.r "i.-. -";:"i -i,* c-v--ifi« 

ID o3tJtr Ir. 11'^ i-T.'-'' '-f Ji.v ^- U : c:. : '. t "-i,^ :*■•--!:.'. "^lt o^ ' ^^^ a 

Caxiioikk re'-^.o-r c*:*:!':-.-. . s: '..-.t rr-s.--. '.:.':.-, lj^^^t 'Jtz'L Tx 
>^r3 of 'Jj* lon-'-.i ^t:: rv Iio:. /-:,:.. "r::r V-.-jvJis BiTLrd- 

ookioei of lie cirr :: — ii. F:r:rn:i: P: ....j-^r:-. M-. Wz Con- 

■ « — * • ' 

Mr. D^diev. 

• Sara «T# Dc'SiTu: r»-v. n»-^ i*. I*»;Lrii uur ." 1* *iLjc •iO'-».»-5«< n ta* Ijr*- 
rf LnEHTifJc. " I •■'** ►xi: : ':. :i '."-. 11 '.i** ::i-' i:-*: : •:' l^j* o*. ;iLr;:r» inr tximr 
Chit/ Sin-i :* mHTLA.*!. :i^:i-..-* 'j** o*^'*:!::!;**.* ■ :' l»- z^£\jl '-T-iKaiiH^ s 
■J" iiSHt V- ^itii i iig . i^ Ui* •**«i> *. L ML>i l-.irjt » '..i'. ■ 'i- -jiii:: ii^— _.-•-: r » rnint fnin. 
Wa. N*'* V'.-rL lii: >•» J»r**« i:jC '-ii* » ■ ■ i" •.•.-: ■ '.^tr ".:»* •*li:i* Ziun** imoe 

VHipKXUfiiiiT t-f fijtr»'.i!*r LXfi ■■ml .••^tl.- 'x •«*"r»-i-r.- rr-'Lx '»>»-* »'^ nJM 

^ ! ;& Ai«r«. !•>*• un: r*ir*^c u« t : r 1 l"* • ■.^.»r • •' >• w V- r*. :.: 'i*:* «3ffiL> tqc 

!*f*d M (ieniLfe aa.: 1*1 •*._■•■■: i' r L-.v :* -l ti":!^ »:i;»*T**fOfC : iac c » 

Nicholson's administration. 153 

The fort, which was considered die safeguard of die city, was in 
a ruinous condition, and garrisoned by a few soldiers commanded 
by an ensign known to be a papist. On the land side, the city was 
fortified by the paUsado or wall, extending through what is now 
Wall street, firom the North River to the East, where in Smith's 
Valley, (by common usage called Smith's Vly or Fly,) was a block 
house without g^Lrrison. 

That the people suspected Nicholson and the coimcil of being 
opponents to William of Orange, is certain. They feared some 
attempt to seize the fort for Kmg James. And sometime late in 
May or early in June, a report being spread that the papists would 
next Sunday attack the people while at church in the foil, massacre 
them, and declare for James ; and at the same time the inhabitants 
of Long Island having sent messengers to express their fears to the 
people of the city ; the latter, in a tumultuary manner assembled in 
arms, on the second of June, and some went to the house of Leisler, 
and requested him, as a captain of the train bands, and probably 
the oldest officer, to lead them to the seizure of the fort. This, it 
appears, he at first declined ; and in the meanwhile, others led by 
Ensign StoU, proceeded to the fort. In the mean time, Leisler, 
having armed himself, marched with others of the people, entered 
the citadel as Stoll's superior ofiicer, and was joyfully received. 

The reader will recollect Jacob Leisler has appeared in these 
pages before ^ firsts as the friend of the widow and fatherless stran- 
ger ; and thmy as the opponent of Govemour Andros, with the 
other magistrates of Albany, denying admission to the altar of the 
church of which he was a member, of an Episcopal clergyman sent 
out to the province by an avowed papist. As such, he sufiTered 
imprisonment ; and finally with his brethren triumphed over the 
deputy t)nrant supported by the Duke of York. 

Nicholson and his council, alarmed at this commotion of the 
people, assembled the aldermen and such justices of the peace as 
could be brought together, to this meeting. He appears to have 
given it the name of a Convention for keeping the peace. The 
people chose a Committee of Safety.* The public money was 
lathe fort, and the convention, not thinking it srfe, ordered it to be 

* It will be remembered that all these magistrates held their commissions from 
Andros, Govemour of New England and New York, under James. 

The committee of safety was composed of the following freeholders of the city: 
viz. Richard Denton, Samuel Edsall, Theunis Roelofe, Peter. Delanoy, Jean Mar- 
est, Mathias Harvey, Daniel Le j^erke, Thomas Williams, Johannes Vermylle, 
and William Lawrence. And on the 8th of June, 1669, they issued an order, 
constituting Captain Jacob Leisler, "captain of the fort" "until orders shall 
arrive from their majesties ;" and Uiey further order " that the said Leisler shall have 
all aid from the |city and county to suppress external and internal enemies of the 

VOL. I. 20 

lbislbe's procbedinos. 166 

their number to take the place of the officer, Matthew Ploifrman, 
to whom payment of duties was refused, on the ground of his beuig 
an avowed papist, and therefore not legally qualified. .These gentle- 
men repaired to the custom house, but found it guarded by militia, 
and were ordered away. The committee of safety appointed 
another collector, whose name was Green, and on the arrival of 
vessels, they sent armed men on board. 

Captain Lodowick sent his sergeant* with a file of men to de- 
mand the keys of the fort from Nicholson, whose quarters were at 
a tavern ; but they found him with his council at tlie city hall, • (^t 
the head of Coentie's slip,) to which place Bayard had returned. 
Nicholson refused to give the keys to Churphill, the sergeant ; .but 
on the appearance of Lodowick, resigned ihem to him. It was 
known that the fiye captains agreed to keep the fort eaoh in his 
turn, and Lodowick was then in command. Jt was in imitation of 
the citizens of Boston that the inhabitants had elected a committe of 
Bofety for the immediate government of the province ; and they 
signed an agreement to adhere to the Prince of Orange, and with 
their lives support the protestant religion. The captains of militia 
formed part of this committee, and it appeal's that Jacob Leisler 
was looked to as the principal in point oi age, standing, and mer- 
cantile credit. 

Nicholson had, in the meantime, dissolved his council or con- 
vention, by getting on board ship, and sailing for England, with 
Mr. Ennis, the Church of England clergyman. Bayard, who had 
been very violent, and was exceedingly unpopular, soon after fled 
to Albany, where Colonel Schuyler, the mayor, and Mr. Living- 
ston, though willing to declare for William and Mary, would not 
submit to the government of Leisler and the people of New York. 

Li the city of New York, Stephanus Van Cortlandt, the mayor, 
and the aldermen who had taken the oath of allegiance to James, 
kept up a show of opposition to Leisler ; and when the government 
of Connecticut sent two deputies, (Major Gold and Captain Fitz,) 
to learn the state of aflfairs in New York, they, of course, went to 
Leisler, at the fort, and to liim communicated the intelligence that 
the Prince and Princess of Orange had been proclaimed King and 
Queen of England. Van Cortlandt, hearing tliis, assembled the 
common council at his house, and despatched Alderman Merritt 
to the fort to requast the gentlemen from Connecticut to come to 
Mr. Van Cortlandt They came accordingly, and being asked if 
they had come to New York to proclaim William and Mary, an- 
swered, no ; but having brought the proclamation, as issued in 
England, with them, they had given it to the commander-in-chief 
at the fort. 

Leisler lost no time, but immediately proclaimed the king and 

\wdi WmrcL C<«»f]ii» Piurier* AMenstiu 

Hendnrk Ten ET^k* A{««mN. 
Ekq Wu^ John D. Bn>inu A)dem«aii« 

Pfter Adolpk AftsMiaL 

Oia WwL JothTi Coirw-anhcvreiu Akkmiaxu 

WoHfcr: WfiiKes^ AiisMUA. 

Wj" <if^ br ibe ftK>T^« ihax the corudob ccunitil ektcunil hr ike 
I^Hpkw Ittd liken pi>R§ifiiisN%s of ihe drr hi]] : lad on ihe Mi of 
Okvoker. (« ^v!^ miier.) ibe xnivor ud cmuximi ccwaci) of ike 
fmnidbxc ym, (under IX^fnrtn's pvpomsmo,^ »m « i pmiae 
Avrifiw* ^ bmcisie of AMermtn \Villzain Mesrn. and p»M^ dr> 
raiOK CKD MiMWBt^ |««t$in»)£>d : and t£iiii ibe sane perKW niei « 
piK>ei&the aiiinikion«aiKic£«X3i)De^ibebQs^^ Tbese 
S9^ihft2)tt$ Van Conlii>di. ibe max or i}^;mn»>d by Doncuu 
vaftt Me»Qs. Menin, LawnpiJ2K>e« Koimboh^ ^7?» ^^ Rjchank^ of 
ilie cwmnoD rouixi] : KLevise CokM)ei Nicbobs Bavud, lad 
Mr. ]>ekav, Tber a^ain xaes on ihe 7ib of iVtoher, azKl bud^ 
dfaofthr anerrands dis^^n^s^tv^. Baraxd and Vac C<«da2>di coiac id 
A&urr. Njcboison bad 5^icDe nme KeJonf jaiM tor Enciasd. and 
WTttt tarn Mr. £imis» the Epitfiooftal clen;yxDazk as bas bom 

Oil ^ liib of iVanker* ibe ioDoiriiu: pBtckmaikn was iseiwd 
W Lnsuer: •* Wlwavas^ bv oinder of ike ComnrrEK of SAnrrr* 
oroeired ibti xbe nuvor. fiiierlal and cieri. jAaJ!; tw dfrntm ini 
r.ffv^ ffivnrr$ of ibe Mebolders^ fc"^" aoctwdinrir Peoer De 
k Not bad ke«n rbo»« Msror. Johaiuios Johnson.. sken£ aad 
AkrabazD l«orc>n)e»r. dor^; vbirb cixvce had boen owiiaiiiodi br 
;A»e ctomrni-naw^^p^bka: and ** vbenv^ die cMtanune^ of safar 
baxY i^^fwuneid me lo ccatami ibe dri] macvoa^es and oficos of 
ibe Cirr of Nev Yort:. c^nwn bv ibe psorcsTAXT fre <j n w« of die 
cirr, Jw^"" - I aoro8\iindT cvwfirm.'' as aboiv - acoordniff ac» ike 
2n>e iuRS and moaamc of said oMimuxiee.** Aorordmch' ike 
cazxczk-n cvnzncsL as proa abc«r\e. miv swn in aad coufirmod. a»d 
IS ibf wwis of ibe pnviamaxioixk ** all iakahixancs aiv iwcmd id 
l^re doe obedxflice ID said manssraMts.** **IkMie ax Fon WIffiHa, 
i&e 14{h of l>nober« IGS:;^ ia ibe firsa roar of ikeir ma^esoes' 

iVi :be same dav, ike c^mmoQ coomcil met at ike dir balL ibea 
a: Cvv>abe*s sAp^ vkn ibeoaiks «>»« admianered, azsd iber pro- 

r«**^tNZ TO bxBODOSIS^ 

TTtcr senf: a wrinen Older br ibe bkb oMifsab^, dixvicsed toVaa 
Cor^ifcTKr^ dcTrtiTwifng. as ibey had di^oe by a reskal 
fcpf . il^f rjrr's charttr. imk. Kx^k*. aad ptpeis. Bet Mr. Vi 
C-orilLD.r vas aoiio be faond, and bos vije« Riccniac die 
dcrr ii cvai of doon. We viD bow Me vkai 


!>! ilie :?4tli ilay i«f June.* the corporaiion of the r:^ ■.(' 
Al'oanv. aii^Lsteti by :he rr.ili:ar}- officer? mei. and nr<:uL-t^ rse 
sherin" dnii cunsuL!-. :• a.-^L-fi Rofjen Li\inri?ton. coi:«?i.:i:r. Ji 
£*AU-:.::z certain rii-'j-^iiciii?. said lo Le mola.-a^^. bat sUip^crcii j> 

be n:::i- 

Un the i?"^:h. M-r:-:- rir?rn'^e and Ki'im Van ReE-sir^.-^r 
were ^'r^-or.:. ind ::.v ■. •"•::■"• -r: r,.;:--?:! r>?'i«i'.ve»i that al: pui^-ii-k t- 
6i« 5hou.'i r-err;*:'. ': j*/'i •; ii.e r.iiyor. anii ■ :*!• anu mi.itar^ olDcenk 
undl or'icr? ylnjiini "unie trurii Wiiiiani aad Marj* — Hobert 
ston si^.ed i- •.i«:rjL- 

On the 'JUi A'u-Ti^u the conimon council resolved to 
public, me ne'-v!? ot" ihe h«i*uli::e* of the French and Iniiians^ 

On the 4'.h September, at a C"n^en:ion of "iie mayor and ocfc«?* 
they rei^lvv'i fo -en.i a;: expr-iss do^rn to Captain Ji'U.^b Lei5^ 
and the rest of thv rr.:!^' i:i:ri«"»rr? uf the cit^- of New Yixtk. Sjt 
the a--L-:ar.^e of 1»"« :::■:■ r. or — hO*) wei^-h: of pov,:*r aad 
ball. canni>r». and t'J'Hiovit of their niaje:?l:e:-' revenue - wiiica we 
understand L« daiiv coiieried bv tiiem.*^ A committee L» apDoicaed 
to meet depnue? from New Kn:rlar.d respecting the India n-^. Tbey 
hear fr«im Srhenectadv thai the otScers there cannot a:rree arioo* 
ihem^^lve*, •• how to behave" in ca^e of attack : L:eref#>fe Dji 
WesiselU and Johannes Wendeil. are sent to convece the petscie 
and advise tli»?m " at their perii." 

()d the 17:h September, the convention a?ked their mes- 
senger who carricil tlie above ierier to New Yr^rk. if " r.e re- 
ceived anv answer trom ?ald Lri.-Ier." ar-l he ti«ld ::.':-r.. ±a: bi 
deihrered the lettrr "to Cip'ain Leis'.er. h-it ha«i n*- i-iitr^r in u- 
swer, but that directed to Captain Wenik-';! ir.-i Ciruir. bleerifr." 
He heard Lebler^ay he haii rr.ii-.Irj to ilt wi::: ih-y c^il >-«fr. 
Upon ihi» the convention r»:>«jUx-d. :r:it "r.:.: ::. :- 1. 1*: ar>-=»or w 
ihe coiiTenti>n" had been riven. •• h-r. it t!.e >r:--: : ::.-r Cilci.-"* 
agnedby Lebler alone/' the purp«irti»f ^iucii. •..icny L-. "I'j ;> 
conuima people to send two men :o S-->:.-: "^-.trr. ir. ^s.-yj 
V' that he senda them ■• 40 {yiLmL* of r.-a:.!:. o ;: ^f -icLr 
j' $ton», and 2iX) pounds of powder, bei'-ndr.j :'-• the r::er^ 
dnnts of Albanv. and -1 small ^runs. bur as fir mor.«:v. t!>.v nri^ei-.'Hi 

m mm 

.** LeL*Ier alledzed that ti:ev ran.not send a.i'. r:.T.:. ir. occ- 
•• great $lizht their people received %^ iies in AlbiiEy ." 
cvnesdv insttted on deputie:« coming from Albany. u> •• coc- 
■oh with them, for the public ji>vl/' 

coDTemion resoh'e«l to apply to New Enrlar.d :'* r 3sri.«aDce. 
were deviied to rai^ muney. The foLIo^vir.j pinoas 


subscribed the sums opposite their names, the money to be repaid 
by a general tax. P. Schuyler, jClS — Killian Van Ransaellaer, 
£15 — Gab'L Thomson, j£10 — Marte Gerritze, ,£10 — Jan Lan- 
sing, ,£12— Johannes Wendell, £12 — ^Lev.' Van Schaick, ,£10 — 
Robert Livingston, ^50. The others are small sums, and the 
total was £367 6s. 

On September, the 28th, the Albany convention resolved, 
that " since sundry members of the convention" had signed " a 
bond, for reimbursing Robert Livingston, such disbursements as 
h^ shall make, the said bond shall be recorded." The signers 
are, Peter Schuyler, Dirk Wessells, Claes Ripse Van Dam, Gabl. 
Thomson, Dirke Teunise, Alexander Ryckman and David Schuyler. 

On the 25th of October, the convention resolved, that the 
magistrates should take the oath of allegiance to William and 
Mary, and it was so done. It was resolved likewise to admin- 
ister such oath to the military officers and soldiers. 

The convention, on information that Leister intended to send men 
to assist them, resolved that it was with the view to take the fort, and 
make the magistrates prisoners ; and that a letter be written to Al- 
derman Schaick and Lieutenant Joachim Staats, to make inquiry 
*^ of the business," and to signify to Leisler that 95 men from New 
England are sent for, and others are ready in Ulster, and that Leis- 
ler's men shall by no means be admitted to have command in 

On the 4th, November, Alderman Levinus Van Schaick, to 
whom the protest against Leisler's sending armed men to Albany, was 
sent, arrived from New York, and says, that he spoke to Staats, who re- 
plied, that he knew not what to do, as it was intended he should i>e 
captain of the company for Albany, to lye in the fort, and if he did 
not accept the command they would send Churchill, and he thought 
he had better go. Upon this they went to the conmiittee and delivered 
the protest from Albany; on which Milboume said that he would 
go to Albany and see the fort there better secured. Bchaick in- 
formed the convention that he heard Leisler call certain officers in 
Albany papists, and say that Albany should bring its charter to 
New York, if the city baid one. 

The convention resolved to acquaint the citizens in their respec- 
tive wards, that a company of men were coming up from New York, 
who intended to turn the government of the city up-side dowiif 
make themselves masters of the fort and city, and in no manner be 
obedient to any orders of the convention. The next day aceov* 
dingly the people were convened at the City Hall, and certain iuti* 
cles being proposed to them they agreed to them ail, as desured -by 
the convention, and fully resolved to maintain the present govern- 
ment, until further orders came from their majesties. 


\V) :1k' "^ili of November, the convention appointed Col. Schuyler 
AN^>\nuiuier of Uic fort ; who was to obey the convention : and he 
•Avk jHWsession accordingly. 

On the Uth of November, a portion of the convention^ the 
iMnvcntion being met, and the recorder presiding, at the ciir 
hull, in Albany ; and hearing that three sloops were in sicfat, 
•• wh(*r(?of one liad the king^s jack aboard,*' and that ^' soldiers" 
wiTti in theni, four of the convention were sent to know '* upon wfatt 
aiMMiunt they were come." Milbourne replied, by asking if the 
fort wa.4 o|>en for his men to marcli in that night? He lOf 
aniiwered '* No ;" that tlic mayor of the city bad possession of the 
flirt, and wa.s then the commander. Milbourne was desired to 
come auhore for furtiier conversation. He accordingly came with 
the deputies to the city hall, and was bid welcome. The hall 
being full of people, Milbourne addressed them, and told them 
they had now an opportunity of freeing themselves from Kinf 
jafneH — that the charter of the city was null, as being granted bv 
a papij«t king and his ser\'ant Andros, a popL«h govemour. That 
now the people had the power to choose their officers, both civil 
and militai}', and stating that the present officers, holding by an 
illfgal tenor, ought to be subjected to a free election ; '* and rauch 
■uch like discourse,'' say the minutes of this convention. Siaaa 
and Bogardus, who came up with Milbourne, asked why the ma- 
gistrates did not s[>eak r Upon wliich, the recorder replied that 
there was time enou;:li yet ; for that Milbourne had :<hown no com- 
nui<>iion ; that the convention was met for the purpose of billeting 
.Milbourne's men, and with good intent; that ^'hewas not author- 
ized at that juncture to make him answer to such discourse ; they 
lifld seen no commix^fion tliat he had y/^" 

It will be here remembered by the reader, that the civil and mili- 
tary officers in the Albany Convention were all officers comrnis- 
■ioned under Jame.-; II, by »Sir Kilinund Andro.<<. Milbourne, and 
tlie rulers at New York, were commissioned by the people. 

The recorder remarked, that *' Milbourne addressed him.<felf U) 
the wrong people, since there were no arbitrary powers in Albiiny : 
(jod had delivered them from that yoke by their maje>ties now upon 
the throne, to whom they had »worn allegiance." Milbourne de- 
aired that tlie mayor might be present. He was twice sent for, but 
answered that he could not leave his post. The recorder stated, 
'* that he represented the mayor in his absence," and to him was 
delivered a letter ** sijrned by twenty-five persons," which was 
read, but referred to a fuller meetine next day. The reoonier 
ttien offered quarters, by billets, for Milboume's men, which he 
declined, only asking provisions, *' which was granted ; and so 
parted that night." 

Tluf letter purport;; to be from the committee chosen by the 

milbourne's mission to albamt. 161 

•' free and open elections of the freemen" in the respective coun- 
ties, stating that they (the signers,) had sent Jacob Milboume with 
fifty men suitably armed for the use and defence of his majesty^s, 
(King William's,) forts and subjects, that the enemy may not take 
advantage of any disputes or differences among the people of the 
province. It is signed by 25 of the committee, among Whom I 
find Jacob Leisler senior and junior, Peter De la Noy, Peter Dd 
Milt, John Beekman, Hendrick Ten Eyck, J. De Reimer, Jeari 
Desmorest, Gerardus Beekman, Richard Panton, Adrian Vail 
Schaick, Gerret Duyking, John De Peyster, William Churchilli 
Myndert Corten, and a few English names. 

The convention, however, receive letters from Schenectady, 
written to the people of that place by Jacob Milboume and Hcfliry 
Cuyler, from which they infer that Milbourne designs to stibvert 
the present government, as he invites the people to choose magis-^ 
trates independent of those commissioned by James 11. 

On Sunday, the 10th of November, the convention being met, 
sent for Milbourne, and the recorder told him that the letter fix)ni 
25 persons in New York had been read, saying that 61 men were 
sent to the assistance of Albany; and asked him, upoti whos^ 
charge they were come. Milboume answered, that Albany must 
pay them. The recorder said, that was contrary to a letter from 
New York, of September 4Ui. Upon which, Milboume appealed 
to the people standing by, and asked if the county of Albany would 
be able to pay that charge. The people said, " no." Then Mil- 
bourne showed his commission to the convention, saying, " We 
shall find a way for it" The recorder' told him that a commission 
signed and sealed by private persons, was of no force. 

Here was the point of diflference between New York aind Albany 
or the convention and the committee of safety. The committee 
were men chosen by the people. The Albany Convetition Werd 
ofiicers of Eong James II ; and though they disclaimed that king, 
they would not cease to act by his authority, in opposition to the 

The recorder told Milboume that as he had no commission frOYn 
the King of England, Albany would obey no other. Milboume 
addressed the people ; and the secretary of the convention, Robert 
Livingston, records the address in his own way. Milboumd 
insisted that the charter and commissions of James were void ; that 
the people should choose their officers until orders from King W3- 
liam arrived. 

Milbourne was desired to desist from such discourse : for that 
he and his commission should not be acknowledged ; but Albany 
would give quarters for his men. It was then agreed to meet next 
moming to setde the quarters for the New Yorkers. The magis-^ 

VOL. I. 21 

162 hilbourxb's mission to ALBAXr* 

Irates of Albany told Milbourne that they did not acknoirledge 
to have any le^ authority. 

The people of Albany are represented, by the journal of the 
Tention, as agreeing with them ; but on the 11th of Novendicr, lb 
convention were deterred from meeting at the City HaD, on hem^ 
that the citizens were there assembled, and wished to vpfdai a 
person to take charge of the fort, who should be indepCTdol rf 
the mayor. 

Milbourne declared, in writing, that he was authorised By lb 
committee of safety of the province '^ to order the affidn at Al- 
bany," and insists that there shall be a fair election for the offieoi 
of the city, both civil and military ; that the commander <^ the fat 
shall be chosen by the people : and demands of the convenlioB m 
account of the arms and stores in the fort fit for the king's serviee. 

On the 12th, the convention met at a private house, and uoni* 
mously resolved not to " accept of the fiity men" from New TaA 
on any other terms than that the}- should be under the commaBdif 
the convention. Certain articles were agreed upon with Milbovney 
and his soldiers, who had lain at 'Olarte Gemgties Island,** 
marched into town, and received by a portion of the inhabitants i 
their houses without billeting, or, says the record, '* lawful war 

Peter Schuyler found it necessary to cqme from the fort to die 
City Hall, to appease the people, and declared that he had taken pot- 
session of the fort from knowledge of the designs of the cominitlee 
of New York. It is plain tiiat the convention and Milbourne could 
not agree. They denied his authority, or that of the people ol 
New York. And an entr}' is made on the minutes, by order, tint 
on the 15th day of November, Milbourne, with a company of armed 
men, came to the fort, and that a messenger was sent to warn him 
not to come " viithout the gates of the city." He came, nocwitb- 
standing, to the fort, and demanded the place. The mayor 
answered that he kept the fort for their majesties, William and 
Mary ; and commanded Milbourne and his men away. US- 
bourne attempted to enter, having '* one foot in," says the record, 
but was thrust out ; upon which himself and company retired to 
within the gates of the cit}', '^ and there put the kii^s jack, fiKing 
the fort." Milbourne, thcn^ after charging his men to load with 
bullets, came to the gates of the city and read a paper. 

The Mohawks, whom Schuyler had at hand, offered (according 
to the minutes,) to fire upon the New Yorkers ; but the convention 
drew up and read a protest against Milbourne, and sent Doctor 
Dellus and the recorder to pacify the Indians, and a messenger to 
tell Milbourne th^t if he came out of the gate, the Mohawks would 
fire upon him. Upon which he marched dcnun the town and dis- 
missed his men. 


Tbe city of Albany, at this time, and long after, consisted.prin* 
cipaDy of two streets. One, tbe longest, ran parallel to tbe river, 
mid imder the hill on which the fort was situated. Tbe hill rose 
steeply Aout the middle of this street, and another, still wider, 
the first, fiom the foot of the hill, running towards the 

It appears by the minutes of the convention, that many of tbe 
Mople of Albany, and some *' private, but extreme active men,'* 
ODtDcided with Sniboume ; who, having procured Joachim Staats 
lobe elected captain of the New York soldiers, left them in Albany, 
aad returned. 

William Smith says, in his histor}' of New York, ** that Jacob 
IDbouiTie was commissioned for the reduction of Albany.'* No 
Sttch thing is pretended by the secretary of the convendon, Robeit 
Livingston. Smith further says, '' In the spring, he (^filboume,) 
commanded another part}' upon die same errand, and die distress 
of the country, on an Indian irrupdon, gave him all the desired 

Captain Bull arrived with S7 men, from Connecdcut, on the 
S5th November, and was gladly received by die convention : nor 
does the captain of the New Yorkers seem inclined to any adverse 
action. On the 29th, twent}'-nine of BulFs force, under Ensign 
Talmadge, marched to Schenectady to keep that post, as it was 
agreed upon by the convention and the captain. How well they 
kept guard, we shall see by and by. Staats refused to send any 
of the New York men to this outpost. 

Colonel Bayard, although he had seen the irritadon of the 
people of New York against himself, sent an order from Albany, 
directed to Captains Abram De Peyster and John De Bruyn, 
of the New York trained bands, the tendency of which could have 
only been to increase the enmity of die people, to himself and his 
associates. It was dated the 20th of October, 1689, and is in the 
following words : '* whereas Jacob Leisler, and some of his associ- 
ates, have in a hostile and illegal manner, invaded his majesties f(Ht 
at New York, and subverted all government by law established, I, 
as Colonel of the Re^ment, do stricdy require you, and each of 
you, to desist aiding and abetting said Leisler, and his associates, 
and not to suffer your soldiers to obey him, but to obey the ciffl 
government estabHabed by Sir E. Andros, which is in ftdl forcey 
notwithstanding the imprisonment or death of said Andros.** This 
is dated at Albany, in the first year of the reign of William HL 
Andros had been put down in Boston, as the tyrant appointed 
by James, to enslave the colonies. De Bruyn, upon the death, or re- 
signadon of Van Veuiden, had been elected Alderman of the West 

Long Island, which at this time was a most iroponant and po- 


poloiis poitioD of tbe proriiioe, vas Gm 
The iaUbiUnts oftbe east end of the khiid, would 
phoed diemselFes under tbe jurisdiction of Coanedicitf, 
mg thai tnmli wA &r, thev joined with thor nei^UKNin oTiIk 
era ooimties, and wiA tbe citv aixl couDtT of New Yofk, as «cl aiae 
oountiea of West Chester and Orange, in cheeriid aaadhnKBi la 
Leiaier : Imt tbe magistrates of Albany refused to be feum twA If 
dK Bufgfaers of tbe Manhattan City, though declari^ fiv IQ- 
Earn and Maiy. 

Peter Schuyler, the mayor of Albany, posBeaaed and 
die oonGdeoce of the people of that neighbourhood, as insD aaaf 
Loquois. He was fiiendhr to the rerolution in En^ndL 
pronqidy declared for tbe Prince of Orange. It would have 
sappy for tbe province, and kx Schuyler if he had acted wiA 
Mople of the city of New York, and joined with the ffinJi if 
Leiaier, imtD advices arrived fiom England. But Scbinrlerani 
one oftbe *' people of figure,^* and the influence t£ Bayud, Va 
Coflhndt and Livingston, d^enmned him to declare himad f m 
op p o aili on to Leisler.* 

While thus a portion oftbe people of Albany, Schenectady, 
die immediate firontier of the north, was stimulated to 
against their friends of the south and east, the province was imu l w ai 
m war with France and Canada, by the adoption of the govcn- 
Bwot of William and Marv. 

Tbe government of Connecticut sent men to aid Leisler in keep- 
ing tbe fort at New York : but in October, (of this year,) 1689, diey 

*Tlwodore Sedfirjek. Eh).. ia hi* Terr interefftiiif aadfaigUr ralufalp 
•TwUtanB liriBntoiL ibe patriot pornnonrof New J«tiwy. daring oar i 
hv TCif pi0Mm *»iiffat ud fiven infonnatioiL rerpectiiif tbe fim 
liriafrteB. the opponent of Lewler. He MTf . tfa«.t Robert l^ingrton. 
Ut aeqnirod tbe Datrh Ungaaf e while with hi« fttber in HoUukI. utd en 
Totk. earir cBongb to be •m^ojed ia ibe affair* of Albanj. while dm 

MTct a d(ij,^iBX ia. af earlr aa 1C76. Tbai be marhed ibe midow «r 

mdiolw Tu Renaaellaer, about 1679. Thai like waf tbe <ii<er of Peicr 
(tibe bero oTNew York in tboae daT*. as bj# frandwti PhiLp. wax. in ibi 
w rarAhnkwarr contMt,) and dasffatrr of PhiUip Pieterae Scbnricr. 
fnendj. Robert Urinfitton wa« tbe brotber>in4aw of Peter 8rfanrlerr 

Aftan^ wa* made a riir in 10^. Tbe charier war framed bj DonpUL wba 
papMi bmHclf waa nrfod br fai» laainpr. tbe bir ot Jamea. to inxrodace Ibe 
af KMnt into ibe e«lom'. ' Pelar Scbnrler wm tbe finrt major of A&anr : 
Moa waa an officer of tbe citr. appointed br tbe i«me f oVemonr. A 
boib offioerp nnder JanMa. Scfainier placed faimaelf at tbe bead of wbniv 
ibe Aftaaj ConrcntioB. and a# 'Mr. Sedfwick aaj*. Robert I iiiiniiiin 

On ibe 15ib Jannanr. IGM. tbe liieriff of Albanr wrote to M ilbovBe. 
abom die befinninf'of Apri] lart part." that m. in ']6H9. -'Robert L iiinaa 
■a Ibai iherr m aa a plot of robberr f one ont of Holland into EafbadL and 

of Orange wa» at tbe bead o?" it. and be mijcfat w« bow be ^ obi aaain. 

came lo tbe aame end aa Momnonib did. Thi» I can tMCtfr." T& le 

bj Sheriff Preoj. Upon tbia cbane. Lfidier 
JLiviifMM aa a rebel 

leisler's proceedings. 1G^ 

[nformed him that in consequence of their great expenses, '* by reason 
»f the Indian war," and distresses bv reason of sickness and short 
rrops, they can no longer afford him that aid. " But if any foreign 
bice should invade you, we shall be ready to relieve you according 
K> our abilitVf" and thev at this time subscribe themselves his ^* af- 
bctionate friends, the general court of Connecticut." 

That Baj-ard, Van Cordandt, and their associates should feel an 
somity to Leisler and the people of New York, bordering upon 
madness, is what we might expect ; but that they should have suffi- 
aent influence over Peter Schuyler, to induce him to risk the ill 
consequences which might flow from the active hostility of the 
French, rather than join in supporting tlie New York government 
hr the short space of time that would probably intervene, before 
specific instructions arrived from England, is to me surprising, and 
ippears at variance with his character for judgment 

From Leisler's letter to William and Mary, I gather the follow- 
ing facts. That, relying upon the good understanding between 
James II, and Louis, of France, Covernour Dongan had suffered 
the fort at New York, (which commanded both harbour and city,) 
Id go to decay : that the well which supplied water, was filled up, 
md the ammunition for defence ver}' limited : all which, when Cap- 
tain Leisler was chosen by the freeholders to keep the place until 
srders arrived from England, he knowing that war vrith France must 
ensue, had repaired, and put in a state of defence ; besides causing 
I battery of seven guns to be erected to the west of the fort, where 
State street and the walk now called '* the Battery" exists. That 
ibout the time of his taking command, an incendiar}', (alwa)'s at that 
time supposed to be a papist) had endeavoured to bum the church 
i^hich was T^ithin the fort, and which seems to have been used as a 
powdei^magazine, as well as for preaching and prayer. That the 
city was " fortified on the land side with good palisades, and in sev- 
eral places there were guns." That there were fifty men in the fort, 
whom the countr}- had promised to pay, besides a company of the 
train-bands that mounted guard every night. That great appre- 
hensions were entertained from Govemour Andros, who was sup- 
posed to have escaped from the Bostonians ; and that Leisler was 
determined to hold the city and fort for their majesties, William 
and Mars', until further orders. 

The dissensions and divisions at Albany and Schenectady were 
mch, that although notified of their danger, they would not permit 
he forces from Connecdcut to keep regular guard : at the same 
ime, Leisler, misapprehending the intentions of the Connecticut 
naen, wrote to Govemour Treat, (as I find by his letter in the Sec- 
retar}' of State's ofl!ice, Hartford,) complaining that Captain Jona- 
than Bull and his troops, aided and supported the Convention of 
Albany, who had set themselves in opposition to his majesty and 



the hws of the province. Het thereibre, requests the Gannam 
of Connecticut to appoint Mr. Fitch and otberiv who knew ^ 
•tate of aflairs at New York, as commissioners to agree widi ea» 
missionera from Leisler, upon proper measures for the 
the frontiers. 

In consequence of this application, Messrs* Gould aad 
were appointed with authority to agree upon the numher ofi 
be fumuhed by Connecticut. This leitter of Leister's is 
February 14th, 1690, and the next day he again wrote to Ticai, 
that in the short inten-al he had receifed the melancholy news of 
the burning and massacre at Schenectady, (of which pinirriw 
account will be given in the next chapter,) a mi^rtune which hs 
attributes to '* that convention, and Colonel Bayard^s &ctiaiit «hi 
have asserted that the commissions of Sir Edmund Andros reaiB 
in full force/'* And we are told by the historian of Connectkai, 
that the people of Albany and Schenectady, notwithstanding Cap- 
tain Bull's remonstrance, would not permit the Connecticat 
to keep regular watch. 

It is e^'ident, that although Milboume carried a Soict 
him that might have assisted in defending the frontier, he 
tainly did not lead troops enough for the reduction of Alnf 
by arms, if he could not persuade the people to join with New Te^ 
and all the southern part of the province in jrielding obedieaoe le 
the person who had been elected to the command. We know is 
certaint}' that the transaction is recorded by the enemies of M3- 
bourne and his fatlier-in-law ; and we know that he returned disap- 
pointed to New York. We have already seen the minutes of the 
Albanv Convention on that head. 

The discomfiture of Milboume appears to have encouraged Bay- 
ard to visit New York, and be was there in private when some very 
important dispatches arrived from England in the begriming of 
December, 1GS9. 

h appears that before NichoLton and Ennis arrived in Fngbmi, 
ithe govenunent of William III, in the latter part of July, 16S9, 
•wrote lo Francis Nicholson, Esq., or i'a hit ahKnce, to suck as jor 

iht time bnmg» takes care for prtscrrinji thtptact^ and admiuisUnMg 
the lawt ff'a his majesty* $ jfrorijwe <y' S^-'^ I ork^ ta AtumcOm Tfaas 
4he person ai the head of the government in the provinoe 
powered to take the chief command, and to appcnnt ibr his 
anoe as manv freeholders as he should think fit until fiirther orders. 
This important packet was entrusted to Mr. Kiggs, and was be- 
tween four and fi^^e "^*^'^^ on the wav. 

Kigr> arrived the Sth or 9th of December, and might have 
presented himself and letters ai the govenour's boose, im the 

* S«e Ibnftfl MS8. 

crnuouBS of Nicholas bataki^ 167 

CmtI, whh propriety ; for it was notorious that Jacob Leisler 
kad administered tbe laws, and been cbeerfully snppcwted as 
cbief of die goTemmentf for William and Maiy, nearly seven 
BOBlfas, except by the adherents of Dongan's administration, and 
by tbe leading men at Albany and its environs ; but it seems that 
Kiggs hesitated, and unfortunately Nicholas Bayard bad clandea- 
dnely arrired from Albany, for the purpose, as be says, of visiting 
Iris son who was sick,* and was at this time secreted in his own 
boose. Another of the council of Dongan and James wae like- 
in town, Frederick Phillipse, a man only disdnguished fiir his 
To him. Bayard, ever restless and on the watch to get ban* 
lelf or others into trouble, or power, sent nodce of the arrival of 
Biggs, and persuaded Phillipse to seek the king's messenger and 
braig lum to the place of Bayards concealment.t Riggs was ac^ 
DOtdmgly brought by Phillipse, on the night after his arrival, to thcr 
house of Colonel Bayard, who in conjunction with his fellow king»> 
XMmsellor, and officer of James U, a passive instrument in his 
lands, endeavoured to persuade the bearer of despatches, that al- 
lioagfa the go^'emraent of the province was ia other hands, and die 
pyveraour's council had not met for months, the letter belonced to 
nch of the council as were to be found, rir. Bayard and PfaOlqise* 
For, says Bayard, although the Lieutenant Grovemour had departed, 
and the council had not officiated for some small time, yet, since 
die justices of the peace had been continued in their offices, by vii^ 
toe of the present king's proclamadoa, the letters addressed as ' 
above, were intended, and ought to be delivered to such of die gor* 
emour's council as could be found. He avered, that he would boM 
tbe despatches until Stephanus Van Cortlandt could be sent for, 
and on the meeting of the council deliver them to the presiding 

Happily for Ri^s, this reasomng did not prevail with him, and 
tbe next day the Commander-in-clu^ demanded the letters as be* 
longing to him who administered the government in Nicholsoii^ 
absence. The messenger was convinced, and the despatches witk 
tbepowers they autbcHised, were delivoed to Jacob Leisler. 

Tiiis attempt of Bayard and PhiU^ise to seise papers ifirectad 
Ko the person who administered the law by the choice of the pe<qde» 
evinces the notions prevalent in what were called the ^' gentry" and 
^'people of figure,** and ^riiich governed them, not only at that tinM» 
but long after. These nodons were derived in part from sup o 
riority of riches, but more from their being received as 

* MSS. PetitioB of Baymrd: New York Hbtorical Libnnr. 
t Tbe wnterof ilio PfcapMot pd bh Aed in Bonoa, m im^mokOtd "AIMart 
•ad Impartial Namanre/' wyo. fLat N irho bo a laft FlaBifiOMd V— Cmikmti » 
for him when be depwled for Ea^mL 


by the immediate officers of the king's government — ^tbe go\ 
lieutenant govemours and military leaders bom in Europe^ an( 
commissions emanating from his sacred Majesty, To be th 
ites of these supposed favourites of royalty, surrounded 
vincial gentry with rays which distinguished them, and s 
them from the people. They were jfravincial nobles : 
splendour, though at second hand, from the fountain of 
whether a licentious Charles, the hired tool of France, or i 
James, the worshipper of Rome and the pope. 

It would at first sight seem to require great assurance in 
and Phillipse to demand letters addressed to the person i 
when they knew they had wo power ; and one of them, 
was skulking from public observation, and knew himself t 
object of popular detestation : but that halo derived fro 
gan and Nicholson, that distinction flowing from king Jamc 
mission, constituting them members of his majesty's cow 
a medium through which ttiey saw, and which misled the 
attempt that must have been resisted by those who at t 
held the power of t]ie province in tlieir hands, administ 
laws, and were supported by the people, except in Albany 

Leisler received the letters and instructions as addressei 
head of the government in Nicholson's absence. He e 
them to the committee of safety. By their advice, he assu 
style of lieutenant governour, and a portion of those who h 
as the committee of safety vith otliers, freeholders as direct 
sworn in, as their majesty's, or the govemours council. 1 
done by those who had sworn to maintain the government 
liam and Mary, and had officiated as tlie advisers of the c 
der-in-chief to this time. 

t On the 11th of December, 1689, the following freehold 
constituted the lieutenant governour's council : Peter De ] 
Samuel Staats, Hendrick Jansen, and Johannes Vermilye 
city of New York ; Gerardus Beekman for King's County; 
Edsall for Queen's County ; Thomas Williams for West ( 
and William Lawrence for Orange County.* 

The attempt made by Bayard to gain possession of th 
from England, had the effect of making known his t 
in the city of New York, and I presume some measur 
taken by Leisler to cite him before the council, which 
for on the 17th of January, 1690, a warrant for his appre 
was issued ; is is headed '* by the lieutenant governour ani 
cil," and signed, " Jacob Leisler." It directs the appre 

Bemdes them I find enumerated u active friends of Leisler, 
Henderiek Cuyler, and John Coaenhoven. Milboome was aacfetii] 

leisler's proceedings. 169 

of Nicholas Bayard for high misdemeanours committed against his 
majesty's authority, and for certain libeDous writings, cotitaining 
" execrable lies and pernicious falsehoods," contrary to the peace 
of the province and his majesty's government It directs that he 
shall be seized wherever found ; and authorizes search to be made 
for him by breaking open places suspected of concealing him : and 
to use violence in case of resistance. This order is directed to 
** William Churchill and his company." 

Leisler likewise made known, by proclamation, the additional 
authority under which he acted, and required, in conformity to the 
act of assembly of 1683, entitled '* a bill for defraying the requisite 
charges of government," which, as was said, was still remaining in 
force, that all persons should obey the same, and that the collector 
and other officers should do their duty in the premises. 

Churchill and his company entered the house of Nicholas Bayard^ 
and as directed, broke open doors that were barred against them : Bay- 
ard fled to a neighbouring house, but was followed, and seized by 
the assistance of Abraham Brazier and several other citizens.* We 
have sufficient evidence that the Colonel was imprisoned, and 
treated rigorously. The jails of New York were several apart- 
ments and dungeons in the City Hall, at Coenties Slip, and from 
one of these prisons Bayard petitioned for release. 

On the 28th of December, 1689, Leisler wrote to the military 
and civil officers of the city and county of Albany, thus : " I, 
having received orders from his majesty. King William, for taking 
care of this government, have commissioned Joachim Staats to take 
into his possession Fort Orange, and keep the soldiers in good 
order and discipline." He further orders, that free elections be 
forthwith made for a mayor and aldermen, and calls upon those he 
addresses to assist for his majesty's interest and the good of the city. 

The convention, on receiving this letter, resolve to send the high 
sheriff of the city and county to Joachim Staats, informing him of the 
secret of such letter, and to demand of him if any such orders from 
the king had been sent to him, they being desirous to behave accord- 
ingly. The high sheriff, at whose house the convention was 
sitting, returns, and says, Staats will come to them. On the appear^ 
ance of Staats, the convention insist upon knowing whether the 
king has constituted Leisler lieutenant-goven^ur ; as, if so, they 
were willing to obey ; otlierwise, not Staats tells them that they 
know well enough that the letters were directed to Nicholson, and, 
in his absence, to such as for the time being, administered the gov- 
ernment. '' Let the bell ring, and call the people together) and 
then I will show what authori^ I have." 

The convention reject this ; but say, if he is to make proclama- 

* " Modest and Impartial Narrative'*— Boston, 1090. 
VOL I. 22 


ID the people of the accesiioo oftbekimeaiMiqBBiat tbj»M 
would call the companies toiEether in afnjr» wmA im il 
wilb doe aolemnitjr. In the afiemnont Scats came and 
•fder from Lebler for him and the fineefaoiden ami 
Aftmy to procbini William and Manr, if it had not akcndf 
aa Leisier had receired letters from the mioiar 
iniMfed that the sentlemen, (savs the secrefarf,) 
dare whether they acknowledze Jarob hetskr lo be 
go mmmnU f and whether they would obey him* The 
annre him lo«how copies ol' the letters lo Lei 
**Il lihowfiichcopie?. yon will say the;- are )Ciboiinie^a 
He ihowcd a commL^c^ioa from LeL^ier to cake posacaskNi af 
Oian|pe« and an order fiir a day of thaok^cri^in^. The 
icquire to «ee orders from Kintr William, directed to Jacob 
bwi deaifcd copies of the paper? ScaaL« showed, and they 
give him their answer in writin^r: and. m the meantime^ tky 
wrila to Captain Lei^ler about it. skaat», howerer, depninl 
Mtf leaving copies* 

Theaameaftemorm, theconrontjon met a^ain, to resolve 
m not Lcialer i» to be arknowled^reil a^ conmnuider-fn-chiiC 
P. Scfaii}-ler, who had been prer^nt at all the p te ^iuns 
aaya» that he cannot arknowled;:^ Lct«ler until he s 
MiboriiT from the kior. WtrfcM«!ll«. Van Schaickt and a amyfli^r 
■ccord with the ma} or. Tht\v forbiii the beating of drmm to 
die people tcc^ether. and irTo?^ ;ipi»n a pivice^t against Leislcr, 
ahtfuic that tite U'ucrs fir* mi inc n\hii*xry do not apply to htaa. Cap' 
~ ' W^emlell and l*apuia Ul^o xcr are in a minority. The ~~" 
publbiwd with CT^ It iMr?..:r- T.'.v mv. .-,r mairbed 
•ion. iVvMii i.jf i"i>r!. irro.rjr^aiiieii Ly the 
a gtind of fin) m« .1 a-.-.x-ni. A> >r«.-o a* ihey easeied 
gales the may*>r an.i «vj:,vr-, •'^«r«T siiir. ih-Ir f 
with drunv btatinr : uw> ^ i.v.r lo u.^- j/jiLt heifwe the 
The bell nnc xhrtcc : w ru;.. *.: z.\ic.i: z Ti^^rech. and 
WWi read. The jvrorftr.?.vir. y^iir^-d 'j-^jr^-ori; ibe - 
of the cii;\ then rrTi.roMi: v« ::#f- K*r. a;.i u»e prrctsiwrns^ wew/L hf 
awmr 10 he afTA^ri tr* itk cu^r-':.." 

irhtf dttpby wo.ifil rK< hk\o :••-•£":: Tr*£Of-. we may 
riMi had not TYv^jifd iiJv.i.ii inu:..\cc:^-4r rrc>m their 
Li%i»eiton. and i.^e rm<r:,rnT::, <A CV*nr»«rtiraL 
appf a yed Captfcin Ruii «'ii:> Ms '-^k ti^ruivfA f4CikiJer!> 00 
aiae bank» of the mxT : rie fTcty*^z. kT*i n'j»:>n«J 
aa the Alharj} Coci frnii vn. Tik striii'-.T? iicere dnrwu 1^ 
wiain «3Ktf<^ juii^. ks- S rr. cidihitc-i of Umc Ljc^meoicoi-einri 
Krw Yrtfk, ilK'i iirt'd h itti rh /«, A* tif'fcire 
Y«rk tTfirtp?. rirfjiw^i :^t iro i-» Srhi-nf-nad}, and the ircio|ia 
C-apu Ruii M-ni. fiaJ> ii^rk*-d u* iht- mv :arin of tht inhahhan 
frroD the disumr^ nf MrirJtrnal and nrarhhcnniiood of the 


As soon as Leisler heard of the massacre at Sclienectady, he sent 
a sufficient force to the frontier, and the Albany Convention imme- 
diately dissolved. 

According to the minutes, it was not until the latter part of Feb- 
ruary, 1689—90, that a man from Sclienectady brought the tidings 
of the destruction of that place. The fugitives say? that the French 
and Indians, after murdering the inhabitants of Schenectady, were 
marching to Albany. Messengers were sent down the river for 
assistance, but the snow and ice impeded travelling, and with diffi- 
culty an Indian was sent towards Schenectady to discover some- 
thing of tlie enemy ; others were dcsjiatched to the Mohawk castles. 
On the 10th, the mayor and convention, having learned the retreat 
of the French, order Captain 15uU, with five men out of each com- 
pany, to Schenectady, to bury the dead ; and, if the Indians had 
come down, to join them in pursuit of the enemy. There is a list 
of 60 persons killed, and 27 carried off prisoners. 

Measures for defence were taken at tliis time, and for ofTence^ 
against Canada. On the 15th Februar}^, the convention sent mes- 
sengers to tlie governours and civil authorities of the colonies, to 
act in concert against the French, and amon^ others, to New York. 
On the 24th of January, 1690, Bayard directed a prayer 
1690 to the Honourable Jacob Leisler, Esq., Lieutenant Gover- 
nour of the province of New York, and the Honourable 
Council, which, in the most ample manner, acknowledges the autho- 
rity of the man he had attempted to injure, and asks forgiveness* 
The petition " humbly showeth tliat the pe/iViowcr and ^/mcwer craves 
commiseration," acknowledging his great errour in disregarding 
the authority which he hereby owns. He prays for pardon and 
release from ** dismal detention." He promises to behave him- 
self from henceforth with all submission. He says, he will " per- 
form whatever their honours, the lieutenant-go vernour and his 
council, shall adjudge." 

This address did not obtain his release ; and was followed by t 
second ; in which, he labours to excuse his conduct in respect to 
the endeavour to obtain the papers brought by Riggs. 

He says that he wrote to the English government, from Albany, 
when Nicholson left New York, tlie last oif May, and again in June; 
and having come to town, in consequence of his son's sickness^ and 
hearing of the arrival of Mr. John Kiggs, with despatches fropi the 
king's ministry, he supposed these despatches were intended as 
answers to his letters, and therefore, in the absence of Nicholson^ 
belonged to him^ (Bayard) as a member of the king's council : and 
that his intention was, as soon as Mr. Stephanus Van Cortlandt 
should come to town, and the council should meet, to deliver the 
said letters to them ; " but the next morning, before the e&fmcU could 
ffieeti your petitioner was informed that the said packets were, upon 
demand, delivered to your honour." 


From the above expression, and some others, it would appear 
that Van Cortlandt liad come to New York about the time thai 
Bayard did, and was secreted and at hand ; but upon the arrest ol 
his companion, again fled to Albany. 

Ba}'ard goes on to confess that ** he has been so unhappy** as to 
be of opinion that the packets did not belong to his honour, Capnio 
Leisler ; and further, that in his leners to John West, he ^* has 
most imadvisedly and in his foolish passion, uttered his opinioo io 
such severe and unbecoming expressions, to the degrading of your 
honour's authorit}*^ ;*' but he assens that he never had a thougfau 
direcdy or indirectly, to remove Leisler's ^* authority' by force, or 
with any the least danger of bloodshed," but iiad determined lo 
remain passive, until further orders from England. He begs Leisler 
not to remember " any of the particular disputes' ' which had been 
between them ; asks forgiveness and compassion upon his state, as 
he sufllers from fever, and asserts that he shall ever pray, as in dutr 
boimd, for his honour, the lieutenant-sruvernour, Jacob Leisler. 
How far these assertions comport with the unrelentlns: |>ersecutioa 
which brought Leisler and Milboume to the irallows. the reader vill 
judge. Ba}'ard was at diis time sick in prison, and in irons ; and 
the remembrance of these sutTerings would not allay his passions, 
when his part}' was triumphant. 

Already, part of the evils resuliinir /roin tJu opiwifltion to Leisler's 
govenunent, and from the neglect of Enirland, had been experi- 
enced : and Bayard condoles w ith Lei^lor on the news of the 
destruction of Schenectady, and laments that he. the )>etitionfr, 
should be accused of being the cause of Schuyler's opposition. He 
avers, that since leaving; Albaiiv, he had onlv written to Mr. Peter 
Schuyler and Mr. Livmgston to tliank them for civilities. He 
asserts, that the ma^ristrates of Albanv were zealous friends to Wil- 
liam and Mar\'; but considered themselves as in no wav subordinate 
to the citv of New York. He acknowledires that this had been hi* 


opinion likewise ; for which, if he has done ami<s, he craves pardon. 
He states that he and Van Cortlandt were called upon by the con- 
vention at Albanv, for their contribution towards the defence of the 
province, and insinuates that he had no funher ULrency in Si'huyler*> 
opposition; but intended to remain quietly in Albany until the arri- 
Tal of a govemour, or some specific orders from England. 

The accession of William of Oran^re to the tluxine of his 
&ther-in-law, at once involved Enirland, and, of course, her 
dependencies, in a war with Louis XI \\ and the adlierents of 
James ; thus poper)* \i'as arrayed a^rainst liberty and the protestant 
religion. The attention of William was principally directed to the 
war in the Netherlands. The American provinces shared little of 
his attention. The consequences of this state of thini:s cannot be 
understood without again referring to the histor}' of Canada. 



BMilhirs in Amrriai^ notwirhf:amiiNg the jioiicf deciarrd in fvmpe 
— Ajftiirs Of' CanaJti — DtstntrtioH t/ SchmerfaJjf^ Janmtry 1690 
— Ot/irr Frmch anJ hJion IVars — Thr opea oppontioti to Lds- 
Irr jtwt Joint — LrUler omJ the GmrmoMr <y" C onnecticut p/an 
OM Erj^tiirlon optinM CtimiJa^ rr/iiVA jaih — Causfs — JnUUtm 

Wk havo 5et^n thai Enirland and France had concluded, in 1CS7, 
i inmn\ by which a jx^ace w^s stipulatoii between the f*ib/frts of 
ibci^e countries in Amtriai, Bui neiilier the iiovenunent of Louis, 
ID Europe or in Canada, chose to consider the Iroquois as subjects 
ID Gr^ai Britain. The Court of James II, was perfectly indifier- 
ODX on iliat head, ap|x^ared ignorant of the boiuids of the English 
Colonies, cared noihinj; for their interests, blind to the designs of 
France on die western continent, and willing to promote the scheme 
of pdnin^ jv^wer over those warlike tribes, by means of presents 
ind Jesuits. 

The New England Colonies had been engagetl in hostilities with 
I'vious tribes or nations of die aborigines, which gave rise to a depu- 
tation of commissioners from die east, who met a council of the 
In>quois« by apjxiintment, at Albany, in September, 16S9. The 
Sew England delesrates wished to eniraire ilie Five Nations to de- 
leiKl them a^nst the eastern Indians. Tiihiigtuhrlf^ a Mohawk 
»chem« the day after receiving the propositions, made answer. He 
repeated, by means of the Indian artificial memory', (a bundle of 
sdcks, one of which is oven in chari^r^ to the individual who is to 
remember one i^anicular proposition,) the whole speech of the dele- 
ption, and tlien replied to each part. The Iroquois would not 
engage in hostiliues to protect New England, but assured the depu- 
ties that the tomahawk would be lifted a^rainst the French. 

Don^an had seen the necessin' of holding the conf(^derated In- 
dians of the Five Nauons in the interest of his province. He had 
opposed the introiluction of the Jesuits among them, and claimed 
iheni as suhjicts »»/' Enghiml. To this the sa\-age republic objected 
— tieclarini: that they \iere4wJJj/*rr to no power ; they were frei, and 
ivoiild maintain their libert}'. But die injuries they had leceiTed 
from France, and their former friendly intereourse with the Dutch, 
made them a trontier wall between New York and Canada, impedmg 
the progress in the great project of conquest commenced by Fnnce. 

Father Charles oix, the historian of -New France, or Canada, 

174 AfFAlK-T 'jF c.vxada. 

feprwenls Do;;_-i:i*.- «f:r.K,':«::Io.j :?j '-h^r i;:L-«>i.:c:]'orj of the Ji 
aiDon:: :I:e L'o;^oL-, a.r i ::.•: !.-•..•»:? Iv^iilc to Frar.-ct: ajid u 

and Loul*. ::.r: Govcr:.. .: '/'iJ--.-..i.:i. M. D*r Nor.-.;lc. hsai 
on a war 2i-«J:.-: •^'.':: .. \,r/ l!:*!-. : > :!* -'.or-o-j- or ibe beoe& of 
Canada. T:.e :-:v-,. ,->.r. 1.- Er.j>_-:.;. >.rA krr^rrT^lor. of WEBib 
in, piac<:d i'.fr t'^o -'..o::.-:.- <> .r.'.:'.'.-^ '.:. i <.i:^ of ^ar: aad is Itti, 
31. De >o.v.i!!c- <i'!^^ :^.- ro-vlr-rvr.i iha: the ooJr mii 
conquer L':*: L-'Vr-^lr v. i.- ly the pr-j-.;*/:-- rocqu*:*': of New TofL 
FroDii^nac rrirrc*.-: ivi :.::r.. sj.i l::.;:.e.ii2ielv reinna'jed tbelbft«f 

1690 ThL- :-v>'ie of ? \:':A -:." .• ::-e Cor/ei']ers:fe5 wa* adoocied ; 

M. De Fror.r-.T.^^:. ii* v.r.>r:.:..>h^i .•i*:;:ti:er. asd actzreaii 
was enierjiriiLr-r. l-vl:.: :r. •i.-: i-ovvrr.:.-:^': <^,f Cs.r.s'ia Li 1690. 
mined to anici: th€: Kr.::!^*:. :r. ^.r:': jr^nivrr.-?:- 1-?. "iS.i pro'te lo 
ages tf-a: ieL* ?i:'::v d-.: -::. :•;•: -:/'*r. •:.•: »-■ er of Fn.'sce^— ifcai ifae 
^azYish were- :.'^k> -.vv-.l.; to •■rov.-^: "'i.v^. Kv cairrmr fr« 
and s^alpinj-kr.Ife ::.:o :h': Kr._\">:: rf::^v:..-r.i>. bo-Jr* lo ibeeas: 
wesu he iii.-? r-vv/v-; ; :o-':r m.-^ *:.•; c-^ - r'-i-: r.^e of L'.e kdlai 
and fix therr. ir. ::.* c-.Ii-.':':- of C':i:.i»:'i- for :he purw* of 
conqjie-i. F ':, for .:-=::-:!'. . : .-:- .Lr-^.-.-ior^* Li ch-e ^ro-.ince of 3 
York- 5tid-r«i ::.•: flir.- •>: '.j.c F:;---:. ::''f\^rr.y:r. 

M. D^ra.v.*V': Li'i ^ .:..." -ir. : of •.:.•,- for a: MI-.Lil.-n^ckrrark. 

genre of:.;.- a//^ v--!or. : .. •..-: _• - .'...■..•. M. De F.-':-- :::,-»'. «*rr: i 
larje ror.voy. -.^.r.-. '^:..:.-. .:..:... .:. : .-...-. :.. :. - .n^-.r.^ i:ei- » ra* 
Huro.i* an.'i ^>:i.v. l-. n.v: - .- '.. :..:: ^ :--:-> i.- ■^>...d rr^ur? rwir 
6deU7 lo hi::- i.'..! il-o -.«• •l-:!.- . : : .-..-"J-- : ,f ::. ::iier. :o >? dirsKfti 
bv hL» w;!!. 

Th.**,-*: W2r p-irJ:* were : :-:: '^: . : f : •;.:•>: /.la'^ki u:oz "j>? Eix- 
lish 5e::Ie.T.e.v. E-' :. : -r . -. ,., ... -..- : vf Ir.'iiaiji aji-i Fr^ari- 
men. ecuii.i/e'i f:,r!:.-. : .:;-y-.- •/.!—:.-. ::.... 'i-'.d co^.-r-i^icd br 
ofic€r« of ihe r-. j :Iir ir. y. T..e fr-: v.--.- d;.--: .:e^ ir^i: ibe do 
vince of Ne^iv Yo: •:. F' -:: . : C" : ..:'. -.- ■■ o ! \ . :■■ ' . .-w- 1 'irfyiz.i I will fc?t 
fellow. Urlls \i* 'j.5.: ::.e !-:-i : .: .. -'.m*: : v.; :o fi"! -jr^^^f^nrse. 
(by which r.i.T.e :l.v F.-v:.... '^^i..:: A"':.i:.y./ or jr<rn Coriar. 
(Schenectady.) fj--:- 

Tbe people of S. :.-:'•;■: ViV. -::-::.• v.. :.;V': l>«;r. Lt a 5a» rf 
periect securiiy. ^Xr.fy.z.. -.vy ?..-•:-. .f v.-: e:cl-:e.-.r e of w^r I xtag c n 
France ar.d Er.zlaai. ^iJi *.: ::.-: ::•;-. :o> crvT.:> r.'>de by dse 
Canadians u> ^-5:3 ir.e iil!-=..'..v '.:' ::.v r'ive Ni::o:>. Perhaps &e 
kaowle<J.-e of :he h:ir-T r.-.iv ui. •.- i»jL'k } m \ ..[ I'.er:. a^ nenxB- 
Ooos U7ider L'je :nfi:^ .'.'■■: of Je-r:.!:? •.5-:.'', \^_\::i sj i:.:e?. were coo- 
siantly goLij 0:1 : ar.*! i;. J:r. .:r.- of ::.!- j. ---ir L'.e Iroc^oif sen! i 
measeacer 10 Quiddor. (Pi::^.- S:. jy!er.) Miyor of Albany, wib 
t&durances of their ho=-^l:v :o Lv; French. Tae v forwarded 10 hies. 


L9 tokens, ihrco tomahawks : but tiii> \va? iiiulorstootl only to pledge 
he Mohawks, OnoiuiniHis, ami Scr.ivas: tlie olhor two nations were 
(dU ne^tiatin:: with Fronii:;ifiu', wiio, hy ;iioa:is of Mi/tt, a Jesuit, 
wdin::: for the pretonoe o!*reli;:ioiis instrurlion anion;: the Oneidas, 
imIso tar causiHl a want of uranirnitv anion:: tlio confederates, that 
»ly thive, instoail of fi\e loniaiuuvks had been sent to Albany. 
The distance of SoiuMUHtailx irom MiMitreal, and the nei£:hbour- 

bood of the friend I V Mohiiw ks, inav have caused tiie security which 

• • • 

xoreil so tatal. Hut a part o\ I \i plain luill^s Connecticut troops 
were ill the place as a iiuard. aiui wore prevented from keepini^ 

The fori*e i mended a:::alns: iiu* froniLT of New York, was en- 
lusietl to the conduct of M. l>Mi*:»er\IlIc. who, ha\inc deienuined 
10 iil] on r^cheiuvuuly, ad\a:u'iil wiiii I:i> FriMich soldiers and In- 
Ikn allies over liie fro /.en Liki s ;::\i lU i^j» sr.ows, throu^xh a silent 
■ildeniess, for iwvnty-;\\ti liiiys, \\\:\\ ^ri\u suiieriniT*, but a perse- 
nerance worthv o\ :i botitT end. It i^::>;u\irs Irom Ciiarlevoix, tliat 
lie French Indians were led or \wcKK:\\yM\\\.\\ by an In^quois chief, 
railed the ••(Jreai Mo':i;:\\k ;" n:ul uiu:i tiio rctl r.nd white savacres 
lad arrived within two Ic;u';:e- of tiie ii»wn. tliis MiJiawk haran^nieci 
be Indians. He had ^rreat intiuonce, savs the .lesuit, not onlv with 
he Indians, but tlie French, in cunseiptence of senice, character, 
md rflisriori, lie e\horicd them to fo r;:ei liieir fatisrues and suffer- 
nc?, in the pr\>s|H.vt oi rc\on^'o on liie pcrtiuitms Endish, (tlie same 
;erm which the KncHsh have always mariC use oU when speakins^ 
H the French.) and adilod. tliat ** tiiey could not tloubi the assist- 
ince of Hfiii'r •. against the em niies of (i-./." Thus it is, that men 
n all ajes blaspheniousiy onli>i tiie benevolent Deity, in their pro- 
lects of ambition. bUxHl, and muriier. 

As lliey appnwched the tlrvoicil village, they met four squaws,. 
••ho instructed them in tiie best way of ;uTivin:: secnnly at the place^ 
WTien witliiu one league, a I'anadian and nine Indians were sent 
lo reconnttitre. who. on tlieir return, reportcil that the inhabitants 
■•ere rest in:; in security, and lulpn"pan^l for defence. The exce»- 
live cold determincil tlie commander not to defer the attack, but to 
push on inunciliately. 

The Jesuit, CharlevoiK, dcsi'ribes Sciioneetadv as havln*:. then, 
[he fonn of a parallelogram. It was enrerotl by two cates; from 
rhich 1 infer that it was enclosed by a ))alis;idoed wall. One gate 
0^>eiKHl u^HMi the ro;id to Albany, and tlk' otlier on the side froDi 
R-hich tlie French and ludians wore ad vane in:;, it w as determined 
that Mcissrs. Mtnut and StiikU 11- la**, with one division, were to 
eoier by tlie nearest i^ite. which tln^ squaws hail infonncil them wis 
ae^er shut. D'lbbenille and Kepcnticny, w ith tlieir pam% marched 
lo the left, to render tliemselves masters of the Albany gale; but. 




kMiiig their wiy, ibey returned : so that die Tillage wis emend Itf 
at one place- 
It was now midnight — the gate opea — no watch set, and die in- 
vaders found their way into & town undiacoveredt ahoot 
o'clock on Saturday night The leaders separated to 
all parts. Perfect silence was obseiyed. They passed dmi^gii 
die village without perceiving' any movement Returning, thevar- 
wboop, **ala wuiutere des sautageij*^ says the priest, was i * * 
die w<^ of destruction set about MatUei round some 
at a Und (^/ortf where the men were under arms. These 
have been the New England men, sent by Captain BulL BaJ^ 
fimnng the door, all the English, except the comnumder, weie palii 
die sword. A Frenchman of the name of Martigny was wmiad aJ, 
in attempting to enter one of the houses ; but his companions^ a^fi 
Charlevoix, revenged him, by forcing the door and putting all 
the house to death. All was massacre and pillage for two 
and then the French officers placed guards at the avenues to pro- 
vent surprise, and passed the rest of the night in regaling theaK 
selves and men. 

Mr. G. F. Yates, of Schenectady, in his account of this tiagedf , 
says : '* The slumbering inhabitants started from their sleep, be- 
wildered, frantick. Some hid themselves, and remained secoR, 
until the flames drove them from their lurking places ; when Aey 
fell beneath the tomahawk, or were taken prisoners. Others laa 
half naked and barefoot into the adjoining woods, whence a km 
escaped, after extreme sufferings, to Connestigiuna and Albany, and 
others perished miserably on the ^*ay. Surprised, unarmed, and 
defenceless, resistance was in vain. Courage and cries for mercy 
were alike unavailing. The same fate awaited the craven and the 
brave. To some of the inhabitants, however, this assault was not 
altogether unexpected, and they had for some time previously taken 
the necessary precautions to prevent surprise. Among those who 
made a successful defence, and kept the foe at bay, wm Adam 
Yrooman. Being well supplied with ammunition, and trusting to the 
strength of his building, which was a sort of fort, he formed thedespe* 
rate resolution to defend himself to the last extremity; and if it should 
prove to be his fate to perish in the flames of his own domicil, to 
sell his own life, and that of his children, as dearly as possible. His 
house was soon filled with smoke. His wife, neariy suflbcaled 
with it, cautiously, yet imprudently, placed the door ajar. This an 
alert Indian perceived, and firing through the aperture, killed her. 
In the mean time, one of his daughters escaped through the back- 
hall door, with his infant child in her arms. They snatdied the 
little innocent from her arms, and dashed out its brains ; and, in die 
confusion of the scene, the giri escaped. Their triumph beta 


k>«pTer« of sfaoit dimtion : Mr. Vrooman succeeded in securdy 
Kv'cac cbe door« and pr^-eiulu^ ihe intrusion of the enemy. On 
vicaeMiiij^ Mr. Vrooman^s t^^ur^e* the enemy promised, if he 
WkttU (li»«st« to save his life, and not set pre to his building* 
1^ piumke they fulfilled, but carried on two of his sons into 

Cittrievoix sa\-s, that the French commander ordered tbtt 
Qie ckr^-raan of the place should be spared, as he wished to make 
kkn prisoner: but he was killed, and all his pq>ers bunied. ** Le 
S«eurCoudre« major de la place/' (which I am obliged to transhtet 
C^ipc&in Akxaader Cilea.l had saved himself by crossing the linr, 
(wiere. by ihe bye he resided, at a place now called Glenville^) and 
prepsued u^ defend himself u i:h ilie aid of his servants and Euniiy ; 
bat ibe Fre:vh co:uc:iand;:t^ oincer sent him a summons by the 
*" Great Mohawk/* with a pivtmise oi protection* if he would sur- 
reader — so hann beioi: ^^heii to him — but niendship in reftini 
isc kir&dnes$ shown by hir.i :o <«verul Frenchmen, on a previotts 
occasion, when they had bcx'n prisoners to the Mohawks. Glen 
*«vr»;ed the teniis. which were smctiy adheiwi lo. 

T2x^ French historian :sivs. tha; the omcers destioved all the ram 
or binso}'. to prevent the loiiians from diinkin^r: and that the 
boc^seii^ w^re all burnt, exce^^ Mr. Glen's and that of a widow, where 
the wounded FrerA-'hmen had been placed. There wei« ixtj 
well bui.: ar.d tumishe\{ dwellinir?. Such plunder as could be car- 
r>^i on w~as preserved fn>m the fire, and about sixty old men* 
women, and children, such as had escaped the first fiuy of tbs 
OQset. wien? span^i fiom the slau^rhter. as were about thuty Mo- 
hawks, found in the town, who were unbanned — to show, sajs 
Charievoi\. that the French only warre^l with the Knglkh. 

The Mvthawk nation had four towns located in the valley of tbs 
Mo^wk. besides a small villas about one hundred miles west of 
Schenectady. These were called by the whites ** castles,** or 
Kvtresses. as ihev were all fortified. Thev were nimibened ac- 
cording lo their distances fiv>m Schenecody. the nearest being 
called ** the fii^t Indian casde.** The aboriginal launes were as 
K>L!ows : — Cahanaiica. (probably the same as Cairhnawaea.) Ca- 
rjL^^ra. Canajorha. anti Tioaomiaura. The Indians of the three 
£r>: castles were, during the eoactmeni of the dreadful tra^edv we 
have a::er.ipted to describe, absent on a hundni: expeiUtion to their 
western territories. Several days necessarily ekf^ed before the 
Tior.ondx:! band was notified of the massacre bv the 
dcs:\i:chc\i for the purpc^^e. On hearing the news^ they 
iv^ SrhcrKVtidy : whence they sen! a hundr>;\l of their younj 
roi;rs in pursuit of the enemy, who overtook them* and killed or 
made caiKivc twvniy-five of their number. The old chie& re* 

VOL. i. ' *.*%J 


maincd tu comfort the inliabitaiit.s, and assist tliem in buning their 

I have, from the Albany niinuiei?, detailed the movements of the 
convention, when the news of this event reached Albany. Schuy- 
ler, a.s quoted by William Smith, <ays : " Those who escaped, fled 
naked towards Albany, ihrou::li a deep snow which fell that very 
night, in a terrible .-torm ; and twenty-five of these fugitives lost 
their limbs in the fliirht, throui^h the severity of the frostl" 

Such was this dismal Sundav in Schenectadv. About noon, the 
French depaned with their plunder, on forty of the best horses they 
could find. The others, with the rattle, and human dead bodies, 
of ever\' aire lav slauirhtcred in the streets. 

The nearest Mohawk, castle* was not apprised of this event lutil 
two days after, owinir to the mcssenirors sent from Albany being 
impeded by snow. They promptly joined a party of young men 
from Albany in ]>ursuii of the murderers, fell upon their rear, and 
killed or made prisoners five and twenty of tliem. The sachems 
of the Iroquois re[iaired to Albany, and persuaded the terrified in- 
habitants, who thouirht of abandonin:r their homes, to remain; (or 
their defence, promisinir their assistance against the French. 

Father Charlevoix informs us that the French forces were too 
near (Pnntsrr, (Albany.) to remain lonir; and at noon of the day 
followin:: the massacre, the anny departed, carrying their wounded 
companion, their booty, and forty prisoners. The same hard- 
ships and sufferings were to bt? enrountered in llieir return throush 
the snow-covenMl wiidcmoss, and the want of provisions added u> 
their misery, and retarded ilioir retreat. Several died from hunsrer; 
and we may suppose that tiie wretriied prisoners did not fare better 
than their triumphant captors. They wore obli^^ed to separate into 
small parties, some of wliirli were attacked by the pursuers, and the 
historian acknowledu^es the loss of three Indians and sixteen French- 
men ; whereas at O/rl/urj (Schenectady,) they only lost one of 

Such is the Jesuit father's account of the massacre of Schenec- 
tady. The victors reached Montreal on the liGth of Marcli, after a 

• Tim Mohawks had lour town's or ra-tl*** anri ono small <ottIpni«?nt on the banks 
of thfir ri\frr. which, a* wp know, riow- thriMi^h a v:il|i*y of alnioiit iinparalleM 
bcaiitv ami ft-riiliiy. until itfalU into lii*' llii(lM»n. In li'uT. CoUinel Coiir«v 

matecl thif IroqiioiH thni: Mohawks. I'liNi w-irru mi r^ : OneiHa^i. *J<Nl ; Onondosaf. 
350; CaMjcas. :;iNl: aiMJ Si-n^^ra-*. l.fMHi: niakin:; a total of *J.1,VJ warriouni. Du- 
rine t))(? r(.'\ ulutinnary war. tlif Briti-h raicil thnii. Moliawk«. [iin): Oneidai. 130. 
(pirt of this n:iiion l>«in;; wiih ih^ rnit»-(i Statf^:^ TnMar<>ni!«. 2iNh Onondagaf, 
rW^»; rayii2a««. 'j:'!*!: S.n»T;i^ Iini |m 17!M. an annuitv of ^.'iiNl wa.* distributpd 
to ihr lrrH|Ufii<i who rnnainffl rn thi* liiitrd Stat»'*. and ihp nation." wrre thus niim- 
berrd: Omidas. *",•> |.po]»lc ; Caviiga*. 4n; Onondaga;*. l.'iO; Senecan. 1,780. 
TU*' Mohawk^. :Uiii. wor#» in Panada, as were 1(K> Uneidas-M De WiU CUalon'f 
DiKO\utf before N. V. Ihst. Soc \ 


march of forty and odd days, enduring hardships and privations of 
the severest kinds — suffering miseries almost equal to their guilt. 
But the whole transaction is related with the applause of the priesdy 
historian. He says it raised the French in the opinion of their 

Before I return to tlie sequel of Jacob Leisler's story, (to whom, 
of course, every misfortune of tlie province was attributed by the 
party in opposition,) I will continue tlie Indian war of the frontier 
a little further, taking Father Charlevoix as my guide. 

In May following, some Frenchmen and French Indians, led by 
the " Great Mohawk," ascended the Sorel, and taking their Qourse 
for die country of the Iroquois, fell upon some wigwams, and made 
forty-two prisoners, among whom were four Englislunen ; and 
hearing that a party of English and Iroquois were approaching, they 
made off on their return. They stopped at the River of Salmons 
to make canoes, and in the evening, " while at prayer," says the 
Jesuit, they were discovered by a party of Algonkins and Abana- 
qnes, (likewise French Indians, but unconverted,) who were going 
against tlie EngUsh settlements ; and mistaking these praying gen- 
tlemen for enemies, they fired upon tlicm, killed " the Great Mo- 
hawk" and seven Cauglinawagas, besides wounding two " English 
slaves," before they found their mistake. 

The odier expeditions sent out by Frontignac were successful, 
though not in so great a degree as that which destroyed Schenec- 
tady ; and the N^w England setdements suffered from his warlike 
enterprize. He likewise strengthened the fort at Michilimackinack, 
gained the Indians of that neighbourhood to his part : and the French, 
to keep alive their enmity to the Iroquois, and gratify their taste, 
having taken some of the Five Nations prisoners, gave one of them 
to their allies to be burnt. 

The Iroquois, however, continued faithful to New York, and 
obliged Frontignac to be incessantly on his guard against their war 
parties, showing their long established superiority in the art of man- 
killing, with other kinds of destructiveness, and die deep rooted 
enmity to Frenchmen implanted by M. Cliamplain and Louis le 
Grand. They attacked even the Island of Montreal : and, though 
repulsed, left Uieir traces in blood and ashes. 

Frontignac, receiving intelligence from a half-breed, that the 
English and Iroquois had embarked in canoes upon Lake George, 
with an intent, again with greater force to attack Montreal by the 
way of Lake Champlain, prepared to receive Uiem, by gathering 
great numbers of Indians on the island to aid his soldiers and the 
inhabitants. Again he repulsed his enemies ; but not before thej 
had ravaged the setdements on the island, and in an attack upon his 
encampment, killed ten soldiers, eleven habitansj and retreated with 



their pruonen, after fe^lauehteriiiE the cattle, bumio^ the 
leanng other e^-idences of tlieir prowess. 

The Iroquois having withdrawD, the French govenMHirdi *iniB wi 
his allies with presents, and the patifjing assurance that be vriD ei- 
tenninate their enemies, the confederates of the Five Natkins. Btt 
the govemour soon after received tidings thai the Iroquois iad 
attacked the French post above the SauU <fe Si. Lvuis^ and pa to 
death the commander and his {rarrison. Another party bad kiDed 
two officers, and letters arrived, informing him that thirtv vendi 
had sailed from Boston with troops destined for the siege of Qi»- 
bec. This was the expedition commanded by Phipps, of vhidi 
more hereafter.* 

I will now return to the affairs of the southern porticn of dK 
province of New York, and the story of Lieutenant-govenxNV 

Jacob Leisler had been called to the direction of the province i! 
a time, and under rircumstances which required all the knowledee, 
address, and finnness of a veteran statesman ; and as we have seeSi 
be brought to the task only the experience of a inem-hant of dtf 
day, and an honest desire fr>r the welfare of New Yorlc, and the 
success of the protestant revolution of lOSS. 

After the destruction of Schenectady, in Febniar}', 1690. it ^ 
pears that the magistrates of Albany saw the necessity of actinc ia 
conjunction with Leisler for the defence of the province. Bayud 
and Van Conlandt were in New York chv, one in confinement and 
the other secreted. Livinj^ton fled to Connecticut, and resided it 
Hartford, probably in consequence of tlje warrant issued by Leisler. 
But before the dispersion of the Albany Convention, Leisler wrote 
to the gwemours of several of the colonic-?, representing the situa- 
tion of New Yorii, and MTzmz a combination airainst Canada. On 
the 2l5t of Februan', 1690, soon after ilie letter* by which the per- 
son in power was confirmed in it, Lei?lf*r sent Johannes VermilTe. 
Benjamin Blasrge, and Jacob Milboume, za commissioners, wiib 

• Chief Jni^ioe f^mhfa. iohif Hi<onr of .»w Vork ptm an wr**Mm ciftb^ ni«- 
of the IrciqDOiff uid the war-p&rtj''^ of FroDti^nfie. whj'ii iMriuly &rrMr# vofe 
the shove. He ut» thai the liidian.- r^v*? up Uj*- rr*:iK-ij u:J<-f•^riJr*'r^ v.i tbt F.nfiMt- : 
that their Mcovt* hunMbed the Cutbdism ^r^*:iu*rn\.* : att&tked tifj** fnii\o\ f omr lo 
Mkhilimarkinack : and thiii one of the litKjDOif {irl^oDer» ttken br the Frenrh vw 
delivered to their Indiuu, who did not hum hiui. xijer«-)v. to thow their dt-iemuikMl 
hoatilitT to the Fne NiitJon». but uU kim. Th«: <i*-nruvw.*n rziiude hy the Iroqaoa 
at the fiiuid of MoDtr*^ i« ri^en priiK-ipfcllv from f*old«-n. Li*-ateDuit-£o«enH*iir 
Coldea fivet hi^ ^nu* to tije warlike aiid MiLU-^iuui-like ahiljiic-* of tbe CinuA 
I>e Frontipuc. lie ¥*\t the Fnnrh Conn t-bo^ th*r !it^n he«i Mi:ted to f pien 
their coloDM-ft : " th«- Fiijrii'h *^*uti-d tr> hav^ linJ*: rt-ghrd to the quaj!firatic<Bf of 
ihe pervon th^ w^nt' to raU. " bat to rratifv a r«'i«Tion or a fn«rE>d. kn rrvuv^ iuis 
■aopportuBjiT of maiunc a fortune : and a^ t«e km-*- tnat he «h* recoxnui#-B6H] 
with mm virvr. hu roantilt «#-re cLiefiy empimed for thi» purpoM " Here vt 
hav« tht iMiiiuoBj of out who nw the mnm behind the wtncf 


power to apree with tlie conimissioncrs of Connecliciit on any mea- 
sures for tlie public ^ood ; and these gentlemen having proceeded 
to Xew Haven, addressed die Governour and Council of Connec- 
ticut, "and having a deep sense of the danger which Albany and 
the adjacent parts are in," requested that wliatever men should be 
wntfrom Connecticut hereafter to Albany, might receive orders to 
obey the Lieutenani-govemour and Council of New York in con- 
junction with the government of Connecticut, and pay no regard 
to the convention at Albany. They further request a consideration 
of the nmnber of men to be sent and their maintenance — whether 
Massachusetts shoidd not be consulted — and that persons be ap- 
pointed to treat with the Iroquois. 

To this address, the (Jovernour and Council of Connecticut 
answered that they sent Captain }\u\\ and his soldiers to Albany in 
compliance witii Captain Leislcr's wishes and those of the people 
of Albany, for the security of his majesty's subject** against the 
French. That being iirnorant of any factions or divisions, which 
they now with sorrow learn, they decline any further interference 
or assistance, except to advise " the Honourable Captain Leisler 
and the <rovernour at New York in present power" to take the most 
peaceable measures for a reconciliation with the Albanians, for the 
safety of die place, least it undergo the fate of " Shenegdage." 
And further, as Connecticut considers those " at Albany in present 
power well acquainted with the Five Nations, and greatly interested 
in them," they advise " as little altercations" with the Convention 
of Albany or interruption to their proceedings as is "meet," for fear 
of disgusting die Iroquois and prejudicing the public peace.* They 
desire Leisler to send to Albany his ItiO soldiers, which he says are 
ready, as the occasionsof Connecticut require the recall of her troops 
from thence speedily. They tell Lel^ler that as to the number of men 
wanted to protect Albany, he nnist judge for himself; " it lies in 
your province to do it, not ours." They tell the New York com- 
missioners that if diey want the assistance of Massachusetts, it is 
their "work to obtayne it. They give their advice, "which at 
present may be sufficient." As to presents or treaties with the 
Five Nations, it is not convenient for Connecticut to appear in 
the business, but the New York gentlemen may " act therein ac- 
cordinjT to the order and instructions in the king's letter." This 
is concluded with prayer, and signed, "John Allyn, secretary." 
A postscript is added in these words : " Gentlemen : having seen 
his majesty's Itifrry in your hands, we do not see but the Albanians 
may find sufficient reason to comply with you in Uie same, when 
they shall receive due information therein." " These for the gentle- 

' Letters on file at Uirtford. 


men oommissioDed by Captain IpMcr, of Xew YoA, 

Totfais, a replris filed in the Secretary of Scalers oSoe, at Han- 
fard, as ^ Leisler*« scolJinsr i^fer.'''* It » dated 3Iarcfa l«t, 16SSl» 
(which means 1690, New St}'le,) and addressed to the HoBOonhfe 
Robert Treat, Goremour of Connecticuu It is fiom the Gom- 
■our and Council of Xew York, and signed by Milboume, 
letaiy. They say that the conmiisaoners, (naming them,) 
been to C<Mmecticut, and made proposals ibr the good of fats oayi 
tf^s provinces, they were not received in a manner either fneatg 
or neigUiouriy ; but, on the contrary, their cooriesy was a nstaij 
** with coldness, contempti and diidain." The}' accuse the Got- 
ctnoar and Maeiscracy of Connecticut with having ahetied aad cw* 
comaged the rebellion of the people of Albany-, by placing &■«§ 
■ader the order? of the convention — so called — and faarimr le- 
fiued to foibid their further proceeding:. They state thai they nt 
aaiuicd that Connecticut, and especially John Alhn, had aided 
Sir Edmimd Andros, to the injur}' of New Yorlk ; and ibnBaBf 
dechre the Govemour and Magistrates of Connecticut the upkmU' 
en of rebellion, uhlats ihey order their forces at Albany not lookf 
die Albanr Convention : otbenvL^e. thev sliall esteem said fives 
as enemies, and treat tlx-m accordingly. They require Aliyn lohe 
secured and proceeded a^rainsi for Lis offences. 

On the 5th of March, an answer L« made to this, which tbercd 
an "ancnr lener-"* And the (iovr-niour and General Court of Coa- 
necticut say said lener is " -riuned i^ iilj urjju*i caJumiiiaiin^chariresr 
that thev unerlv abhor the liioudii of Sibeitin:: rebeL^ Thai ther 
did last summer Mrnd **conimi«sioncTr and ?4>ldiers to Yoriu ia 
eounienance Kin^: William and the prote^iant interest," and not 
knowing of any division, complied i^ith his. LeL^ler's request, and 
die urcent call of tlie jieople of Albany, and the Five NaiioiUL 
They call the behaviour of Lei^k-r and his council un^nieAiL 
They say that they have advlst d the people of Albany not to ood- 
iend, but to submit "to lije present f»oTTer in liie jirovince of Xew 
York, and unite as one man to opiifty^: iiie common enerny.** Alhv 
is readv to answer the charje? made. Thev decline controvenr, 
and subscribe themselves, •• Your ni ; jlilxiurs." 

On the same day on wliich the above is written, Leuier 
wrote to Govcmour Treat, or any other person in authorkv, saying 
dat he is informed thai Kr^n Livin:r?ion. ** who by his rtbelhofl 
hath caused sr^at dii<*rder in the province, by maintaining thai the 
commissions ziven bv >ir Edmund Andros and Colonel 
were good and still in forfe: and by opposing the forces 
by die govemmeni to defend the lit>nuer5,'' had cooe 
ward, on pretence of raising soldiers for the frontier?, but in 
reality to obey the Albany Convention,— dot Leisler has, there- 

PRvjrcrr'j i\va>..n vK i a\apa. 1>:j 

II ■■ ■'. Hv :*:"* - -. : -i:- .-- *: • .i' ;) -. ,: a::.1 !ji:iJ !or the 

■- ' ■' v\ : :, • M.i: -V. ■::.- - ::i :m:^i:^v! ^^r :::o invasion 

-^ ■ - '- > : .\^\: : ■ :.:' : s \ .. ' , .: :.; ^!:?:r\^::rd< Quebec* 
t* • ■ .: ' \- \ .''.:-• ^ ^'i . '*''.t".: of Cor.r»t\*riout in- 

. . ,- I .. .. ... .>',-- ., \ .., I -^ -.■•:■■:•. :::\: ^0 l:ui:an5, it 

: ~ - '.. : • ". -- . • : • A .. ;. . V.xy :x\ji:c5i Leisler 

k ft 

.. ■ . ■ . .- . " .\ . !v 

. ■ *•:".' :r. ■■..-■■■:, : .rxV's ;:> thai on ihe 

'■ . >■ ^. i ' .'. :.'': V:'\.'.: v:^: c.^*:::":i>i#ioner< at 

-■ .. * ..... '.: : '. > t .' : ; -V vt-i. oo.onie;? were 

~\. ■. - i • - . ." . ; •■■■■■■ •; : ---^ :'.■:: -J ::'0 ;ir::^y. A vessel 
•.::.. ">;:." * • : * .-n ?;:. ^!r :::-'.\ V.:\^'.\:\di but no 
y ■■•■■■ '.■ i .:::;- •■::>:. .; : • :^.: ;: i> ov aIoiu i:;ai the 
• -• i' ..'■..::'.-: ■■■..■■■.'.: v. ■.:'■. c.isc :"..i\o loo a ctfecied 
' ' ■ •'{'•-•: r^' '.:.' ■..-:.: \-!. ;::.> I v l.wi i:ioii::5 relieved 

I .1 ■. . I ■> . 

I.. '" - ■.-.-■•■ N< :^ : '.' ii*\t':"— c:*.: of Cor.nevticut 

•. • • - - " ■ :" 'i ■'• v. „' - ' i'^. .v. .'. *^.' l-.\v.i*.w. .-.•.ui intormed 

' ;• .: .; :. ";■ *:;:: ■■^ :^ A':-.i-:\ :>'>0 barrel? of 

.-. - '''.■:',' ' \ ^:..'< y'' ^.:.'. l-^*.^ li:; :-?ki">. lor shoes, 

::. ^-^; -> ■' •-.•.■..:',<, ■■: :.;::>. -."'.* :v-:.U of lead, 105 

- • i -. A .j ., ...... \\.- <, - -^ Co:v.:cv::oi:t three 

•;•• -- . „.■■ :: - ■ ' ^!.■-^ I ■■:. .:"i: i'-r^r-'tii :he cover- 

.: : - V -.'-■'•' ^l . ^- ■ : ".*i :•.:.» Niw York, and 

: -■ - ■. ■ ■ ■ ■ '.' ■.'..'•.■"■..■ I ■ • ' :■ ■- : "^ ^"»!:'. with 400 of 

-• :: - -- : : . %v-:. lit i:o::i:.s a siH> 

■ --i \ •. •" ■. F . ■. : . '. i I ■ ■..-■.'- "tA7 A'.V-irv. which 

■ • -. . ■ : -. ^ ■" : :■.." ::■■:-- c'^cr. «:\i-7:>vi on the 

■ N \ .N :• --w. .:>.■<.",• :i-. :■ ^ ■ v.v*. for 

m m 

"» • . ^.. .._'. . .-. . ^. . .: .>....^ liV'iTl »'ianr* 

' ■. . *■» . -■ u > l.';:>:tr iri.-i a jreai design w«i 

■V*. \v'. :. .ir.iv A.-vi ri^.' i\-o:c^:aL: Lierc-t in America, and 


tbat of William and Man' : one proof of wiijch. wa? ibe aiictspc » 
diaann the proie^ianfc? of Mar^'ianrf. in ihe •pria:: of 10t'>. aoc uk 
tieacberou« combination^ of iric iatcr grove mour with the Lwiiasf : 
which 1^ caui^jii the ;^op:e of that pronnce to •rand if* their anas. 
af!aiii.«t the paplrLs. He -eixLf to LeLrler a f^aper, in which Kisi 
June? commands the Mar}'lander« to keep in union with ti>e Fresaea 
of America, with otiier .su.r-picioiL? circumstance:. He a^sH&ns 22$ 
opinion that the " sreat men'* of Maryland, with some of Nev 
\ork and New Endand, were ensrazed in a plot a^ain^t the prccesi- 
ant interest, *' as it was and is the endeavours of all the pofwa 

Bv these letter?, which exi.*t on file at Hartford, the reader dbt 
tee the dread of the p'rople of that d^y in re-f>':cl to Uie de*iz:» «i 
Rome, and the fear« enteruiined of I'r^e influence of Loui*. JasK«b 
and the popl*h prieast*. Coo^lee mention* ordfrr* ^ni Lrora Wl jca 
to Virzinia, Maniand, and Ptr:.T»yI\&n:5i. lo re-L-t Lrte ane£np& cil' 
the French. He prorni-e^ 10 a-?.-L-t Nf.-/. York \r, the i»ar, if ie 
can, but sav.« Virrfnia doclineii doinr ar.v ihinj. witho i: or'ier^&OQ 
William ; and thai NiciioL-on i.*; on hli wav. a* (iovemour of 

Milboume. who W3« at Albanv. on the 27th of Ma v. lO'Xi. 
to Lewler, de^irinr him to "^lav the -hip^." (apparently reaiijio 
aail for Enzland.) for that iie cannot come dovrn (fro:^ Alhasr) 
*' within so ?hort time/' He ^s^vi*. •• ve^terdav. Janzse^ a^d 
Chri-'ta.i'ie carr.e w'liit an ex:^:*-- iro.M Arr.oj^ a:,.:: a j^iri-c-.-n fir.G 
C>non d ara . t;i it ; : . e F r*. :/. n -f; : . ^i fo : . r of :: * r *; r o-xr; I'e*'^:* i*^ . anii i>- 
of their praying liAlin^, a.* erni-rari*.--^." T:.':y orir.:: ivlL-i lir- 
••two of o«r Indian.- (a;; 0:;'i: •i^j^. r::.d a Cayurai w :.>.:. wrp& :^ 
turned frrjm France/' r.;':i :.:.._'. ;:.- I - i;»:.o-f:. i;.e Fre.vri *»: CV 
nada. The Indian co i.-.r;!, fr/ r.'.*- -=*•:. .•■:.--. have ':«-sire<: i:.^ -u- 
ferent natiorii? of li'ie lTf)f\-:fj> :o -• ::ii <;■-.•;>;•.:•:- :o ::.'.-*: two o: "j-"^ 
men who under*unii, for ::.vy -.^ !!i rio: !>:-;:i ir» Uj^r^ ezlr- 
until such men from :::•: roiof *:-•_- arr!v»;. •• W^cre -:»^2« 
r«. Peter .Schuvler aad Iioi/^.rt >:::.•:*::-. MM. <ia»'r»-erer. L>i 
Jean Kf/se. and two more, an: ihi.- ^i-.v /i.':-:i%:r hf:d. wiiri ;.i?c">:- 
tioa« that uiey ha-ten witii ail jv'/--I"'/»: -jV. •:•:." a:.d ia*vija^c :i« 
Indiana to treat tije?e cmi«-^ri*:- a- ♦.r.emies. frith'rr hv f^v j--l.— •J.^ca 
and hrin xi n z the m to A i b^ r; v . "or h v j. ! ?i v 1 ;i j the m o rjirl^i: ;" 
which Chrlrtazie and Jan nt tie are re-/>lved. on thcrir f»an«. " a:>i 
hope the re*t'' (of the Iro'|aoL-) *■ wi.l a.Too to." He furjief 
wriiesi, t/iat **t}ie French c?:;i:a:r.. who attacked .Schenectiiiy. Is 
one," of tijev* en:L-«arie«', "with k;::;'.- i:»or*- noted jK-r^/i;!-/' — ""h«2 
have eenl lo me .^v-aticof.k IrjdiariraLwi;^ 'rK- r^radv and res^jliiie" — 


••we thi* day douhie the sniard-. <rA j»!<ire C.'apt. Joha-^j»n'« men 
without the town, at Kea^taer'* Miil." A harid 01 Mohan ks ar« 
Hrnt lo waich upon the hkc. Ho lainenL- i/iat rKj Uirre* Cron; M*- 


ryland or New England had arrived, "so that it is impossible to 
know the time of marching, unless we go without them." 

This letter of Milbourne's is forwarded, on the 30th, to Connec- 
ticut ; and, at the same time, a letter from the Governour and 
Council ^f Connecticut is on the way to Leisler, dated the 28th, 
informing him that they have intelligence from Albany that there 
is great sickness among the people, soldiers and Indians ; that 
dysenteries are supposed to be caused by bad pork, and that the 
Indians are dying with small-pox. It is suggested whether the 
expedition shall not be stopped, until the issue of these distempers 
be seen. About the same time, Leisler wrote to Governour Treat, 
urging the preparations against Canada, hoping the Connecticut 
troops would be ready to march with those of >Iassachu8etts and Ply- 
mouth. He says, .that he has been forced to seize all the pork found 
in New York, and appropriate it to the army. He encloses a copy 
of the proposals made to tlie Indians and their answer. He says, 
that the gentlemen commissioners, on their arrival at New York, 
urged the government to " make up the number of 800 or 1,000 
men, by land," saying they had 800 by sea already, and that they 
would make it up 1,400 or 1,500. They calculated, New York, 
400 by land, and 240 by sea ; Connecticut, 300 ; Maryland, 100; 
East Jersey, 50. This force was announced to tlie commissioners 
at Albany. But, subsequently, the gentlemen from Boston would 
not engage that their fleet should go to Quebec, unless successful 
at Port Royal, whither they were bound ; in that case, they believed 
they might be sent to Quebec. He says, he shall give orders that 
none march but such as have had the small-pox. 

The fleet from New York sailed the 26th May, 1690, with orders 
to stop at Cape Ann, and send to Boston notice of their intent, and 
** if possible, to stop at Port Royal, to invite the Boston fleet along 
with them." The next day, Leisler writes to Treat, hoping that 
Major General Winthrop may be obtained for the command of 
the forces, and saying, he had sent a blank commission to Albany, 
to be filled up by the commissioners, but recommends Milboume. 
He mentions the successes of Sir William Phipps, to the eastward, 
rejoices in them, and says he has intelligence that the French were 
fitting out eight ships of war, to conquer New York. Of the Indians 
mustering at Albany, one half were to march to Cadaraqui, to make 
canoes ; the remainder to go *' the Canada path," and that the news 
of Phipps's victories will hasten them. 

The fleet, despatched by Lieutenant-govemour Leisler from 
New York, was commanded by Captain William Mason. It con- 
sisted of a ship, a brigantine, and sloop, commissioned against the 
French, generally, but ordered to make the best way immediately 
to Quebec, and there remain, doing all possible injury to the 

VOL.1. .24 QQ 

-i «q:7?< < ATTEMPT t"POX QUEBEC. 

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the town without effect Phipps then effected a landing, and after 
several skirmishes, re-embarked in the night, leaving his artillery. 

La Hontan, a French writer, who was on i the spot, says, that 
had Phipps effected a landing before Frontignac arrived at Quebec, 
"or even two days afterwards, he might have taken the city without 
striking a blow — there being but two hundred regular troops in the 
place, which was open and exposed in every direction." 

Phipps delayed, and Frontignac actively prepared for defence. 
The messenger who carried the sum^nons, was introduced blind- 
fold ; and the letter being read, the French general threw tlie paper 
in the face of the bearer, and gave as answer, that " Sir William 
Phipps, and those with him, were heretics and traitors ;" adherents 
" to that usurper, the Prince of Orange;" but for whom, ^^New 
England and the French Jmd all been one;^^ and that no other an- 
swer was to be expected, but "from die mouth of his cannon." 

Another day was lost before attempting to land, which was effected 
three miles below the town. The River St Charles was to be 
crossed before they could advance to tlie attack. Major Walley was 
entrusted witli the command on shore ; Phi])ps was to second him by 
a cannonade from the ships, and more men were to be landedf 
under cover of the guns, for an assault on the lower town. The 
next day a tempest baffled the plans of the assailants, and one of 
their vessels was driven ashore and exposed to the fire of the enemy. 
From this peril she was, however, rescued by the other ships. 

The Massachusetts force was now so far reduced by sickness, 
that diey could only land, on the succeeding day, thirteen hundred 
men, and some of th6m unfit for the service. The weather was 
already cold, and the troops had to wade from the boats to gain the 
shore, chilled and dispirited. Near the place of landing, Frontignac 
had stationed a detachment of Rangers and Indians, in a bog, co- 
vered by a thicket ; these suffered Walley and his men to approach, 
and then poured in a fire which disconcerted them for a time ; but 
the assailants charged and drove the enemy from dieir covert with 
some loss. As the landing had not been effected until two o'clock 
in the afternoon, W^alley found night approachhig before he had 
gained the neighbourhood of Quebec, and the ammunition of his 
men nearly expended before the intended assault was commenced. 
He, therefore, halted for the night at a house and barn, near a vil- 
lage, which appeared on his right By accident, the barn was 
burnt, the house could only shelter a few of the troops, night came 
on with a premature fi-ost, and the soldiers were without shelter 
or food. 

While the land forces were thus suffering at a distance from the 
city, the ships were brought up, and again opened an ineffectual 
fire upon the lower town, where they expended the powder which 
Walley wanted for his troops on shore. The French returned the 


sdute of Sir William srallanily, and forced him w drop dovg ig 

When morning arrived. Miijor Walley found hi* men dicpirind. 
itarrins : H>me of iheni rir k. and others fro^t Vmen : and. to add 
to his disco urafrein em. receii ed inielliirence thai the New York armr 
liarin:: abandoned the env-rj.irize. all iiie French force of Canada 
was conceniraied in (^iK-be*-. Tii'di liiree ihoiLsand men were m 
the town. be*idt/- £ lar^-e detar hineni \jfj^ttd in a swamp near hii 
eDcampmenu and ifiai a baner^- had been raL«ed which commanded 
the crossing jilar e of i.'je r*T- Ciiarles. 

Walley neither aiTeinpTed to force the passage of the JiTer nor 
retreated to the .-hiJl^ : but havinL' received a verj- «cant fupj^ froo 
tbem. continued .•kirinir-ljini: with the FVench Iiani:er« that dav, and 
the next, and ieavinr his men in their encanjpment. he went on bond 
the commander-in-cijier* ?hip. to rons-.j! on funher measures. 
The major'? account of obriacle*. ]3rf»duced an order to retanu 
aod withdraw hi* men to the beacJi. to be ready for re-embarkaxkiL 
The miliiar}' operation of another day "na.- defending: the encamp* 
ment against the enemy, (now the a^-^ailanis.) and in llie nifiit ti 
iDvaders silentlv retreated to the bear }j where thcv had landed- 

The next day FVontisTiac pursued iii^ dUhcanened adver? 
to the water's eili^e. and i'}liJ•[»^ did not dare to hazard brinpnr 
them off tmtil niiiht ; bui wjtijdren the Uiai:^. after sendinf nm' 
fercements to chef k the French advan'^ed I'or^e. At nirht the di*- 
comfitted trry^jp* were r-or-v-yed v* T.'.v-ir ^hiji*. leaving: five fieJd 
pieces in the ijari<> rif !:j..-ir irii:." ]i:.c:.m <-.:ij>ri!j-ni-. 

Some more day^wtre -|»':nt in c*.::ier:'jil^.:ifi::» re«j>ec:Irirfi;rLber 
attempts, which, if ever serious; ;y iiitendeii. were prevented by a 
storm that drove the fleet out of the >i. Law re nee. 

The return of t}je amiainent wa> a.- di^i^trou?. as all the prece- 
ding operation? were iiubefile or union itj ate. Ti*e fieei was 
scattered by tempe^l?. T^ne r^tnj* wa> ne^^-r trVtiTd of — another was 
wrecked — a third wa? burnt ti ?^&. and inur ships were biowc so 
br from their route, thai r^reni] week* elaji^-d. after the arrival of 
Sir William at Boston. beK»re :hev were ^'-en or heard of. 

Louis XIV was so pleaded wiih t.'ji- p;»ul-e of the Ma?sachu?«enj» 
armament, that he caused a ineda! 10 be •tni'^k. vhicn i- er.rraved 
forCharlevoix'i work, •.►n one ^ide i- t.he head of tne comuerc^r. 
Ixmis k Gr*iW. with tiie ini^ription. "Ludoiicus Marnu? Rex 
Christiamssimus :" and on the other, a fijure representinr Frtnr*, 
sealed on trophies, and surrounded by the words. *• Francia ir. N'^vo 
Oibe Victrix :" at Uittorn. "KeU-^a Libensta." 

Let ufc now return to New York, from w rjence. on the iKth of 
June, Leisler wrote to Treat. u{K»n hearing of the success of Phipp*, 
■t Port Roral. urging *' the gentlemen of Boston" to undertake the 
ronquesi of Quebec, and offerini^ Mr. John Wimhrop the com- 


Dnnd of mil the troops prepared for the land service. Ten daj-s 
ifier, no troops had arrived from >[assachusetts or Phmouth, at 
Albany, neither had Major General Winthrop arrived. Report 
aid. that Fronti^niac was advancini: bv the lakes« and had fitted 
ooi a French tleei« de>tined for New York. The laner threat 
not performed, and the Govemour of Canada awaited his ene- 
at Montreal, until he was called to Quebec, by the arrival of 
Sir William Phipi^is. 

On the 31st of July. General \Vinthrop*s instructions are given 
Van bv the Commissioner? of New York, at Albanv : thev are 
Bgned by J. D. Browne. Johannes Provost, and Jacob )[ilboiinief 
in which, the due distribution of plunder is not forgotten. 

Leisler wished to command tlie allied forces himself; but the 
indiience of the Albany Convention prevented. He then wished 
Milboume to command : but Livini*ston and the Government of 
Connecticut prevailed: Winthrop ^-as appointed, and the Lieu- 
iBDant-govemour of New York was obliged to thank him. Schuy^ 
kr had the same induence over the Iroquois. Thus Leisler and 
MUbounte were completely in the hands of their enemies. 

It w^as late in August when Winthrop came to a full pause, at 
Wood Creek. By the lener of the Govemoiu- of Connecticatt 
dated, :^3d of August. 1690. ^-e learn that the general had written, 
inlbrminc the eovemour diat he was then retarded bv the fidhire 
of the Indians to accompany them and furnish them with canoes. 
Dissentions existed in the army. Treat seems to have had litde hope 
from the expedition, except that it mi^ht distract the attendon of the 
enemy, and aid Phipps. who had sailed from the bay with a great 
fleet. Mason had joined Phipps. and brourht in several prizes. 

Charlevoix savs. that sickness was one of the cmuses of Wuh 
tkrop*s failure ; certain it is, that he returned with his army to Al* 
bany— the men diaheanened, discouraged* and discontented. 

1..V '■ T . :.= i: i:.\ 


• '.. 

"■- \. 




j\ .;-.-:. 


It appears, that Leisler was biassed by the representations of Mil- 
bourne and others of New York ; and ahhough Winthrop had, as 
commander-in-chief, with the advice of his olhcers in council, re- 
treated, the Govemour of New York arrested him and the Con- 
necticut commissary, and put both in confinement. This drew from 
the Govemour and Council of Connecticut a letter, dated Septem- 
ber 1st, 1690, addressed to " the Honorable Jacob Leisler, Esq.," 
without addition, or other title, in which diey say, that the tidings 
of these arrests are very grievous to them. That the knowledge 
and confidence in Mr. Winthrop's many virtues, caused that inter- 
cession which induced him to accept the command of the army; 
which confidence is not impaired by Leisler's suspicions of him. 
That if the retreat from Wood Creek "be the matter" which 
offends the Lieutenant-governour of New York, they think the 
commission given by Leisler justified that retreat, made with the 
advice of Winthrop's council of war. 'J'hat this conduct of Leis- 
ler's, will prevent Connecticut from joining with New York, in the 
measures necessary for future operations. That, by this act, he 
has disobliged all New England ; nor is a prison "a catholicon for 
all state maladies, though so much used by" Leisler. They attri- 
bute Leisler's proceedings to Milbourne. They advise an imme- 
diate release of Winthrop and the commissar}-, and threaten to make 
Massachusetts acquainted with Leisler's proceedings. 

On the next day, the 2d of September, the Govemour and 
Council of Connecticut address another letter, of the same import, 
to Leisler, but in a more gentle style, and direct it to him as " Lieu- 
tenant-governour of the Province of New York." They require to 
know the reasons for the major general's confinement, " if any such 
be," that they, as confederates with New York, may assent or not 
to Leisler's proceedings. They say all New England is concerned 
in his vindication, and, by arguments, enforce their first request or 

Without detracting from the high character of Mr. Winthrop for 
virtue, I am of opinion that there had been at that period, and have 
been since, men, who, having led an army to Wood Creek, which 
falls into LakeChamplain, and is the commencement of water com- 
inimication, leading directly to the enemy, would have found some 
means, by building batteaux, or otherwise, of accomplishing the in- 
tended attack. One-third of August, and all the fine autumnal 
months were before him for action. He knew that the armament 
of Phipps and that of New York were to co-operate, by distracting 
the attention of the French ; that Frontignac, with an inferiour 
force, awaited him at Montreal, and having diere cpncentrated his 
powers, Quebec was left with weak defence. If the land army from 
New York had been successful, or only occupied Count Frontignac, 
and the French and Indians up the river, Quebec might have Men 

iijto ihe handf? of trie Mt^-'d^'Tjur-eTi- armarrjerji. und a lUDmiinj ofc* 

T:je f'urc*— of v.*.- fxj»eci:j"rj tiTjiriri Cansidc ivo-jiC lavt 
exa]!td Lti-j*rr jl ".t '•I'i.'ji*,':. of Ai-'itri'-a crjd EiiriasiC. H* 

men tj.'fjo-r: ro::-:i-c:. -:'.<: :::*: Jjf.»f-Joi- : aija. bv ijitiir iu*jiru» 

whii-r:. 'jjoui'-'i of !::.::.'•::.-«; 0'r:.*-fj-:f r.j'''e-!-fu:. lo i-'Hr proviuf* and 
kil E:ii:ii.-:j A.':jfrr>cs. v. i. f:.:-G:.\ :o L:j*.--r jj'-i^-- hi.G predinwia. 
I' poa UJt fii : u r*r . J^ *: 1 - : ♦: r f ♦:: L. rii *: c : o N t 'i^ ^ 'trk . to ruee: oDiciauy • 
dia^c-onttr/t- ajid i.'j*- fa^rui-'jUiiTe': frvl.- -^vrjr.ii Ui*: fitf.-iioi: iis^c i: xio» 
in iheir powti lo !j*--d;.» u;»orj Jiiri!. 

On £]e. a: Hanior-i. i\jji be foL::»«i uj*: Ljtuierjaiji-jjc'iernour'f 
axtf w e r i/j 1! J '.- G o ^ *: r: .• r » j r a : j ri C ' • u : ; '.■ i ] of C c» m: r c li c uu daied- I2k 
3C>ih of .Sfi'pifrjr.ryrr. I'-i-'O. J^i U-i-. ijfr a-Ts-tri-. i:ia: vioie-rji dkso)- 
fcion? had arirtrj "o*. :-.\fr*r:j •}]*: New Krji'iarj'i r-a jiUlj ii* iiiiG int Vv 
York omcer^ before t.'jv arrivaj of ^if:rj»:rc: W:.^.L^^oI., ; -sini'-L nt 
aitnbuufcT 10 iL*: friend* of i:je Ajird:;-. Coriverjijo::. a:jd ^liemjet of 

lan' Alivij aijd liobvn L:-. :;.::-: o:;. cr.c jirovini' .'iL'::st-f a verr dif- 
fertni maij fro::.- Tr.e ;>;':'--fr:.'T.>i>»:i- '.^ro'.'j inouced luiii ajjc IK 
coinii'iis^sJoner* of New ^ 0:1: to rt-c": Li;:j at the ijeac of Uje ancr. 
He say ? . W iu 'Jijo j » ^^ a- a irer le c by C ' o : • : j er T J *" u ! n 01 10 j ircK-eec n« 
Caiiada wj'Jjou: Vjv Jro'.; j-iI-. c.-.': j-.o:*: :::«:'.■ i':*];;ua:e-. iria: 'JifT 
were reiider^d -:.ii:::.f .. :.; y,*: :':r.r.*r- '.: L:^!:.r-=:'.•:.. tnc ujh: 

liic iuU;;:t, vv::;jo^T ::jf; :; y.-,. o: Mc."c' • .-e::- a:.d P.vrij-.iU'.:.. 
(wilier, di d lioi "lo: :: . 1 c : •: . t : > : <i.rr, \ .-.z c : \^' ^ *' »•: «. ' re^ k . ' »: iiiS .r 
enciiiE: irie f:<y^iif:'.. of w^* v.* v.*:!: r'.-: ^r: . o:.v -«r:.-.:l:-i' jorwu: a 
smali deiachruer/L. \\::;. * :icrv o: J* :.c: -. lie -ivr. ujt --j-vesf 
of liii* deia'':-;: •■: : ' ■*' ■';'• v.: :.- •,• ;.',■' i:.,-; •. .. .-. .:r--i-ov:ijr 

liiii: hou^e- cl:.-: :jcr*>.i :■:■•■.•:■:.:•«:•»•.:■. r.- -. iOv::--.:e ::ie:., Lije^ 
co'wild have icK'.:; M»- T:e?:.. Ji-; h< ' ^-r- V*'.;,::.; ; -.v^v. T.ei:-r ii»- 
flue li '. e d rjv A . .y r. . J^ . -i . - j • : - * • . -_•. -^ :■ r :>. •."..-. :. .'■:.; .■■..".- -: : .■ :i>e *?«ai»- 

li?bed ^over:-:;-^:.:- l:. , ^\:•r^ : - -.r:.:--v. v.l: -.: :. a i»erKrt 

siiOuj*: !>e lor.-.'Jer*-': «-. .•-■-•.o.: : - >•.-.■. K: j.^-..;. A: : 1:. a se- 
cond cf.e-: Jc:.- -T-r*- I-:. I'.- '.' . ' c..- f .; a -.f \V.:.-jj-c»p, 
L V ibe CO- :.i e- o f > •;■»».;':,•._ J ■ ::.. r ..::.. r . :,*: r ». ;> .-Lir? iiis 
cbarire-. a:.d -^ay?. :.e :.--- .■■:..• -.->.:..■: i-. c:.--.w.: :. :_.. ; : ..;Krs4i, 
Uia: Co:.rjef :>. j: fho-.-; r::.:'Ov%tr ' ^r:.':.-— ->: f r-. :o ::aee: •jj.«-e of 
New Vorii. l: Kv. . tvi j-.--^.: r:. ::.•: r.j- a:.- 'f :r:fr::.a-:.i' A.^ar.v. 

TruiLibu.j. 'j.e :i--:.or.a:. o: <."o:.:ie'::-i ^:. :t.l? -L-r. ii.a: W^^ro^ 
hw: beeii reieas^d frorrj r^i^ rorJL'jeirjeL: L-y a pany of Moi^awkft, 
«ao bore him off ia iriuii.p:j ;o iiit owu troc»p?- Yei 1: w^* ibe 


fiulure in perfonuiiu ihc pronii-SL-s of ilu\-e Indian^ thai «*as the 
osieri.iiMe reason ;:i\on l"i>i- W :::i!:';n:^\- rt'treai. 

Thai ii woiiKi iiavo been ofirroiu sirvico to liio Colonic? if ihis 
ex{>eiiition ;iir.iin-t M»>niriM! h:\A suri^ttvloii. i< voiy a-v^arom : but 
it 15 no l'j?s apniiroiil i:ia: >ii='i'i-> woiil-i Imvo stroiu'tiiened the of Niv, V«r.;;. n'.i \r Wiiw \kw\\at \\\u\ thepro- 
rince, ami raiscil liiscroiilt i'l r.i'.jliiiul: \v:;i!ei'.ioso\v:ioivul opposed 
him, under li'.o name of liie co:m':::i»):i uf Aihaiiv, wuulJ. Iiave sunk 
in propoaion : the repn'5en:.iii»'>:i> ^cp.i u^ Kiiiikiiul by I-ivin;:<ion, 
Bar,ird. \ an Curtlaiuit, a-.ui iiw ri -i. vmhiU: -i.i^o L-iun oontniuicied, 
Leisler's ruin preveiitoil. Riui iheir r.»»:!i:iu:;o:i lo T:io rnuncil pre- 
Tenu\i. per:iaj»> tikir ruin so .! li. Si:.*:i bi.;:vj i::.' I'ou^oiiuonce 
of 5iioce>>, ii is, nerjians, not t.>o im.i h lo believe, liuu liie i:enir\-, 
"iTio peopli- of fi;:iiri/' iiMi:j!\ v.o ioiu\r ::::iiija- ;:io Albany Con- 
reniion, did. bv thwariiiu Le;<ler's nu'L-iire.*. a:al ijoidin:: back the 
ln>4^uoi>. defeat tiie t\n-\iii:n:i, aivd ii:r;i bi«'k i n ::erai W inthrop. 

There is a It iter on \V.o a: llartftCii. »i .:oii f.i»:i New l^onJon, 
October the r»:ii, ItVJO. fror.i Cuiuril Jo'y.n \Vi::'.iirnp to Cio- 
vemour Treat, ealiiiu' fi>r ve:'.jia!i''e oa Li-i<!er tor ihe insult 
of the arresl ; in wiiiiii \Vi;it:irop plii:".y s^.y-i. when he 
accepted the eonimand and went t-i Aii-^Miy. he was referred for 
advice, bv Treat's insini'iioiis lo ihe ::omiv wi-.o had formed 
the Albany Coz^veiiiion. He <av>. "iiienin*: e.»iisiderable irenile- 
men of Albany aceoinj)ar.ieil iiim as coiin-^eiiors lo the whole ma- 
oaf enient i»f the liesi;;:!." 'I'iiese we:v liie piT<i»:*s to whom he 
was reterreil by (.Io\tr;)oi;r Treat, a::. I ilv^se uere the persons 
whose ereiiit liependi d up«vi I.r i>!iT*s >i*}'.»':;;i\ aiui l:;e cxpedilion 
taiiins:. The-^e ^endeme:i ::ulii- d li.e lro«|ii.r.^. niid eould thwart 
everv eiibn of Leisler. Tne Iroiiiini-s " di :iianiied dt'.;u ." savs 
W in liir*.* n . C an oe s w «.Te r :"»! r* .i« 1 v . L i \ ! : •• ^^ -i: • ^ : ; r o 'o a i re i i i o W in- 
throp's carjp, and liad. wiiiion? doubt. see:i ai=.i m.iurred v.ithhini 
before he went ii> Albanv. Tiie L:e!i:l'Vi»*:i oi Aib:\nv e^ncurred 
with Wiiiihrop'seouneil. lirat liie arinveiuilil n-*: proceed loC'anada; 
he man^he<i back, and Lei-lt r w:-- rei'.ilorejl :::e tusj:raced and 
unpopular thirii; that the •• j»eople o\ v.z'.iv'" uisiiexl to represent 

That C-^r.eral Wiiuhroj* v^a- iltrrixe.i i ;• I'.ic Aibiiny Conven- 
tion, to whom lie was reeonnr.rMiii'Mi i'v Tr^ .::. and by tiiose 
persons \\h»>se importance, cridi:. ,r\Ji |u :";: »»* -.ii»ty. Jiepended 
upon thwarting the measure^ o\ Lri-'.i. r and Miii»'nir!U-, is my opin- 
ion: not that tiie ^reneral. liu- s»mi a. id ^r.\ 'd-\^:\ ••! liJe two distin- 
guished Join Winilirops. was a traitor mtiie e\iH''.:iut»n he had con- 
sented to lead. He was evoneratei: by Hovtrnoiir Treat and the 
New Endand provinces, and aft', r wards covemed the province of 
Connecticut. But t^^tJ' Jacob Lei«!er. who wa* ruined by the re- 
treat, and could not penetrate ih»' councils of those who thwancd 

VOL I. -'-^ 


the English captain of foot, and brought forward all the discon- 
tented in their train. 

During Leisler's administration, war had been felt throughout the 
province. His efforts against the enemy on the frontiers, and the 
expedition against Canada, had been paralyzed by the opposite 
party. He had been obliged to raise money, by taxes and loans, 
which had turned many of the people against him ; and, in the gene* 
ral joy at the approach of a king^s govemouTf as announced by In- 
goldsby, Leisler was blamed for not surrendering his government, 
at the first summons, from a man who bore no letters or orders firom 
the ministry. 

The residence of the lieutenant-governour was in the fort. The 
fortifications in every part of the city had been repaired by Leisler; 
and within the fort was the govemour's house, the Dutch Church, 
(then the only place of worship,) and the barracks. In this fortress 
the families of the commander and of his son-in-law, Milbourne, (we 
must presume,) resided. Notwithstanding the general peace of the 
southern portion of the province, and some successes at sea against 
the French commerce, the government of Leisler was now unpopu- 
lar; and the accession of Ingoldsby, with his audacious behaviour, 
countenanced by the former mayor and council, was approved by 
the people — who now wished a change, and were willing, gene- 
rally, to be guided by the leaders of the party who were again coming 

into power. 
1691 It appears, that Captain Richard Ingoldsby arrived at 
New York, in January, 1691, in the ship Beaver, the same 
vessel which carried over to England, Nicholson and Ennis. Im- 
mediately seized upon by the gentry, with whom an officer, bear- 
ing the king's commission and livery naturally assimilated, Ingoldsby 
demanded the surrender of the fort, under pretence, in the first in- 
stance, of finding quarters for his 4»oldiers. He was made acquain- 
ted with the posture of affairs ; and having announced the appoint- 
ment of Colonel Sloughter, as govemour of the province, Leisler 
requested to see his commission, or order, from the ministry or the 
govemour ; at the same time, the mayor tendered to Ingoldsby 
quarters for his majesty's troops. This did not satisfy the '* people 
of figure," and, in the captain's name, the magistrates, or justices 
of Long Island, were called upon to assist his majesty's officer in 
enforcing his commands. 

Whereupon, Leisler published a proclamation, to this effect : 
"Forasmuch, as Major Richard Ingoldsby, without producing any 
order firom his majesty, King William, or from Govemour Slough- 
ter, has demanded possession, etCx, — not being satisfied with the 
accommodations for himself and the forces under his command, 
twice tendered to him, (in the City Hall,^ until further orders shall 
arrive, but has issued a mandate, dated tne 30th January, 1691, to 

/ :7' 



r , 
I . 


■ T • 


bidding them to heed the proclamations of Ingoldsby, but, accord- 
ing to their oaths, or their commissions, given by him, the lieuten- 
ant-governour, as authorized by King William, to call forth all the 
forces under their respective commands, both horse and foot, and 
to be in readiness, completely armed, to obey the orders of the lieu* 
tenant-governour aforesaid. 

The next day, Ingoldsby answers, by proclamation, Leisler's 
protest and order, of the day before, which, he says, is " pernicious 
and dangerous to their majesties." He professes, that what he 
does, is to prevent outrages by those persons Leisler " calls" his 
soldiers. He says, " I know not how you will answer the firing 
a shot at my men last night, when they were coming on board."* 

By this, we see that Ingoldsby's soldiers, although landed by 
day, and probably keeping a watch by night on shore, still had 
their quarters on board the ship Beaver, in which they had crossed 
the Atlantic. 

On the second day of February, Leisler sent a letter to Ingolds- 
by, saying, that he had examined into the circumstance of the shot 
fired at the king's soldiers, and finds that it is a fact He adds, 
that if the captain will point out any injury done, justice shall fol- 
low. "None," says he, "under my command shall be counte- 
nanced in an ill action." He likewise desires to know, in what 
manner he can better accommodate Captain Ingoldsby. But, on 
the same day, February 2d, Ingoldsby issued a proclamation, assu- 
ring the inhabitants that he had come to protect them, all reports to 
the contrary, notudthstanding. 

On the 3d of February, the lieutenant-govemour notified the 
inhabitants, by a proclamation issued fi-om fort William, that Colo- 
nel Sloughter had been appointed governour of the province of New 
York ; and that, on his arrival, the fort and government should be 
cheerfully surrendered to him. "In the meantime, his honour^ 
Major Richard Ingoldsby, having a considerable number of his 
majesty's soldiers under his command, for the service of the colony, 
which, at the present, cannot be otherwise accommodated than in 
this city, until his excellency appears," therefore, the inhabitants 
are commanded to receive Major Ingoldsby, and all his people, 
with "respect and aflfection." 

To show the distinction which Leisler made, and wished to im- 
press upon the people, between this officer, commissioned by King 
William, and the former council and magistrates, who had been 
commissioned by Dongan and James, he addressed the inhabitants 
again on the following day, saying, that Ingoldsby having demanded 
possession of his majesty's fort, without showing any order fixuD 

* NSS. in Hiftorical Soeietj't Library, for aO the doenmeiiti quoted. 

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■bttuld bit no bindrtnr^ to the u«u«J ''ouiui of •nd.rAUir^ Sc^ 


Biore of which strengthened the palisadoed wtU, iriiich extended 
across from river to river, on the north side of tvhat la now called 
Wall-street,) were several times summoned to surrender, andfinallj 
did so, upon promise that they mi^l retain their arms. They wenti 
however, disarmed and dismissed. 

On the 5th of March, which was probably seven weeks after dw 
arrival of Ingoldsby, Leisler held a meeting of his councU at Fort 
William, the proceedings of which are before me. There were 
present, the lieutenant-governor, Jacob Leisler, Peter De la Nqy^* 
the first man that ever was elected by the freeholders and freemen 
of New York to the office of mayor— Thomas Williams, Hendrick 
Jansen, Johannes Vermilye, Samuel Staats, Johannes Provooatf 
Jacob Mauriz, and Robert La Cock. The paper begins thu»— 
*'By the lieutenant-governor and council, in pursuance of his nuH 
jesty's letter, bearing date the 5th of July, 16S9, for governing 
this province until further orders," &c., ** their majesties' interest 
hath been asserted and defended, the peace of the province pfs- 
served, until the arrival of certain ships, with soldiers and ammuni* 
tions, under the direction of his excellency. Colonel Sloughtnr,** 
appointed to govern the province, ''but separated at sea f' bjr 
which, it would appear, that Ingoldsby's ship, or ships, were part of 
a fleet which sailed at the same time with Sloughter, and that he had 
been wandering on the high seas seven weeks longer than the com- 
mander of his land forces. 

The lieutenant-govemour's council go on to state the demand of 
Ingoldsby for the surrender of the fort, though he bore no com* 
mission but that of a captain of foot, *' with orders to obey the go^ 
emour for the time being." They state, as iibove recited, the 
acts of Ingoldsby, by which the city had been disturbed, the inkfr* 
hitants insulted, by " papists and other profligates ;" and that In- 
goldsby had undertaken to call out, command, and superintend the 
militia of the city, and had otherwise insulted the lieutenant govei^ 
nour, although cautioned and warned against such practices. The 
council finally protest against Ingoldsby and his confederates, and 
order them to desist firom their attempts to destroy the peace of the 
city and province. 

On the file at Hartford is found, a note to Colonel Robert Treatf 
from M. Clarkson, the secretary of the pretended king's CooncO of 
New York, saying, that beiuF ** directed by the gendemen named 
of their majesties council of New Yoric, to give you account ot the 
present state of afiairs here, and to desire the advice of your honour 
and others of the government of their majesties' colony of Conneo* 
ticut," he forwards a certain order, not to be found ; ** and beeaMO 
h hath been thought by many prudent persons in this dty, that Capt» 
Leisler hath had very particular advices firom your puis, I am tM 


■ C tfqi i ed , diejr ■Stribute dl nuscbieTto ** the said Capuin 
IVf ** or aodh as diaU coumiit bostilides. 

Frain diis, h appears that the coofederates were soinewlHi 
JBBli III bj the lasl prodamadoD of Lekler, and the long deientioa 
wfaieh Slougfaler eiperienced, of whom they made sure as a firiend 
alljr : bol all dieir anxietv was relieved br his arrival, and the 
of Us coiunisBioii, on the 19th day of Maicht 1691. 
I have befoie me the oopj of a minute of Slou^ter's CoudcS* 
hrid em March the 19th, ** upom the arrital of Hemry Slorngkier^"* 
jw o iM Oii r, elc — at which were present, with said i^Iouehter, Jo> 
anh D^dlef , Frederick PhiUipse, Stephen Van Conlandt, Gahriel 
MMviDe, Chodley Brooke, Thomas WiUet, and William Pin- 
it is here stated, that Sloughter repaired to the Town HaQ, 
he pehlished his commission, and took the oaihs appoinsed 
kf aet of parliametit to be administered to him. 

From this, we see that he was received bv the party, (probablj 
oa afaip4Miard«) and immediately embraced the measures of In- 
nidsby and the codederates. As soon as he was installed, he 
MK lh w ith ordered Ingoldsby, with his foot-company, to de^ 
■■nd TfWwitfi* into the ibit : be returned, and broufi:fat wi*th him 
mmt of I f iiki^i officers, (the same Ensign Joost StoIK who had, ia 
1688, been the first to lake possession of the fort, in the name of 
WiBkm, and had aubsequendy borne Leisle/s despatches, with the 
;of the revolution in New York, to the Eni^lisli coFemment,) 
this officer was admitted to the £oveniour'$ presence. The 
■initte of council informs us that Ensifm 2^toU broueLt a leuer from 
Caplan Lcisler, and was told by his excellency that he was dad StoU 
^had seen Urn in England, as well as now in New York," adtiing. that 
lagoMsby shouM now go with his company a second time to 
ive the foil into possession ; and that the soldiers laying <iown 
ffaeir arms, might go erery man to hL« house. Further, "* that be 
Leisier, Milboume, and such as called themselres the 
to immediately attend ; and that Colonel Bayard and Mr. 
fiom their imprisonment to atteiKl his majest}'*s 
appointed members of the counciL*^ 
J. Bf Aiai «• know that Bayard, who had most hundily petitioned 

Leisier for release from the prison ai liie City 
reoioiFod to the fort, and was still in confinemenu 
Y. The eo|qr of the mmnie proceeds : '' Major Ingold^by, at his 

bro ught with bun Milbonmeand DeLaNoy;andbe- 

of for Ccdonel Bayard and Mr. Nichols, infonned that 

refiaed to make any aneodance himself, or to dismiss the 

Wha i o upu at MiBmine and De La Noy were ordered to the 
dg ohI ina maiai' again sent to demand the said gentlemen's 


dismission, with Leisler's surrender of the fort, and attendance upon 
his excellency — all which was peremptorily and with contempt 
refused." Upon which, the governour "directed the sitting of the 
council" next mornino:. 

It will be remarked, that this refusal to obey, " with contempt,** 
is the report of Insroldsby : and it will be seen that on the re-assem- 
blinc: of the council, so called, next day, Bayard and Nichols are 
present and are sworn in. 

Before I proceed with the record which the king's or Sloughter*8 
council have left of their summary proceedings, I will call the atten- 
tion of the reader to the letter from Leisler to Colonel Sloughter ; 
only premisinir that Leisler was a Dutchman, and that he attempted 
to write to the acknowled^red governour in English — a language 
he did not understand — as is very apparent in this offer to surren- 
der the fort, and apolog}^ for holding it after the arrival of Sloughter. 
It will be recollected that the English secretary, Milboume, was not 
with Leisler. It is well known, that the Dutch of New York, most 
of them, knew no schoolmaster, but such as was sent from Holland 
loner after this. 

The letter is dated March 20th, 1691, at Fort \Yilliam, and is 
as follows : ** May it please your excellency, this, his majesty's 
fort, being; besieged by Major Ingoldsby, so far as that not a boat 
could depart, nor persons conveyed out of the same, without to be 
in danger of their lives, which has occasioned that I could not be so 
happy as to send a messenger to you to give me certainty of yoor^ 
excellency's safe arrival, and an account of what was published, of 
which I am ignorant still ; but the joy I had, by a full assurance 
from Ensijrn iStoll, of your excellency's arrival, has been somewhat 
troubled by ilie detention of the two of my messengers. I see • 
here well the stroke of my enemies, who are wishing to cause me 
some mistakes at the end of the loyalty I owe to my gracious king 
and queen, and by such ways to blot out all my faithful service till 
now : but I hope to have cause not to commit such error ; having 
by my duty and faithfulness being vigorous to them. 

" Please only to signify and order the major, in releasing me from 
his majesty's fort, delivering him only his majesty's arms and all the 
stores, and that he may act as he ought with a person who shall 
give your excellency an exact account of all his actions and con- 
duct ; who is, with all the respect, your excellency's most humble 
ser\'ant, Jacob Leisler." 

Accordinjj to appointment, Sloughter and his friends met on the 
20th. The minutes say nothing of the above letter. His majesty's 
letter was read, ordering the council to be sworn as such, and in the 
order above written, which was done : consequently^ they had acted 
at the previous meeting without taking the oath to dhe king's gOfern* 


Then» twenty-nine papers were delivered to the secretary, fin 
their Hiajesties, relative to Leisler, which had been sent to Engk 
from Albany. Bayard and Nichols appeared, were sworn of 
council, and took their seats ; and then Jacob Leisler was brouj 
in pruoneVf and ordered to be committed to the guards, and ' 
king's letter, directed to Francis Nicholson, or the person adni 
istering the government, was taken from him. 

Likewise were brought in prisoners, and committed to the guar 
** Abraham Govemeur, Gerardus Beekman, William Cburcb 
Cornelius Pluvier, Henrick Janse Van Boerton, William Lf 
rence, Thomas Williams, John Coe, Mynders Coerlen, Rob 
Leacock, and Johannes Vermille."* 

Thus we see Jacob Leisler brought in to his enemies a prisoii 
'^\: and turned over to the guards, on the same day that the above lei 

was written. 

The Honourable William Smith, late Chief Justice of Loi 

Canada, in his History of New York, says, *' if Leisler had d 

vered the garrison to Colonel Sloughter, as he ought to have do 

upon his first landing, besides extinsruishing in a great degree, 

animosities then subsisting, he would, doubtless, have attracted 

&vourable notice both of the governour and the crown. But 

ing a weak man, he was so intoxicated with the love of power, t 

though he had been well informed of Sloughter's appointmen 

J the government, he not only shut himself up in the fort with B 

ard and Nichols, whom he had before that time imprisoned, but 
,vl fused to deliver them up, or to surrender tlie garrison. From 

f moment, he lost all credit with the governour who joined the of 

! party agamst him. C)n the second demand of the fort, Milbou 

'■ and De La Noy came out, under pretence of confering with his 

, cellency, but in reality to discover his designs. Sloughter, % 

j considered them as rebels, threw them both into gaol. Leis 

^ upon this event, thought proper to abandon the fort, which Colo 

Sloughter immediately entered. Bayard and Nichols were n 

released from their confinement, and sworn of the Privy Coun 

l' Leisler having thus ruined his cause, was apprehended, with rot 

i of his adherents, and a commission of Oyer and Terminer iasuec 

Sir Thomas Robinson, Colonel Smith, and others, for their tr 
" In vainrdid they plead the merit of tlieir zeal for King Willia 
since they had so lately opposed his governour. Leisler, in paj 
cular, endeavoured to justify his conduct, insisting that Lord N< 
tingham's letter entitled him to act in the quality of Lieutenant-^ 
vemour. Whether it was through ignorance or sycophancy, 

tt that time fcneriUy wer«. ^ '^wwi— •MM 


know not ! but the judges instead of pronouncing their own senti- 
ments upon this part of the prisoner's defence, referred it to the 
governour and council, praying their opinion, whether that letter 
' or any other letter, or papers, in the packet from White Hall, can 
be understood, or interpreted, to be and contain, any power, or di- 
rection to Captain Leisler, to take the government of this province 
upon himself, or that the administration thereupon be holden good 
in law.' The answer was, as might have been expected, in the ne- 
gative ; and Leisler and his son were condemned to death for high- 
treason. These violent measures drove many of the inhabitants, 
who were fearful of being apprehended, into the neighbouring colo- 
nies, which shortly after occasioned the passing an act of 'general 

I fear that it would appear as an insult to the reader, to point out 
the fallacy of this statement, after laying before him the above docu- 
ments. Sloughter published his commission, by outcry, at the City 
Hall, Coenties' slip, on the 18th of March — Leisler being besieged 
in the fort — and immediately on being installed, the governour 
sent Ingoldsby, the man who had illegally blockaded the fortress, to 
demand entrance. Leisler prompdy sends an officer to ascertain 
the report of Sloughter's arrival and assumption of the government. 
This officer is sent with a peremptory demand for the surrender of 
the fort to Major Ingoldsby and his soldiers. 

Leisler now saw that Sloughter acted by the prompting of his 
inveterate enemies, and like a prudent man wished to obtain a pro- 
mise from Sloughter of at least personal safety ; he therefore sent 
his son-in-law, Milbourne, and the mayor of the city to the gover- 
nour, who immediately makes them prisoners. Upon Leisler'a 
refusal to surrender the fort, (and as he then knew, his life,) into 
Ingoldsby's hand, Sloughter adjourned his friends to the next day, 
and when they met, appointed them, and swore them into office as 
his council. This same day Leisler, by letter, and personally, 
surrendered the fort and government to Henry Sloughter and his 
council, not until then qualified to act as such. 

Mr. Smith, asserts, that from the moment of shutting himself 
up in the fort with Bayard and Nichols, (which took place months 
before Sloughter's arrival,) he, Leisler, lost all credit with the go- 
vernour, who joined the party against him. If we suppose the 
historian to mean, that from the moment of refusing to surrender, 
when Ingoldsby was sent on the 19th of March, then Leisler " lost 
all credit, &c.," it is equally absurd, for it is plain that Sloughter, 
by the advice of Ingoldsby and the gentlemen who received him, 
had determined to treat Leisler as a rebel from the moment of his 

It was not by any act of the unfortunate Leisler, that be '' rttined 
hia cause," as Smith asserts. The hands of his enonies bid been 


jitr«iarth<*nerf hy rhe failnre of Winthrop ami Phipps. and then by 
Slonjrhrer'-* arrival. Tn;:.-* L«»L*Ier had lliilen (without hope, ex- 
eepi in th^ jiisiiiv of hi.* raiise, wiiich they liad prejuAretl,) into 
tbei r pow f^r r 4>m p 1 r^re ( \ . 

At tiii.^ "sami* merlin r of rhe roiinril on the :2t)th of March, 
(which WA* the (-JAy the\ rrere "aworn in.^ the ^rovernour appointed 
John I-iAwrenre, nw\orof tlie c'lxv. and Thomas Clark, coroner. 

On rhe -J^M of .M;\rrh, the irovemour met his council at _/wt 
Wilhtim ir^rji, rhe isame person* bein:r present, except Bayard. 
The miniire.'a of tlii^. >lou::nrt?r'* first coiincil m the fort, inibrm 
OA, thai Me^sr*. I>ijjile\. \ .^,n Corrlant-it and Bn>'>k. were appoint- 
ed a rommitr^e •• to e\amin.^ the prisoner*, in order to rheir cotn- 
mittid from the ::i:?.ril-h«'n;*e to rhe rop.-inioi^. pr:."Hin." The secre- 
tary, and attornev-^-eneral. were- directed to attend ihia com- 

Bv thi:^, we *ee. thar .laroh Leiilr^r. an eldeHv and re^oected 
merchant, uho had raised the *Tand;ird of William and prote<tant- 
iam, in h>^'», and governed ine riiy and province by the choice of 
the freeholder* and the aiithoritv of the Kn::ii<h mini5tr\\ for near 
two vear!«, uitn ail tr.e ar>ove named jentlemen. had been kept nrom 
the 2»>:h to the 'J->*\ of Mirch. ronlined in the sruard-house. before 
Sloii^hier am! hi-* ro?jnril linfi time even to examine ihem. The 
next dav, the 'JUti, \hr ro:ineil ajain met. and ordered "that there 
be a *p<'rial corn n»j'»'« ion of i >yfT and Tenniner. directed to the 
jwlgf-* wAom /»*.* t rt'^f'^t* .^ »/i^ r'frfhin'h rnhifS' which i: id re*, with 
**Sir Robert Hohin-on. ('i:'joriei Wijiiarn Smith, William Pinhorr.e. 
John Lawrenre, Capt.iin Jasper Hirk*, Major Richard Ir^oid^bv, 
Colonel John ^o:m:.'. and (\jpiain I*aar Arnold, are ar:x^lnted \o 
hold a court for the trial or tr.e prisoner* accused of murder and 
rebellion, and their accoinpilres :" "and thf^t '>r '?;;»; «-./" 'V;?». one 
of the judffc* alway* b«in«' on»^, to prerecd in the same court." 
It» perhap* wortiiy of remark, that ail the«e names are English or 
Scotch ; and most, if not all. ht-lii commission* as onicer*. 

t)n the 'iOlh of M.irch, seven davs after these centlemen had 
been removed frr»m liie ciiard-house to the prison, (i. e. one or 
more of the apartments in tiie city hall, or town house, which was 
the place for the me-?lin:: of maiiisirate*. holding of courts, and 
confining prisoner*,) ihc council acain met at the fort. Bayard be- 
ing present, but the truvomour not ; and Messrs. Bayard. Van 
Cortlandt and Pinhome. were appointed a committee for pre- 

Sarins evidences ai^ainst the prisoners : and Mr. William Nicbol»« 
Ir. Cflcorfre Farewell, and Mr. James Emmett. are assicrned as the 
king*:* counsel in that affair. 

Before a court thus constituted, Leisler was arraigned, but refused 
to plead. He said he was not holden to plead to the indictment, 
** until the power be det^mined whereby such things hare been 


acted." His friends asserted, that it was for his majesty to 
declare whether tiie power under which he acted was legal ; that 
his authority remained good until the king determined other- 
wise : that although Hendrick Jansen, Cornelius Pluvier, and 
Robert Le Cock, were committed for the same pretended crimes 
of murder and rebellion, they had been admitted to bail forthwith : 
that if Leisler pleaded to the indictment, the king might accuse 
him of ** giving away his right ;" that by pleading Leisler would 
empower the jury to judge of the fact ; ** how, they ask, can twelve 
men of one county, judge of tlie government of the whole pro- 
vince ?" 

The trial, however, proceeded as had been determined ; and it 
was insisted that Nottingham's letter entitled Leisler to act in the 
quality of lieutenant governour. 

On the 13th of April, tlie governour and council being met, the 
judges submitted the question as above, and the council decided in 
the negative. 

Leisler and Milbourne being condemned to death, as rebdis and 
traitors, remained in this condition until the 14th of May, on which 
day, I find by minutes of council, present, Sloughter, Phillipse, Bay- 
ard, Van Cordandt, Nichols, and Mienville, the following entry : 
" The clamour of the people coming daily to his excellency's hear^ 
ing, relating to the prisoners condemned for treason and murder, 
and having had the opinion of the major part of the representatives 
now met and assembled,* for the execution of the principal offen- 
ders, he was pleased to offer to this board his willingness to do what 
might be most proper for the quiet and peace of the country, intend- 
ing speedily to remove to Albany." Sloughter tlierefore demands 
the opinion of the council, (who were urging him incessantly to 
hang Leisler and Milbourne,) whether delaying die execution, 
might not be dangerous at this juncture ? They, in answer, una- 
nimously resolve that ^^Jbr the satisfaction of the Imlians,^^ and for 
asserdng the governour's authority, preventing insurrections and 
discords, it is necessary that the sentence be executed. 

Still, it appears that Sloughter feared both to exasperate the friends 
of Leisler, and incur the displeasure of William III, or his minis- 
ters, if he put to death, as rebels and traitors, the men who raised 
the standard of the Prince of Orange and protestantism, in 
opposition to James and popery. He hesitated ; but the anti- 
presbyterian facUon was determined on the destruction of the 

* JamesGrahome was a leading man in this asseradl^, anb partieulari j anxiouf to 
produce the executionof Leisler and Milbourne. He is accused of havinc tampered 
with the friends of these victims, for the purpose of procuring a seat in the house of 
representatives, and was afterwards electee! speaker. — See Letters of Lord BeUa- 
mont, in N. Y. Hist. Lib. 

ittf'K ^<'iM« iisk: \ii\ffi*'f uu. ])ii: tiH'n. dnwii. ami nenian^ were 
Willi fi ii\ It'fi; .l^ vv'M .»> rf»-vi!'^ : - i;iiv. iiiereinrt." ar^ 5* 
wU> M . •■ v**ii»*i 110 MUi*r iin'innn^.- '"1)1111: nmvaii witn tiie znvernoor. 
iiii-Mi;ri Smiii;:iii«i: u :: itiii:*:. ni «)t"fa.iioi. o"' lu.- inienutsc vn»-a»e 
K* Aliuiin. itiic*. v^ii»M 111.- •:.■■•/'/••// ^..^ p.:-:!-!!!: wll- (iriiwntiC IE 
^.u^*s. tin ••im»^iiij»-.- o' III* •■iinuKiir nn»v.iiiiMi will: uin: tn sirt : 
<l«'.itii \*'jirr.iir : .tiK. u»?n»n in sv-viv tinii: in.- *en:*er- tiii: oraiiners 
w»M«' ♦•\«;''.tii»:'..' 

l.ii;i.^i»M «iii(. Mihn»ii-n* siifTiiriM. nvixu. x*- tniitor-. on me Ifia: of 
M««v . i(»^-" : iiii(. I. tij» aiinvt raiahfnn.'ii: oi\'iut;: .liHUf:!: Smut H 
MHTij*:'.. tii» ':«iiiw.i miJH' iiii^'* Hnv •'iir"- 11. :in tiir. : I'ur I nnc fc 
iiiimn*- tii tiia* um* . :<Jiyiii- lun: tin- iii)ii!*M) ' :J:*:if?mmy. nr. uie I-'»U- 
^iivr tiit'ir in»jii'«»iin;ini..sii:ii»f(. i»y '-.ianitrr 1 1 nil sa nil.. :«iM;aKer.' ic ae 
rf'-s'Miit|(it (i! *!>» 'i'.iuii'*: ■) til' i-tti.. 

'I III.- ••Stj'ii'i'M iiiin* Ij:* • ♦ Iiiiv'r! i):;r't v iiii< tin lionuia"^ T^ii 
i»*»iriiv*':(i !•• -h* ^'JlCll^:••^ (»! lii:j;n{i-»i'; am: :Si:iiJ!riut!r. aiic; v.iiii*^:aE 
ji*<[i'7> .iii'i MiiMii:ii-:'.- 1! Ill- iniii»:sv V '{MJii'.:!. vtir»- KPf?:)irc I^ 
l5ii\iTii*iu» 11 f! Hiviir fjl MUfi^i'raiifi:.. tj'Ms»»v, :v. tli*- ;iiar«- o: ei*- 
«*.uh«n.. ;il;»T ;i'-i:i-» ii, <.n}r[, ^•^;lr»:•*s^•^ 111* r*oiir** fj! 111.- (:y:ri^ ?sne. 
milMinVf' iiiiri ;nin'riii*-- rilrii.v:: :j»;ir* !ii.- ii.»;titM^mer viv. iio;»*:. H« 
iK*kiK»wM;'lu'n:!. ■!!«■ a: •:!*' r*:'j'.rr<: m: ,: '•oniniitit't.. ^•ii:>?er r-^ me 
niH>«.»» ^mr! tif ti,» l!Jt|n:l:;i.llt^ o: ::»* :tr'.»\ iiir**.. lit- iiac UiKer. uroi 
him {"\*j ti»» i:'fra? ;:ri^•! ri! r*ria".io!i- ici :it- it?i: tifiiina/'t vpirrn" 
nmiUTft fi{'s!at» •• r*:*: ,:r-.'::: iri'.irv v i-*-. ^urini^c. un:i iiciver:;i. -.'jcSi 
K» ^**\*'r'i' — if. •i'i'.»'^.4.K .•:^. ;■»' v.:i' : ".i- !:tf»::i**- v »'r* ::•* rfr"*- 

W'S'.H'i^ i!i'.rr»s'. yitf, *i.» ►•-'.:.'i.;-* ::!»■•".* "i! '..'i* '■'•"^"•i" C' ^T:"^:'. rt 'J 
V\ iJiuiMi »i«,rl Mi:rv . ]l» ' r,-.;..-,j'-;.. ViU! ".: ".!:J"' f'Tll-'l.'- ' ViT "•« 

piii.»Uf' >:'t»^H. Hf'\»ri . » •i'l'v.':',* ■• •;:.:; tit-.:: ''.»•:.::.:;*•': Lri-"Ti*: ::!? ^— - 
iJf pffiU'^N*-*"! Trm? •!>■ 'li/: iT J" '; vi -•*- fc j '^' -Ti •..' — •:,!. :-. : s: i 
upii«.«<l lo "i^- »ii«»i»ffi»T> fM-' ■ j: ^'i-'ij- f.* V.;,}' :.. f»: :.•-. zn^.. "Wfr* 
cvf^iiiffiifii r) tvff.j'.ir'' r/?i'.»fr *>' * — f»r,':T* ■■.r»'..j"* *'.'L-«".i- iVi^r i:,t: u^ 
liHV'-*'!*''! ji»rM>*i> wn:.'* >i»* J/: ti-' "j*. j- "i^*"' ':.- :* — *'ir^ ".ro-r^ 

fu.>iikt i»>foi)^«|j rv^• ••*■-?« «■' jir-* ''' . V. : / ;. V.' Ui^i T'.'O ..r-r ::»c«r* tin.-? 


•l»^> •*•» " Ht- *A» -^-^ •«? »i • fn- •.«> 'i.-.o :::i":: ■:> :o : rr't: i.-v .r/^irr 

' - • • • 

bju iioitf«. Ji« :■.»!•. f :,i: irf* •..* •• ■■ ■;••. •:'.: ■. :.. •, :>. .• • ■ -i-rriir.ed. 

pOjn?fy ami it|iK'ffi|ir!;: ilji: jn;. rriTj- r.: of Wiiila.-n and Min. He 
CQfirluiliHt a pnyr lor aU hi atjtfir>ri;y. by ocie ibr cocuibn u> ifae 
family to vihicli li« </i</ U'lonz- For hL« afflicted frmily, be a^ the 
charity of all, ukI their prm}«rB for hinuelf. 



Being asked by the sheriff, " If he was ready to die?" he an- 
swered, ** Yes," He desired that his corpse might be delivered to 
his wife, and as his family had been educated as Christians, he 
hoped they would act as such. Saying he did not fear death, he 
turned to Milboume and said, " Why must you die ? You have 
been but as a servant, doing my will : and as 1 am a dying man, I 
declare before God and the world, that what I have done was for 
King William and Queen Mary, the defence of the protestant 
religion, and the good of the country." Having again professed his 
reliance upon God, he said, " I am ready ! I am ready !" 

Leisler's son-in-law, Jacob Milbourne, seems not to have died 
with so much humility ; for seeing Mr. Livingston, who, it will be 
remembered, was not one of the council, he said to him, "You have 
caused my death ; but, before God's tribunal, I will implead you 
for the same." The sheriff having asked him whether he would 
not bless the king and queen ? he answered, " It is for the king 
and queen I die, and for the protestant religion."* 

The rain descended in torrents upon the prisoners and the crowd. 
The faintings and screams of women were seen and heard in every 
direction when this fatal scene was terminated by death. What a 
contrast does it present to this gloom, wailing, and horrour, when 
we recollect that the enemies of these citizens were carousing in 
beastly triumph and drunkenness. 

The records of a province would appear to many as beneath the 
dignity of history, although that province was the germ of a mighty 
state. The revolution effected by the burghers of New York, when 
they raised the standard of William of Orange, and the protestant 
religion, has heretofore appeared as an undignified subject for the 
historian. This same phrase, " the dignity of history," is, in my 
sight, as heretofore upheld, very contemptible and mischievous. 
Robertson apologizes to his reader for descending from the dignity 
of history, when he dwells on the character and fate of David 
Rizzio : but the contemptible Darnely, the ruffian Bothwell, the mur- 
dress and adultress Mary, are all with him, and most others, fit sub- 
jects for the historic muse. 

The true dignity of history is derived from truth. It is evident 
that every event, though true, is not fit for the historian ; but no act 
or person, however poor or low in life the actor, is beneath the 
dignity of history, if the relation of it elucidates subsequent tranft- 

* The Reverend Doctor S. Miller states, (of course, as tradition,) that when 
Leisler was executed, "the shrieks of the people were dreadiUl — especially tlw 
women — some fainted, some were taken in labour ; the crowd cut off pieeeicfMt 
garmefOs as precious relics, also his hair was divided, out of great renerttioat m 
Tor a martyr. — MSS^ 

VOL. I. 27 


ot cfaancters, and is a link in the ereat chain of ixEtniCUn 
which coosduites the phi!o<?ophv ol history. 

Jacob Leisler, a simple b jrirher and merchant, becoraes a dirrs- 
fied object, when the choice of hi* fellow burshei?, frtei.o"d*-r5 d 
New York, place him as their cornmander-Li-cbief. in oppo=rioo lo 
the lieateDant-eovernour of the tyrsnt and bizoc James, for the '^' 
poae of pfeseirin? civH and religious liberty. Parry, 'srbich » b- 
dmensable to popuhr rovemment. may be said, if doc to bare 
bM its birth at the time in New York, at least to hsve ukeo is 
" ibnn and pressure'* as it exists in this day. We see in that parr 
of which Leisler was the head, the ^rm of our present deraocxci: 
Fepreseotanre ^oremroent. 

Ebelin?. the Dutch historian of New York, pires a more irrpiT- 
tn] account of the transactions of this tL'T^e. asd Loe fa:e of Jac-ob 
Leisler, than is riven bv WiUiam Smiuh. the Chief J ^L^^^Jce of C*- 
uda. Wiih Ebeliny* \-iew of the sublet i. and a few renxLrk*. I 
afaalJ close the chapter. 

On the surrender of the fort. Leisler. MiIbo::jT>e. zaa crJXTf 
who had formed the coimcll. were Ltj prisoned a::d irnzDecLiViry 
tried br a court of Cher asd Tenrjiner. aDi>o^-':ted bv the zy^tZ' 
BOUT, insdeaied bv ihe enemie* of Lebler. who ^ral:: irjrzxii 
ifae court. The fiDen party were arraliSed ^^ ro-^rcerer? a^d n:- 
lors. In rain ibev remirded the court of their zcL for W- n 
and Manr — in rain Letsler decied the ajthontv of :r*e r:ryin : izt 
eomideration and anr humiiiatfo:: wo -Id r.o: r.sve 5vi*£^i :.i5 ei-r- 
■lies: and it appear? that he ?:oo::-ec:o rcp-Tt. L -•.j-^ur'e- .i-r ::-i- 
doct. Dudlev was •i.e :>res:dL-:r •-•ire. LelsIer »r.d M..1': -n-e 
Eenienced to die as reh-rl? z-i-i irL'or-i. Hard Ji." *:* :»i«D 
tfacy mifht have ii>c::rre*i 'J:e ?«.T.e :'s:e. x^r tres-w:- uv-i^ 
EbeUnr. in hi* hi*:or.'. sst*. -jls: »::er :::e ^-e^-trz:^. *• *-!•? 
wbole matter was laid before the Jcl-r :** h e. b-efore W.._iz: III.J 
Wt bT whom r Bv those who bad d-rterr-iiied :o ja'ir.S.e r . .t. vd 
their priraie riew* and pa*s:oa*- Tr.e a**er2Liy irji: 1,2 d d«*3 
eoareoed, were persuaded tha: 'Jie rr.>:orru-ea of ir.e zro-^Tie, 
were all aeributahie uy Leliler «--•: hi* n-ienc*. azd 'ia: a*«e:=h.T 
pcjiJ for hi* execadoQ- .Slo^-jh-^r feared u> exii-«nie -v 
^cop&. who sdU adhered vj Leisi-rr. Tr.-r zoTernoir ir-o-iz::: :f 
proi oguin g the asserabiy to Alha::y. Le-*Ier'5 rrlen-ij w*re :!*- 
» oe account of hi* :ocr LTiprlsoEme-- ir-d 1: ir.-r s^r.-jKir.e 
upon him bv ±e orc-o^i'j? :ar:v. tt.-.o f-rireii v. a: I:' :he r:^e> 
and aseemblv rerzyjved :o Alh-i-v. v.e z-rvil-r :•' Nr^ Y:-ri 
^ooH Hberare the praocer*. a::d. :::er^fo.-e. pre*-io: '-e —'.re :•:.- 
■■■■•diate cxectttioc. Slouzhzer called, ja^i E-eiLir. * » rar- 
•cwar eouDcii of boch homes. Li :hi* co -.::Cki. he was .irz^c iz.d 
to execute the lentesce speecllj/* Sloaghter :* saic to 

RXTB08PE0T. Sll 

have been unwilling. Was he not fearful ? The historian, Ebe- 
ling, says, "when every thing else failed, he (Slougbter^ was made 
drunk, and the execution took place. May 17." Every thing 
proves that Leisler was condemned unlawfuUy, and executed un- 
justly. Afterwards, the act of attainder was reversed. This was 
done at the instance of young Leislen Gouverneur,* and all the 
others, except Milbourne, were released. 

It has been the policy of men of all ages, to preserve the memory 
of the founders of the nation they claimed as their own. It serves to 
perpetuate nations. Rome, the eternal, bears the name of its reputed 
founder. The founder of the Democracy of New York, was Jacob 
Leisler: and New York is now an empire — founded upon demo- 
cracy. The line, that says, " An honest man is the noblest work 
of God," has been received as a truism. And Jacob Leisler was 
truly an honest man, who, though a martyr to the cause of liberty, 
and sacrificed by injustice, aristocracy, and party malignity, ought 
to be considered as one in whom New York should take pride — - 
although the ancestors of many of her best men denounced him as 
a rebel and a traitor. If an honest man is the noblest work of Ood, 
Leisler was a great man — - and all agree that the fame of the great 
men of a nation, is that nation's most precious inheritance. 



Retrospect'^First Assembly under Shugkter^s govemment-^Canar 
dian affairs — Slaughter's death — In^oldsby^ Gavemour^ pro ten 
-^Schuyler attacks the French^ at La Prairie — Indian war9— 
Richard De Peyster — Fletcher^ Govemour — Confirms the arii^ 
tacratic council — Caleb Heathcote — His family — His mode of 
enforcing religious exercises on Long Island — Fletcher is guided 
by Peter Schuyler — Count Frontignac — Wars unth the Iroquois 
---Great expedition agaimt them. 

1691 In 1664, as we have seen, the province of New Netherland 
was surrendered to the English, and became New York. 
The inhabitants, generally, were glad to exchange the Dutch pro- 
vincial mode of government for what they knew and what they 

* Abraham Gonrenieiir was a French Hngneiiot He manied the wMew of Mi- 
boume— of coane, the daughter of Leialer. The name of Gonreniear rtoiaini 
among oa, and ia made a aecond time djatrngaithed, by the onion with that of Morria. 


hoped from ihe K.jrlish ^VTtem. I.':-':1 Iv'^-i. (^'.'1. irse iriflinz 
ifiterrupiion by tlv- direflorship of or r.rrcirir: for a few 
jnoni/j- 10 th': Duvh. in 1^7 ;i.) New York "^l^ jcv-rrrer. ":-; wha: 
treknou-n a* ihe d^jkeV iaw?. meanine J i --•:-*, D -.fir :■:" York.^ 

The a=- -erij b i v in i , ".<■ • j rr. e : i n 1 •)' * i . t v. r. f*^ isv. - '.v r re :rj e nm 
considor'rd vb:id by i:,*.- :»-jT.;:«her* of 17.'»L'.,i '•■•r.->:-:'.: •:' Ja-Tjes 
GraJiarrj. W:.;ir-.iri Mf:.':;::. Jar ob:* Vm: Con>-r..::. ir. : Jjhar^nes 
K ipp . for 1 ho r- i ty a d d c o » j :; ty of N e w Y '.• : k . V v r ! ■ •: \^\- * *e 1 i? s n d 
Levinur Van .vhavk. for AitjsriV. K!>-- Duke?bi.rv arid D^iiv. for 
Richmond. Joun Pf-]1. for \Ve*i C:ie-!er couniv. Henrv Pier^ 
son and Maithcr-.vHowe]!. for>i;n<r»lk. ll*-:nr^ livvki:i:=n and Tbo- 
mas Garton, for T lsi<.-rand Durijf-T*. Joiin litiund and Niihaniel 
Persal, for (iuefru-i. Ni'boiaj? Siiihve!] ftrid Johr. Polarid. for Kinrs^. 

" The member? for (^ueeii:? rour/v." *^:va SitjIij:. "were after- 
wards di^mi^sed. for r'.'fu=in^ Uk- oairis (iirecied bv i};*? zover:]Our'« 
corn mi.-r? ion. "t 

It was this assembly 1)7 Jit rccoir;r^iended Itself to :he infamou« 
Slouehter and bis coiinril. bv dfrclrtrinj thai all liie »-vii> wijich had 
befallen ihe provincf.-. were 10 be aitribnttd tn liic- iisurpaiion of 
Jacob Lei.-ler, and according' K' ioinod with the coiincii in ursine 
hi* execution. 

The addre-* of tij*? a*-o:::Mv lo Slouirhtf-r i* fr.ic of ihe mo?t 
abject expre«*ion- of rrauiiiij s':r\i!:ty. ::;'ii I n:i::»-irjbor. They, 
"in the mo-t liiiruMe fri^nnfr." fonjriTiii'-iTv ijiin. ••From 
the bottom of l].f-ir h' J:r>/' ti.- y i!-^ ■-..-.•. ::/.: rjo:.- " r:-,r. or 
oiidil to bav#; riji;! " l-i ■.'•.•..::. !'...- y:>r.\rxv, fi.;: \y ir.Sil 
authoritv *• no'.r ;=;ar»ri Im i.i^ i.^.r-.^i^.^A ." Ti.rir lives ar.d 

• The f nv^rnm*::;: «■.:' :" .- I.) iv ;. i'.-:j*-r :; \ ,-. V r.... -.■ .- w". -^r.i -:" 

ronrw. jti«i. ill r^-e-T-: •'•♦;.■■ „^nr .: :.--. T".* ■. •--':•■'. «■■;: - T'r.'i' :-*: r-v-'-n 
Unda lor rulL\2!:.«iri '.-;: r.-^-;:r.:/..:ii' :.,»• I:. .'.:.■.■•■ ::!*• - . :■ -. z'.r.^c ::.* 
coiii^nt iifthff In'i -in^. -.• : ■ -.f :. -■ : ■■ r ■■'• r. ." v. - ..• . . ,-.. •, .. .. r. v,. . -. . . :" v:* 

original proprifUir*. Th- f.';r • • t: v ».•• : •. .■ -' '■ r ••,.: w •■:. — rr.- In-:. 4.-. 
did not — and a hhul-.-! •/* -.r.-.r. •■ i. r . »:■ ■? • • . : )•: i]r»-:r.:.- :■ : .-■ '.ir* £2.::.*. 
were of more r^il !i-: ^. f..:;. •:..::..;..■ r ■• r ;• «■ :r: : ■ :: !/.r H : :.^.:: r M- 
bnwk. Th-il^r. -. '■% wf... ..../:• .■; . r -^ . ■ ■. • ■ :: v' ;. : . .-:.•.-. •. ■ -- 

trart or aiiniM.i iT* i..- t.'W. »ii'-;»r- ;•.:». v. - : "ij ^♦* ■• ' r, ? ; •':••: 2'.'. • r. :»-r*. si'* "■*- 
vond tJi#- riij;f».».: -.r, i-r •■ :• . r • ■►r-. T'. l^" -..■ . -. ■ -■•■.- •"' -• •«► •■ '. •* •-* 
[>iitth. and f««iiTr:i-;. : ::.*- «> : :!f« 1'.:" •;... \. •• ■ :. :, :.:■■■;.'::.- .'.-:•. ^• : r. •- 
lililv of the i'tftKl:. -^r.'l 'r- r ':•-:.-••..■ . t- ■ . '-. •, ... /•■•■.. r,. ..•■. .■ ^r.-.-wL. 

nl ine^unc ^nd *»ii'..r:2 ::.»■:; ••■ ; .*■ i' ■■ :■ . '•■ ^. ..••■.. r- r . .^ * 

Th«* Irmjuit:- »i»r- :t." .".'■•. • :" \ . ::.*- , v ■ : •■■.•. Ii ^-i • . r ■ ^ - • -.i 

them: f«ir •>>■ -•■ :-^" .r-i I:. :..:.• :. . ; - ...••. , • . • . ' ... .r • ' ■- ..*.-4 . •' — * 
martial f'f •n;*- it ffi') 

Th»- I^'n£ I-. -.:.■: I:. :. ■!.- r :'■•■ v - !•■.■ v -• *■ ■ r- . r. . " • 'r •.■ ..- Tr.*« *ii 
*oni*» i^'i.-irri '."• -.r. : •.: ■■ : :■.•• r- •.■....»•.. .:. • ■ ■ .:..* . . . ^. ■ ■ ;. : :■ -•■:. : •■ z 's.* r 
fuarxi : hut L^•■^ 2* ...^ ^^ ' r* •>••»:■■. •. : • . ■.:■'...•-.■.« -a .■.•,■.••■..•--■■ «*■• 

^"12. ^* ^* ^*^* •** '^"'^ •^•*^^ "■*•* i>'Ugh:. a:'pv*nL). with Lonf I-ind 

• See Appeniik P 


for.iiiTt* ait' •f)..u'Ovi ill h:> t^\«.'i''.'.cnoy's i:l<:>o*al, aiul pniviT? are 

avii.:t\i for ":'.:- L\rL".".t-.v\'# "..'".j l:i*t^ a/.d rule. T::ev i::u::;r.ioiJslv 

• • • 

I .... . « « 

Are ".v... a:M \o:».'. — r. .»; :»*. :::^ r.;:;::-. .1. I ..-.y c:m.':-.m a .aw lor 

u;^ V v.-t ■* .1.'. :• I. .1 U .1? ,'...vl O... -■* ■ .: . . .: ..i? !>?>.•; V. *'■ .-:i ^i.*»cr" 

5 - • 1 'i*- 

ka V ••• • • • ■ 1 • Z* ..■.•la^ >.•% ^V* < • -^ -•• ■>.>•. . «^ .ak k • ■... » V K p.- m\ • ^ laV ■ 

m ■ 

ieots. bv ».it\-..\ :::'., '1.0 U\::>..-:.vj -.'.'■•^or, < /.iKitr :::-; kir.^.t ;o reside 

II • m » 

n'. j.sst :::i *.v, rvpr-. sent::'.;; ::"t :":x^ :\>idt rs : I;;: :!/:?3ciua? rr-Vf-.vJ 

^i ' "^ J. A ..-^^ p.i<>t'v: i.v.v' , ■. ir.-."..i^:: :Vr i^ital. '.?:::::.: courts of 

■ ■ 1. I ■ ^ ■■■•■■ . ^1 ^ 

I:- M.iv. S'.v;^". ur vrooiViivd !»» A.: .v.n-. .rvd in J/.::o, .\ council 
ol'i.'c I :\^ ; ; . ! - : . -. i : [.:::. " l" : : -. . v • ". : :V ^ : •. r ■. ii* s u •; 70 li ■ s c oiw mod thai 
irxy VAvi :;\-.\ .-. .: :,^ <y\:i:\. \: :.:s->:;\: oy :: •• ^.:^;..^:l, d::or the 
i\:;tM: L^r" lii::i:.i! W;:::; :\>:^ :,::\ c.:,:.:\z l^ie h'\^\\::\^ w inter. 

WV .::;■ :• .^: 1;. l\ rv i.'\^. a, :!:.:: :::: :r.i\v .i:ui active old 

And ;:.c :".::. \ oj-. :.u.v>;> y N; -.v York i::d C.^'ru"».::c;::. under 
Vv ;:::;. ro-.\ -.vv^-iv: :rx Fnv.c:: V.'oMr: lo stT.d .1 :"orvi^ .tjaiast ihe 
i\: »•: N-. »» \.'rN. j.- :.u" i.>::'v ::'.ta::^ v*:" >.;i'ii;:::u ii.c Iroo-ois, who 

■ • • 

r/.i.v; >c\tr.-.. :::ro.u-.s i::\>:: :::c C .::'..u;..i:: ?-, ".T.::v::r.:i, p.-rucularly 
nc\ir M •>::::•.■.■".. ki!!.::.: i".i:'.v Frc.x:: :;'/..i":':: .::::>. .i-.d desirovin^lhe 
::;:.:< o: ::.i:.:r< aiM ::^:::?::y — :i.vorvi:::^ to :.u j'?;.. ::ceol ilonous 
ua:. ::: t\tT\ v\v,;:::r\. 1:: o::v ■.:>: -."c i . .1 :Mr:y ii:HhKii:as were 
derV;.: d i \ • :<. F:o:k'.:, sf» k:!'td :i".d rL\-s uken 'orisoners, 
w::o '.V(.:t :•.:::•.: \\y y/x •• "..iC'iMns." M.i") of :::e*o iiiU'resiing 
aik.r::v.>/.t'i .ir^'.id Vv :ht worii.v :V./'.:. u/ai uli? us ihai the 
l^::o:'.d,i^i>. :..i\:::j >t::: ;::t'2^>t ::jcr? :•>:..•. C'.ii:^i::'a\vaa:a5, or pnr- 
iv.r l::,'...i:> ,-» :::r b ri : 'u':^ tour.: t :i'::::^:::u- :*..u: siispicion* ol 
:ht">o M y\\ \ y^^::\ir.< : li:: :/.cv rv:'.:s:d :o rv:..r:: :o ihoir former 
lV:e::dTi. :.\'.:,-:: :: :« ;.:i':".td bv :!u-.u w::':i bti:*,; :r.\o!vtd ;:i the de- 

Sio.i^./.t'r >.;\ .vdi d in :t:u'.vir^ :;:c :r; .i::ts w::h ir.c ln>quois 

ic..«'.. ...■: 4..-^ ^*t ..^t. r?" .-..A. ir«.*^....r O. t n.\..-^ ...•-. , ..■ ..-^• -ICIU Oil- 

T-it> :o"a "::■.:■. :::a: 'J.-jv \\',:t ^".id :.« ?-:-.• .i .-.'\ trr.oiir a^ain 


in Albanv: and finallv. the Mohawk? reiected the orenure? of tbe 
French, and ariin pledz^d thrr'n^elve? to Nex York. 

The srovernour. h^vin«^ r-rtumed to New York, sudien'r d!ei 
OD the 23d of Juiv. PV'M. It ;va* fsu^pected. or a^sered. iTia: De 
bad bef?n poi=o.Tjd, /':- if anv ev-nordinir." mc'^ri* were Eece??£rT 
to terminate the life of a d-irton and drunkard.) but a j»^: m-''^n 
examination hv phv-iirians and si;r.-f-on«. removed the ?u?^:cios; 
which onlv prove* the ranrojr and th'r tearsof the prevail: r.z pirrr. 
The corpse wa= b'iried. a? Sriith teli.-? u<. in .STuyve=anT'» viuh. 
next to the remains of i;ie o!d Dutch rrovernour?. 

Dudlev, beinj the senior member of council. wa«, of rirhi. the 
ruler of the province : but he wa^ absent at Curacoa. and the panr 
resisned the rein- of jrovernmrni into the hand* of Inroidsbv. wao 
bore no hiirher rom!ni^--ion still, than thp.t of a captain of 1ck»:- Ev?i 
on Dudlev's return, bv the wav of Boston, the car-iairj "-;:* ro^- 
tinued jrovernour. T-Virt.- is uo doi:":*:. in i:iv mi.'^ii. bji f-i-ar of-i-* 
people caused thi? re-ijna-ion of power in:o the jjand- of irjis isir. 
who had command of the miiiian". and had no abil!:v to d: hlzn iw 

In the mean time, reinfor^omont* arrived a: Quebec. 'B^ll Ms'r 
Peter iSchuyler led the Iroj loi- by Like Chi::^]ilain. ar^d tr.d.r.z 
the Govemour of Montre'il eri'^a.-np^d with a force at Li Prsir.-f. 
attacked him with conoid': rabie ^iirce--: : tiiat is. manv French werf 
killed, and the Indian? were er'-fiurared to remain firrr; to Nf"ff 
York. h-ri^*^ vf-r. r*:\''*r.\-d th^-e ',:nr-r,\:r.^.'crii. vl-ii?. £L'C 
sent a lar::e forf^t' in the a^it5]::i:: \<> ;«-;:ji-h the Mohji'.^k*: :r;r*' did 
little, and suffered r:.y.f':i: d--' '^•■■r:i'* •: by ihe appro::rh of wirter. 
for which ihev were !i'»: ■.•:•;»:■.:•:■■. !r:-v reirer-.t-.d !•• M«^i:rj--;-:i!. 
• The Imquiii-i. fiu'iT x*:-.r:, -.::•!:. ;i!-d :■• -.:r;«r>e the Frer^f h Et 
Sault .St- IfOiiis. but fjjjrti. -:::..: ar^^::: -•:'i^ -klrr!.i-r.!r;j. rtiir-c. Tri* 
confederates }i:n: £:(:■•=:.'. ed *r. ::.]- ^:.>r:rj-e. ir: twr. ;^»:ir:Je?. Tm 
Ononda ras . C ' a v i: ^-^ ^ . :: : d S e : f:' <". b-.- L ^ k e Or-: ^ rl o : w r.lle ihe 
Mohawkf. r^nf i-.iis. :■.:!•] .-->■::•; Mm:.!- -r.n- jr-xteded i-y Like Criar> 
plain« and after r'»:nr:i:Ttln_* -•:;^r -^'••Tr^'-.iorj by ";r»e nre iStC L"je 

knife, were dr;"iin r-^.k ■.%::;] . •-*. 
1692 Ti;r aldtrrricr: iipd Li-isV-nis ♦ lecte'-: bv :he frf-erriep. eth: 
cor.stjt »:;.-._• ::ir r.-T.:: r. (.*•.,;::■- 1. of me rlrv of New Yorkfa* 
16W. were for ihv K'lr H'^/r :'. Wjh.arjj Be-kman. Ali-rnriir: : Alex- 
ander Wilson. a??is:an:. />.». % H'.;-.:. W;:::-d*:j Merrtr.. aiderra&r; 
Thomas Ciirke. assis:.:!-:. V-C'. Wj'i, J.-if.s::r»es Kj:-:-. ajder^ 
roan: T.SoTriJis Deka-. ;.*-li:;.::. > -y, W.'i. Krarui: SrhLvier. 
Alderman; S:t:«:jt:; l>t l:.:.'rv,* a-^>:an:- C^' Jr:\.. Jv-:.:. Mer- 



ritt, alderman ; Garret Dow, assistant West Ward, Robert Dar- 
kins, alderman ; Peter King, as-istant. The mayor, appointed bjr 
the governour, was Captain Richard De Peyster. The recorder, 
commissioned by the king, was William Pinhorne, who was like- 
wise one of Sloughter's, or his majesty's council. 

On tlie 30th of March, 1692, Pinhorne brought in an ad- 
dress for the mayor and common council to sign, and read it ; 
but De Peyster, the mayor, though appointed by Sloughter con- 
stitutionally, objected to the passage in which Pinhorne had assertedy 
"that Leisler hath not paid the soldiers he had taken upon him to 
raue,^ and for " the present it was laid aside." The manuscript 
record in the common council's office, City Hall, New York, says, 
that the common council and recorder were willing to sign ; but 
De Peyster was too honest.* 

On the 29th of August, 1692, Benjamin Fletcher arrived as 
governour of New York. On the 30th he published his commis- 
sion. His majesty's council at the time was composed of Messrs. 
Frederick Phillipse, Stephen Van Cortlandt, Nicholas Bayard, 
Gabriel Mienville, Chudley Brooke, William Nichols, Thomas 
Willet, and Thomas Johnson. These were, as the reader will re- 

* In this year, a schism happened among the quakers of Philadelphia, with 
which New York is connected — inasmuch as tu that, the latter place u indebted 
for its first printer and printing-press. In I6S9, die " friend s public school, 
of Philadelphia,*' was established, and at its head was placed George Keith. George 
was a writer, that is, he was poiwessed by that restless spirit which induces men to 
sacrifice ease and comfort, to the desire of appearing in print ; and he undertook to 
reform Quakerism. This did not please his employers, who had called him to teach 
their children, and not themselves. George Keith was a native of Aberdeen, in 
Scotland, from which town came Barclay, and other distinguished men. Keith was 
a man ofvigoroos intellect, but of a r^sUess mind — ever disposed for controversy. 
He had been distinguished by many writings in defence of quakerism, and in oppo- 
aition to the churches and ministers of New England. These publications recom* 
mended him to the friends, of Philadelphia, and George was in nigh favour as long 
as his sharp and bitter compositions were directed against New England ; but when 
he began to reform what he considered amiss in Philadelphia, Ht was discovered that 
" he had too (nuch Ufe in argument,'* " unbecoming vanity," and conducted himself 
" in a very extravagant manner." Keith insisted that it was unchristian to keep 
negroes in slavery. He was in advance of the time ; and the truth caused irritation, 
because it was true. He had his adherents — and particularly the German emi- 
grants — who, it is said, ''from the first, protested against neFro-slavery." Not 
content with endeavouring to teach, Keith made attacks upon Uie friends, that sah 
▼onred of hostility. They, in their turn, published a testimony of denial against him. 
They declared that the mighty man had fallen. They accused him of uttering *' iiO' 
Mvoury words and abusive language," with calling them " fools, ignorant heathena, 
silly souls, rotten ranters, and muggletoniaos," and, what was worse, " that quaker^ 
inn was too often a cloak of heresy and hypocrisy." Keith's party were denomi- 
nated, by him, Chnadan (luakers^ and his opponents, Apostates. 

In this controversy, Bradford had been employed by Keith ; and the wrath of the 
more numerous party, which proved to be Keith's adversaries, falling on the printeTr 
he fled and removed his mitouevous engine to New York. Bradford was soon 
after employed by the corporation to print the city laws, and* in 1735, printed tbt 
fini newspaper that appeared in New York. 

In thft 4HiM /ear, (lc02,) Bartfaoloniew Green estabUabed himaelf in Boalon aa a 



coDecty the opponents, accuser?, judges, and condcnuieii of Lett- 
ler. Ingold«by acted as eovemour until Fletcher'd arm^, and then 
qipeai? to have been commander of the milharv. 

Slou^hter, IniroId«by and Fletcher, appear to have been sent out 
merely becaa^e thcv were fK>ldier« who were to be advanced ; and 
Benjamin Fletcher was even more unfit for the ruler of a province, 
if possible, than his immediate predecessors. He fell into the 
bands of the aristocratick part}-, and adopted their vievs. The 
major and corporation, resolved on *^ a treat." to the value ^of 
j£20," to welcome Govemour Fletcher. The assembly was in 
session, and voted an address of thanks to the kine for the wariike 
store which the govemour brought to the province ; and the coon- 
cil, though rejoicing in the accession of strength which an ignorant 
and violent govemour brouzht them, found it convenient from some 

eivate reasons, to remove mo of the former members, Joseph 
udlev and William Pinhoroe : thev were succeeded bv Caleb 
Heathcote and John Voun<r* Dudley was likewise excluded from 
the bench, where he sat as chief justice, and William Smith placed 

In the address to the kin?, from the assembly, they represented 
the necessity for aid against Canada. They said the province was 
so diminished bv former crranu, that it con.risted of but ^* a verv 
few towns and villages,*' and that the number of men fit to bear 
arms was less than 3000, " and all reduced to great poverty."' 

Fletcher is represented by William .Smith, in hi* history- of New 
York, as a man of ?*troni: pa.-:sion.- and inconsiderable talent*. 
vcr)' active, and ecjually avaririous. Ill* desires prompted kim to 
require an independant salar}' from the people, as well as the dis- 
posal of the public money granted for specific purposes. His in- 
structions caused him to pre** for the e*tabli.*hment of episcopal 
ministers, and the introduction of tiie Knirlish church bv everv 
possible means. 

primer. He wu iIm 9on of i?afnael ^^ireen. who amv^d with Winthrop in VS^. Bar- 
tholomew printed the fir^t n«w«pap«r. Ii wa« i««ueii on the 17th of Apn!. 17*>4. oi 

■ ludf vheetof jpof^pifr. la thi* year. I:kew:4». mx« built, in »w York, the oii 
Daiefa Chorefa. in iiard^n street, "the *;r^et adjoin mc th^ f4rd<^a of .Aidermu 
lohunie* Kip." Th« #tr»*et hi« exwied a» Wxfhznz*' Plar*. ha« b<*en bamt u the 
ire of IGch and 17th liec«^mher. ISd. i^ now rehinldinx. and n*utn« the nune of 
Eiebanf^ Plare. The ground for thi.4 rhurch wa» £iv»:n h_v Sam a el Barard. la 
IWl, to three pervomi. in tni«t. for a chnrch and briryiur cround. tn prrp«tu:tT 
Snice the above niention<>4 titt. the pre*^nt tni«tpM have ^old it to meicfaantf for 
b^dinf lotii. for f :»0.<J<|il. The de^»-ndanij» of the oW Dutch familie« #*e their 
***"' w"** ******** '^^ **■* street and ftirkinr out from the *ide« nf a nevtr do^ 
z^ff" 'JL* ••e »o maoT proofs* of the folly of ^npp^r-inf that the renuiiif oi* n^n 
St oLn^^'^ to rest n cay jUot. that it it onlr wonderful that we ahould dwnah 
^^^i* *f P*- W|m can expect to be left nn^iatorbed in de«th after the openinc 

Miuny^lSrnL* '''*'•" " •*«*^ " *^^- * •'Temple.' at the sorth 
^ ^ ^^■■ick «ntii,bj ihe coi^KfttioB of ihe Gaiden icnct 


I will pause to give some notice of the Caleb Heathcote, who 
became at this time one of the governour's, or his majesty's coun- 
cil. He was a judge, and a colonel of militia. The name of 
George Heathcote appears among the inhabitants of New York in 
1676, and his property is rated at ^2036, which placed him as , 
one of the rich of the time. George died unmarried, and his 
property devolved to Caleb. Tradition says, that the father of 
Caleb was a man of fortune, and mayor of Chester, in England ; 
but Caleb had two brothers bom before him, who, probably, one or 
both, inherited the father's estate ; both procured titles, and found- 
ed families well known in England. The oldest brother was Sir 
Gilbert Heathcote, the founder and first president of the bank of 
England, and lord mayor of London. Caleb, the youngest, had 
formed a matrimonial engagement with a lady of great beauty, but 
unfortunately took his elder brother, Gilbert, to see his intended 
wife. Gilbert was struck with the lady's beauty, and supplanted 
his brother, who sought refuge with his uncle in New York, married 
a daughter of ** Tangier Smith,"* of Long Island, and became a 
distinguished man in our history. He v^tis a sincere EpiscopaliaOf 
and probably seconded from principle, the views which Fletcher 
advocated from interest, and in obedience to his orders. Heath- 
cote, in his military capacity, had command of the West Riding, on 
Long Island, and in one of bis letters gives this account of his 
method of " converting," as my friend Doctor De Kay, fi-om whom 
I have the extract, says, " military into religious exercises." 

The colonel came to America in 1692, as I gather from this 
letter, which is dated in 1 704, and he must have had both influ- 
ence and fortune, to have attained a seat in the council the first 
year of his arrival. He writes thus — " I shall begin the history 
of the church fi-om che time I first came among them, which was 
about twelve years ago. I found it the most rude and heathenish 
country I ever ^aw in my whole life, which called themselves 
Christians, thffe not being so much as the least marks or footsteps 
of religion i>f any sort. Sundays were only times set apart by 
them for ill manner of vain sports and lewd diversion, and they 
were gr^wn to such a degree of rudeness, that it was intolerable. 
I having then command of tlie militia, sent an order to all tlie cap- 
tains, requiring them to call their men under arms, and to acquaint 
them, that in case they would not in every town agree among them- 
selves to appoint readers, and to pass the Sabbath in the best man- 
ner they could, till such times as they should be better providedf 
that the captains should every Sunday call tlieir companies under 

' Smith was to called, fVom haviiur been soTeraoar of Taofier, and to distin- 
fuiah him from '' Bull Smith/' and au other SmiUii. 

VOL. I. 28 

aMMW^ m priMMKr taken n the d c rti ii cliw of dat plve m 1M0, 
CKUied froni dmiif md carn6d mieffigmee <■ fke hoMife 
■0 vmiingf the Jesuit Urtonm ttfSt wv nat to the 
eatfles ; a fiiendlj act, winch might hvre been done cm the 
ade of die lirer, as die French adraneed on the north. 

On die lo^m of die 8di of rebruarjr, alter a march of 
§an dajSy soflfermg mcredible bardsfaipSy the Frenchy wiA 
Casaifiansand Indians, entered die first Mohawk viDage, 
Bf lif n fct idy. The wanriours woe aD abroad, and only five 
were fimnd with die women and children. The seeood 
eastfe waseaaljrsarprised and entered, being as defeneekaa t 
firsL The third cattle was die higest, an^, being fadieai 
thev friends of ScbenectulT, was die strongest. Fottr 
were here dancing their war-dance, preparatorj to saOfrag fivdi 
panoit of battle nd scalps die next dajr. Tbe French had 
Ae gate of die Tillage nnperceired ; bm notwithstuiding ti» 
saaiige, and die confusion of an unexpected night aasaoh, the In- 
dians rented, and slew thirtr of the assailants. Manr of thp 
Mohawks were killed, and 300 men, women and children, made 
prisoners. The conyhints were lood that Schenectsdr had not 
sent eiAer intdligence or help. 

Charleroix says, that in their retreat die French mnrdered d» 
women and children of the Mohawks, and were pmsned bjr Ae 
Oneidas ; that his coontrymen finallr disbanded ; lost tfacv pris- 
oners ; and that tbe wreck of the detachment reached Montreal 
in March foUowing. 

As soon as tbe news of tlus attack upon tbe Mohawks reached 
AAaDT, Peter Scburler mustered what force he could and mardn 
ed to Schenectady. From thence he sent out scouts : and harinc 
increased his armed men to 200^ he marched in pursuit of the 
French on tbe 12ih of February. He soon beard that 600 of tbe 
boquois were on tbe way for tbe same purpose. These, I pre* 
smne, were the Oneidas, of whom Charieroix speaks. Schuyler 
wailed for tbe Indians, who amoimted when they joined him to only 
SfiO ** men and boys, all armed." His whole farce on the Idthof 
February, was 290 New Yorkers, and 2-30 Indians. The wMse 
troops had no provisions but biscuits carried in ttvrir pockets. Tbe 
Indians were probably quite as destitute, but mere hardened to 

The French finding that they were pursued, sent one of their 
scouts to join Schuyler, imder pretence of desertion ; tfaia spy 
magnified tbe force of tbe Canadian army ; said they ind ihrawn 
t^ a fortification and awaited the pursuers, in an adrantageons 

Schuyler aent a mes as g e to In g o h Mi y, who c o asiw ii d ed the ki^s 
nroops at AMiaiif , d e siiiiifc him to send a ■ainfcrrrniim of 


In the meantime, Frontlgnac did not remit his efforts against the 
Iroquois, and they under a chief called by the English, '* Black 
Ketde," and by Charlevoix, ** Chaudure Noire,'' (better soundirg, 
though meaning the same thing,) made a descent upon the neigii- 
bourhood of Montreal, and ravaged the open country ; the French 
not being in force to leave their fortified places. Frontignac, how- 
ever, pushed on a detachment in pursuit of the invaders, and they 
were overtaken on their return. A desperate battle ensued. It 
appears that the French threw a part of their men between the 
Indians and their return-path: tliey, however, fought then: way 
through, with the loss of twenty warriours. The Canadian troops 
lost four officers, and a proportionate number of soldiers ; but re* 
tained five men, nine women, and five children, as prisoners. But 
a few days after this rencontre, a party of Iroquois appeared below 
Montreal, and cut off a captain's command, killing the officer and 
many of his men. 

Frontignac,' as if to terrify the savages, or to gratify his rage and 
disposition to cruelty, condemned two of the Iroquois prisoners to 
be burnt alive. The Jesuits waited on the captives, condemned 
by the civilized govemour of Canada to die at the stake, and in* 
structed them in the mysteries of ChrisUanity. " They preached 
to them," says Colden, " the Trinity, the mcamation of our Saviour, 
the joys of paradiie, and the punishments of hell, to fit their souls 
for heaven by baptism, while then: bodies were condemned to tor- 
ments." The Indians answered by singing their death song. It 
was said that one of the captives found a knife in his dungeon and 
despatched himself. This was certainly not characteristick of the 
people. The other was delivered to the converted Indians, who 
led him to the stake and put him to the torture, according to the 
practice of their former pagan state. 

The devoted victim sang his triumphs — defied his tormentors, 
and boasted of the Frenchmen he had slain. They mangled bis 
flesh — cut his joints — twisted his sinews with bars of iron — tore 
off his scalp, and poured boiling hot sand on his skull — and it is 
said, he only received the coup de grace by the intercession of the 
intendant's lady ; which ended this shameful exhibition, ordered 
by a French general, executed by what were called christian In- 
dians, and witnessed by the most civilized people of Europe. 
1693 On die 15th of January, 1693, the govemour of Canada 
having projected an expedidon against die Mohawks, sent 
a body of six hundred men, provided witli snow shoes, and accom* 
panied by light sledges made of skins, and drawn by dogs, to cany 
their stores. Three captains of the king's regular troops, with 
thirty subalterns, led picked soldiers. The whole were equipped 
for a march over frozen lakes, and a wilderness shining with ice 
and snow. On the 8th of February they passed Schenectady, and 


akhoa^ a prisoner taken at the destnietion of diat riaoe io 1690, 
aacaped fiom them, and carried utelligence of the noirtile maidiy 
no warning, the Jesuit historian says, was sent to the MohnA 
easdes ; a friendly act, which might have been done on die aooib 
side of the river, as the French advanced on the north. 

On the night of the 8tb of February, after a march of twentf- 
four days, sufiering incredible hardships, the French, with 
Canadians and Indians, entered the first Mohawk village, 
Schenectady. The warriours were all abroad, and only five miks 
were found with the women and children. The tocond Motawk 
eastle was easily surprised and entered, being as defenceless as die 
first The third casde was the largest, and, being ferthest from 
their friends of Schenectady, was the strongest. Yorty warriooif' 
were here dancing their war-dance, preparatory to sallying forth m 
pursuit of batde and scalps the next day. The French had entered 
the gate of the village unperceived ; but notwithstanding this ad- 
vantage, and the confusion of an unexpected night assault, the In- 
dians resisted, and slew thirty of the assailants. Many of the 
Mohawks were killed, and 300 men, women and children, made 
prisoners. The complaints were loud that Schenectady had not 
sent either intelligence or help. 

Charievoix says, that in their retreat the French murdered the 
women and children of the Mohawks, and were pursued by the 
Oneidas ; that his countiymen finally disbanded ; lost their pris- 
oners ; and that the wreck of the detachment reached Montreal 
in March following. 

As soon as the news of this attack upon the Mohawks reached 
Albany, Peter Schuyler mustered what force he could and march- 
ed to Schenectady. From thence he sent out scouts : and having 
increased his armed men to 200, he marched in pursuit of the 
French on the 12lh of February. He soon heard that 600 of the 
Iroquois were on the way for the same purpose. These, I pre- 
sume, were the Oneidas, of whom Charlevoix speaks. Schuyler 
waited for the Indians, who amounted when they joined him to only 
S60 " men and boys, all armed." His whole force on the 15th-of 
February, was 290 New Yorkers, and 250 Indians. The white 
troops had no provisions but biscuits carried in their pockets. The 

4iaiis were probably quite as destitute, but more hardened to 


The French finding that they were pursued, sent one of their 
tDOUts to join Schuyler, under pretence of desertion ; this spy 
■Mgnified die force of the Canadian army ; said they had thrown 
iq> a^ fortification and awaited the pursuers, in an advantageous 

Schuyler sent a message to IngoUsby, who commanded the king's 
troops at Albany, desiring him to send a reinforcement of troops 


and provisions ; this done, he immediately pushed forward, and 
soon found that he approached the enemy, who had thrown up a 
defence of logs for their main body, and posted their Indians to 
receive the advance of the pursuers. The mayor of Albany made 
a circuit to avoid ambuscades, and soon the Indians of both parties 
had raised their war shouts and were engaged. The French party 
at first gained an advantage, and the regular troops sallying from 
their redoubt, attacked Schuyler furiously, but were repulsed with 
loss. The Iroquois bore off heads and scalps in triumph : but 
Schuyler, some of whose men had not eaten for tvvo days, found it 
necessary to form a redoubt of trees and await reinforcements 
from Albany, for which he pressed by repeated messengers. The 
French took advantage of a snow storm to retreat. Eighty men 
arrived from Albany, not led by Ingoldsby, but a Captain Mathews ; 
on their arrival, Schuyler recommenced the pursuit as soon as his 
troops had been refreshed by the food which Mathews, who led 
the van, had brought. 

Schuyler had the prospect of overtaking the foe before they could 
cross the Hudson, which he knew to be open, a very uncommon 
occurrence in February ; but the French, on arriving at the river, 
found a bridge, formed by some floating cakes of ice which had to* 
cidentally choked up the stream and were joined temporarily to- 
gether. On this they crossed, and the bridge floated off before. 
Schuyler could follow. 

Giving over the pursuit he returned, bearing the rescued priso- 
ners and his wounded men. Twenty-seven of the French, of whom- 
four were officers, were found dead on the field. Schuyler, on 
going among his Iroquois allies, found them feasting on broth, of 
which he was invited to partake. They were regaling themselves , 
on the dead bodies of their enemies. 

The French, as mentioned above, dispersed, in a state of famine ; 
and, in March, the remains of the army entered Montreal, tha 
strongest arriving first, with all the symptoms of discomfiture and 

An express had been sent to Fletcher, who immediately called 
out the militia of New York, of whom three hundred men volun- 
teered to follow him in pursuit of the invaders. The river beinff 
free from ice, with three sloops, the govemour and his troops arrived 
at Albany in three days.* His promptitude, and the extraordinary 
circumstance of free navigation of the Hudson in February, gained 
Fletcher great credit. The Iroquois called him ^^the Arrow." His 

* Chief Juitice Smith, in a note myi, "the climate of latedayi is mnch altered, 
and this day (Febroary 14tb, 1756,) '900 recmiti laUed fftom New York for the 
army, nnder the command of General Sbtriey, now <(iaartered at Alhaiqr, and laat 
year a sloop went np the rhrer a month earUer,** that la, the 14lh of January, 1756. 

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After iwelvo iia^-5 stem m in- iho suvani of :he Saini Lair- 
rence, iho ar::n\ iind'.>luriK\i bv an e:iem\\ ivaoheJ Fori Fron- 
ticnac a: CdiiArjO|Ui — a *.:!?:?. r.ce of aboux 1>0 ir.iics. Ax liiis 
place ibey waiiea t>elbre eiiuv.rkiii;: on Lake Ontario, for a body of 
CHuwas iha: was lo ioin :ho-n. Ai*:er k^kinc some liavs lor ihese 
allies ui \"aLn, liiey icf: :hoir sick, amounur.^ :o 'Jo, and orof^sed ihe 
kke to CK^wejix Tiie anr.y incn asxvnded the ihx^rda^ riier, 
atemniin^ xi^, and cu^rviin^the u\H>di'd sr.oiv? by oi> scouts 
OQ each <iiie. Tiicv liien encrcd iIjc i^noi^ia Lak»^ : b::: found 
»u*tv:uiod :o a iree a; xhe oi:ue:. :\vo bundles of rushes, which, on 
ooi:3Un^. liiey found were 1.4->4 ;Keces, ik:io:i:i:r the r.umber of 
warhoun? who auai:od ihe:r., aiid detied xheir r.^.nuiers and mi^rhtr 
pneparaiior.s. After :ussi::^ i!;;- lake, the r rvuch aniiy landed at 
the row wo!l known dc;vsi; of s:^'.:. Here ihoy xhrew up a fort; 
and under ciiar^e of :wo cap:a'.L:s .iiui 100 siviiers, the ciuoe^.bat- 
teaux. b.icca^e and provisions ik^: hnuxvdateiy waaicJ, were left; 

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Thoy s<K^n peroeived a ^re.n siv.oke in lrv>ni. i :;e Onor da^, 
having lein^ed :he lor^e r/.a: wms approve hi nc- re.v.ovcd thoir wo- 
men and childrt-n lo :he i^VunoAs a;;d Cavucas. set f:re to their rilla- 
ces a::d hetiv^k t::i::*.>t!\es :o the w^xxis. The rlaiues iiiumined 
tbe rvsiin:: ;>!ace of the French a: nicht* and next dav the armv. in 
order of ba::!e. in two lines, wiih artillen* in fn^n:. adwisced tv^ wards 
ibe sfHK where the vl!l.\::es once stooii. Caiiieres on the left, com- 
maoded one line : on ihe ri^-hi, Vandreuil led the ofner. Fron- 
li^nac, surrounded by his aids and voIunteer>. prvceded by cannon, 
was borne in an ar:u-c:i.^ir. After a hard dav's nurciu the 
all lie jx^nip of ^ioriois war, en;ered ihe first vili.i^c, and found no- 
thin;: but isiies and liie iHHiit*s of two Frenciunen, receutly put to death. 

Here. Charlevoix savs, wore seen, in ruins, liie remains of a fort, 
which \ux\ been a iMrai-elo^rain with four bastions, surrounded bv 
a double palisade, which, if the English who built it had o>:cupied 
with cannon, they ini^rlit iiave stopped tiie procre^^ of liie CoUnt 

The next day. some squads who had been captives, and of coum 
slaves to :i)e i>3ondai::a>, eM^a^vd to the French : and a soldier who 
had been prisoner to the Oneidas, arrived with pr*.nmsa!s oi peace 
from that nation. The i^'nerul replied, tint they mu?i subnvit. and be 
remo\ cd wiihia tiie French colon v, as the onlv lenns ho would «nanL 

The annv remained utxin ihe ruins of l>nonda^ that dav, and 
ihe following:. Calliores, with 700 men marched for ihe Oneida 
countr\~, with onier^ to bum the villa^res, cut the corn. and. incase 
of sub:nission. revei^e six chiefs as ho?iajes. If resisted* lo put 
all to the swor\l- 

While he was absent upon liiis errand, a young Frencnman who 
hid been a captive wiui the Onondagas. escaped, and joined 


After twelve days stemming the stream of the Saint Law- 
rence, the army, undisturbed by an enemy, reached Fort Fron- 
tignac at Cadaraqui — a distance of about ISO miles. At this 
place they waited before embarking on Lake Ontario, for a body of 
Ottawas that was to join them. After looking some days for these 
allies in vain, they left their sick, amounting to 26, and crossed the 
lake to Oswego. The army then ascended the Onondaga river, 
stemming the rapids, and guarding the wooded shores by 50 scouts 
on each side. They then entered the Oneida Lake ; but found 
suspended to a tree at the outlet, two bundles of rushes, which, on 
counting, they found were 1,434 pieces, denoting the number of 
warriours who awaited them, and defied their numbers and mighty 
preparations. After passing tiiis lake, the French army landed at 
the now well known deposit of salt. Here they tlirew up a fort; 
and under charge of two captains and 100 soldiers, the canoes, bat- 
teaux, baggage and provisions not immediately wanted, were left ; 
and the army, thus prepared for battle, advanced upon the Iroquois. 

They soon perceived a great smoke in firont. The Onondagas, 
having learned the force that was approaching, removed their wo- 
men and children to the Oneidas and Cayugas, set fire to their villa- 
ges and betook themselves to the woods. The flames illumined 
the resting place of the French at night, and next day the army, in 
order of battie, in two lines, with artillery in front, advanced towards 
the spot where the villages once stood. Callieres on the left, com- 
manded one line : on tiie right, Vandreuil led the other. Fron- 
tignac, surrounded by his aids and volunteers, preceded by cannon, 
was borne in an arm-chair. After a hard day's march, the army, in 
all the pomp of glorious war, entered the first village, and found no- 
thing but ashes and the bodies of two Frenchmen, recentiy put to death. 

Here, Charlevoix says, were seen, in ruins, the remains of a fort, 
which had been a parallelogram with four bastions, surrounded by 
a double palisade, which, if the English who built it had occupied 
with cannon, they might have stopped the progress of the Cotint 

The next day, some squaws who had been captives, and of course 
slaves to the Onondagas, escaped to the French ; and a soldier who 
bad been prisoner to the Oneidas, arrived with proposals of peace 
firom that nation. The general replied, that they must submit, and be 
removed within the French colony, ^3 the only terms he would grant. 

The army remained upon the ruins of Onondaga that day, and 
the following, Callieres, with 700 men marched for the Oneida 
country, witii orders to burn the villages, cut the corn, and, in case 
of submission, receive six chiefs as hostages. If resisted, to put 
all to the sword. 

While he was absent upon this errand, a young Frencnman who 
had been a captive with the Onondagas, escaped, and joined his 

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Mf WKk » L • -w 



Piracy — Lord Bettamonfj Govemfnir — Robert Livingston — WiU 
liam Kidd completes his crew at New York — Turns pirate — Tle- 
turns to America f and is secured by Bellamont — Treasure — J5c/- 
lamont at the head of the democracy — His council, at the time of 
his arrival — Progress of the city — New City Hail, in Wall street 
— French plans of conquest in America — Bellamont claims the 
Iroquois as subjects to England and New York — Canadian affairs 
— Death of Bellamont. 

1697 Piracy, though not in so good repute as in ancient 
times, was certainly not looked upon with the same 
horrour and contempt during the government of Fletcher, as 
it now justly receives. Private armed vessels, licensed and unli- 
censed, roved the seas, and robbed at all convenient opportunities. 
Many of these free sailors had English commissions from James II, 
and some from William III : many had no permission from any one 
to commit violence or murder for emolument. The ships of all 
nations were rifled or burnt, not even sparing those of Great Britain. 
Many of the colonial ports received these freebooters and shared in 
the spoils ; and New York, under tiie administrations which ruled 
from 1693 to 1698, had a full share of the gainful trade — the men 
in office, from Fletcher downwards, affording protection, and the 
traders buying, selling, and fitting out the corsairs with all they 

kichard Coote, Earl of Bellamont, was appointed in the year 
1696 to succeed Fletcher, as Govemour of New York. Massa* 
chusetts and New Hampshire were likewise submitted to his 
government; and he appears to have been chosen, m a great mea* , 
sure, as a person well qualified to heal the disorders in America, and^ 
to put down the pirates. Although appointed in 1696, he did not 
receive his commission until 1697 ; and it was April 2, 1698, 
before he arrived at New York.* 

* In 1686» Livingston reftnmed from England, where be had become a ftieod of 
Bellamont He brouf bt witb bim a nepbew, Robert LavingitoBy Janiov* He ao-. 


Antecedent to bis embarkation^ tbe eail had made 
qoainted witb tbe state of the colonies he was d e ali iied to nib { 
Robert Livingston, the violent opponent of Leisler, 
and from him as well as other sources. Lord BeUamoot 
condition of the Province of New York. What had 
views and opinions of Livingston, since the ex cculi on of 
and his son-in-law, does not appear ; but cerlainlf hm 
selC on his return to America, as the friend of Beikmont, 
opponent of his former associates of the Albany Coovendoa 
coondl attached to Nicholson, Sloughter, Ingokbhj, mod 

When the earl received his commission, William IH aida dal 
be thought him a man of resolution and integrity, and widi dHSt 
qualities, more likely than any other, to put a stop to the growdiaf 
piracy. Bellamont procured prools of the injustiee done to LeidHt 
and of the violent conduct of the aristocracy generallyt as wcB ai 
the govemour's council, up to the time of his appcuntment* tnm 
young Leisler ; who, with becoming energy, appeared in Ei^aaii, 
and, by tbe aid of tbe earl, finally obtained some indemniScaiioa 
fiir his frther's murder, by a reversal of the attainder and m l e it s n 
tion to the family of the property which the fitction had sdaed. It 
is possible that the truths represented by this young man might fam 
induced Livingston to side with him, as well as tne Earl of Beik- 
mont, in urging his suit for redress. 

These proceedings in England raised the hopes of the Lob* 
rians, and excited the fears of their oppressors. A small but de* 
termined minority was gained in the House of Assembly, ahb^"^ 
Fletcher used every means to gain that body, even to appearing ai 
an electioneerer at the time of the people's choice. No ipcciea of 
bribery and corruption can be too flagrant to ascribe to Vlelcher 
and Nicholls, men who received brib^ from pirates for tbe pvolee* 
tion given them ; and the apprehensions of Bayard, Van Cortlandli 
and their friends, would make them equally active in aecoiiiig a 
majority of the Assembly for their shield from the vengeance of 
those whom they had persecuted. Thus distracted by two pardes 
of the most violent description, was the state of the province at the 
arrival of the new govemour, who came confirmed in tbe opinion 
that his predecessor, and the friends whose counsel he followed, in 
respect to Leisler and his family, were corrupt in morak and 

Fletcher. Mr. Sed^ick says, " od Combarj's irtivil, he 
4h« eanse of the Leislerians" — just the reverse. Combarr restored Lnriaf- 
ilni't eftatet. LiTuifstoo resided oo his estate in 1711. ' Ub manonal pn- 
vBtfja were confirmed bv the king in 1715: it oricinalljr compiis^d Qpwsidior 
WWO acres The settle'nent of the Palatines took from it 6,000 acres, m HiO. 
na fW ro 13^000 acres to his yonnfeat son, Robert, the graadfrtber of thai 
•■■^ — "^ dodfwkk's LiviQfrton. 

OAFTAnt KIDD. 831 

The English ministry were so deeply impressed with the neces* 
sity of suppressing piracy, that Lord Bellamont was encouraged to 
solicit that a frigate might be fitted out. for tlie purpose; but the 
war with France requiring all the naval force of Great Britain, the 
request was declined : however, a proposition to purchase and arm 
a private ship for this service, met encouragement so far, that the 
Duke of Shrewsbury, Lord Chancellor Somers, the Earls of Rom* 
ney and Oxford, with others, became sharers in the enterprize with 
Livingston and Bellamont ; the latter taking upon himself the 
equipment of the vessel. 

There happened, at that time, to be in London a man of the 
name of William Kidd, who had distinguished himself as a captain 
of a privateer against the French, and particularly in the West In* 
dies. He had, in one instance, done service with his privateer, by 
aiding government in a perilous attack upon the French. Living- 
ston knew him as a brave sea captain, and recommended him to 
Bellamont to command ; who, accordingly, engaged him, and he 
sailed in the Adventure galley, of thirty guns, with sixty men, 
for New York, commissioned as a privateer against the French, and 
to take and seize pirates in the Indian seas, and elsewhere.* He 
took his departure from Plymouth in April, 1696, and arrived at 
New York in July following. Here he was at home, knew the 
customs of the place, the characters of the rulers, and was received 
cordially, and completed his crew to 155, who shipped to go to 
Madagascar in pursuit of pirates. 

KidcL, now in command of a fine ship, bountifully equipped, and 
manned like a frigate, soon determined to follow the track of the 
heroes who had gone before him. He promised his crew to load 
the ship with gold and silver, and, no doubt, he found his licentious 
followers ready to second him in any mode of obtaining the meant 
of evading the laws and pampering their appetites. The sailors of 
this period generally looked forward to nothing more than sensual 
gratification : the behaviour which ensures promotion was unknown 
to them. Such men were easily led, from pursuing pirates for plun** 
der, to becoming pirates in the hope of sharing more largely in spoilr 

In the summer of 1697 he lay in wait for the Mocha fleet-— made 
an attack upon them, but found their convoy too strong, and sheered 
o£ On the coast of Malabar he plundered many vessels of various 
nations, Indians, Moors, and Christians ; and having broke through 
the laws, and become liable to punishment, if he could not eluoe 
theia, cruelty followed as part oif the character of the robber. He 

* Kidd wMto bftve one ifth •f the proc«edi of the eipedMeB t waA Omf Jortict 
Smidi says, that UvioeitDB w«i hit •eoaritgr. The DoblenMn of the nlnitCiy «»> 
btrked £6000. I do not find what ihare Lord Bellamont ' 


imitited the conquerors of Mexico and Pern, bjr 
discover their wealth. He imitated other cooqnemfB faj 
oo the coast, bumin; the houses and murdering the i 
He was pursued by the Portuguese with two ships of 
them and escaped. 

Aroo.i; the vessseb captured bj Kidd was one caDcd the 
dagh Merchant," commanded bj an EngUshman. The 
offered 30»000 rupees ransom, which was refused ; and the 
were sold in such port? as Kidd knew were good marfcea 
For the capture of Captain Wright and the ^^Quedagh 3 
die pirate was aiterwanl< tried and executed. 

Amonz the manv murders committed br this hero, be 
for kiliinz WiUiana Moore, wbich is made a great point oC ii 
halladi of the dav ; but, as appears on the trnl, the death of 
mutinous pirate wa< not intended by his captain, who stmck a 
with a bucket, which, as was said, caused death. 

At a place where pirates rendezvoused, Kidd excbanen 
Adventure galley for a ship that had been the Mocfaa 
and, after a variety of robberies, returned to America ; bai 
that Fletcher and the other friends of piracy were do 
1695 the ruleri b New York, he appears to have passed op the 
Sound, and depoesiced a part of his trea«ure oo Ganhao'i 
Isbnd. After several divisions of plunder, the crew dispersed. 
Kidd venturing tii appear in Boston in the drem of a £ne 
aad. probablv. witii in aA?'jra€d name, was met bv Lore Beli 
made prisoner, and arter the occurrence of 5on:e circu 
which delayed the wi-he* of the Eiri. as I shall naeaooot 
he WIS sent to Enziand for rrial. The treasure buriec ai Gardaer s 
Island wxs discovered and drllvereci !o B^llamoc:. A scbeduia 
of xbtc goid and jeveLs reinaliis In the Linds of ibe i^eirs of Mr. 
Gardner to this div.* 

The kcovI<tlr« :ha: a pordoo of Kldd's trexsure 'md tjeen boned 
oo Gi:^L"<r's IsL^'*d : that his compacions ziC. shared t^ tn^othim a: aifenia: Lmnr« ; tha: other pL^aie:s izileswcc :be seas and 
returs^c jo A=^rjca Tviih the zold for which rhiey had excha2;ied uie 
coe^ of 3er:ha::ts rjCo^ed on cne oceaz. all tecoec oo crsax thac 
jevvrjsh eic.'.eoi^c'^ -arrJcL ^iniLLaurd iaiics of search^u^ iner ziiiiem 
weilui cc evefT cor: of o--r i-ea ccslh. izo raric^umx oc uie i&es 
•f cbe 6csicc vhi^:^ batd b<-r=. 'J^ie rsmz-c*. :c v^g^w*:'?^ eoixcec in or 

Lcni ^lAzi^cct irrrnec cc r* t*i c^I Aprl. !•:.>?• tsd wim 


in the Earl's leners, his cousin. Bellamont likewise brought with 
him his countess, whom he had married ere she was yet twelve 
yeers of age, and as her family name was Nanfan, I am induced 
to suppose that the lieutenant-irovcrnour was her relative. 

Although the enemies of die family, whose cause the govemour 
had espoused, were in othce at the time of his arrival, (the councO 
being composed of l^hillipse. Van Cortlandt, Bayard, Mienville, 
Smith, NicholU Pinhorne, Willet and Lawrence,) and although 

the assemblv led bv James Grahame, had a .majoritv of those 

• • If « 

who joined in persecuting Leisler, and although William Meiritt 
was the mayor of the city, ap[K>inted by Fletcher, and James Gi»» 
hmme, recorder, with probably a majority in the common council^ 
who coincided in opinion with tlie dominant party, yet I find that 
several days before Bellamont arrived, powder was ordered for 
saluting the new s^vernoiu- when he should enter the harbour : and 
two davs after his commission was read, the mavor and aldermen 
voted an address to him, wherein huniility and professions of obe> 
dience abound. They pray him to heal the divisions in the colonTf ; 
and a (ev days after invite him to a public dinner, apiK>inting two 
aldermen, and two assistants, as a connnittee to make a bill of &re> 
and empower them, ^^ for the effectual doing thereof, to call to (heir 
assistance, such cooks as thev shall think necessarv.** There can 
be no doubt., but that the party in power trembled, and were con- 
science struck. It is to be obsened, that Heatlicote and Young, 
who had been advanced to the council in 109:?, were not now of 
that body : neither does the name of Peter J:?chuyler ap{)ear. 

Notwithstanding the pressure from war iuid other calamitieSy 
it tending the " grievous law,'' which took firom the city the mono- 
lK)ly of boltinij: dour and baking biscuit, and *•*• placed at ever]r 
planter's door the pri^'ilesre^' of bottinn: and baking, still BellanK>nt 
found the toun extending and improving. An English church 
had been commenced, and was opened for publick worship in one 
year. This was Trinit}- church, which must have touched upon, 
or removed, part of the old wall. A pew was appropriated to the 
common council, and hither the mayor appointed by the gover- 
nour, the alderman and assistants repaired annually on the 14th of 
October, to hear the Reverend Mr. Vesey, and his English succee^ 
sors, preach a sermon, though for a long time many of these di^ 
nitaries were Dutch ; alter attending Episcopal service, they m 
prm ession marched to the fort, waited on the governour, and again 
nnurning to the City Hall, took the requisite oaths of office. » A 
City Hall bad been detenniueil upon, to be built at the end of 
Broad Street, north of the old wall, and the former Stadt House 
frontin:: Coenlies Slip, had been dooiyed to destruction — the land 
sold, and the rubbish reroovecK The new building which of course 
destroyed anotlier portion of the wall, ii'us completed diuing Lord 

VOL. 1. 30 


Lidluiiiuiit'^ administration, and the stones of the former butiot 
oi \sdlU un which the pallisades were fixed, were used for this ptM 
Muiki ill wiiich were the halU of ju5tice, the jails and dungeons of 
ibc ciiv. for Qianv vear«. The Cit%' Hall then built, was on tbe tatt 
of iht; uow buildinf: Custom House of the United States, and beinc 
tiuisbed while Bellamont and Nanfan were the idols of tbe people« 
ti)eir arms, with the kind's, decorated the front. We sbnll see ibe 
fiue of these decorations as we pursue the history of tbe city.* 

Previous to the peace of Kyswick, the French monarch had deier- 
wned upon the conquest of New Enirland, and for this pnrpoK 
tbe Count FrontisTiac, had orders to keep the French troops in Ca- 
mda in readiness. He, however, remonstrated, and repiescflSed 
that the French force had bener be directed a&rainst New York, 
which would deliver Canada from the much dreaded Iroquois, who 
impeded all the cn^at desicms of France, on the continent of Ame- 
rica. His plan was similar to that of the English, in otir rcrohi- 
lutionan* contest — a naval and militar\~ force to take New York 
city, and penetrate the province by tlie Hudson ; while the aronr 
of Canada, by the way of Lake Champlain, conquered the north 
and establi-^hed ihein<elves at Albany. But the plans of the Court 
of Versailles prevailed ; the MarquL« of Nesmond, with an anna- 
ment, was to take Boston, and drive the Enriish from Newfound- 
land. The old Count was to be brought bv sea to the assistance 
of the Marquis. All thL« done, the united forces were to take New 
York, e!*tablish that place as a French city, and then subdue tbe 
province. But the fleet and the Marquis Nesmond returned to France 
without firing a trun, and Count Fronti^ac, was not called upon, 
to aid in tlie conquest of New England, and nothing of importance 
was undertaken airainst the Indians. 

Colden, in his HL^ior^* of the Five Nations, states, that the Iro- 
quois having heird of the peace concluded between England and 

* WImd the ritv hid grovrn *n rre-it i* to hitr«t thifbound* ofth** p«limIoed wwH. 
(which wms «ituat<rd wh^re Wnil Street i« now built. ) the hou«<-ii begmn to be e re ct e d 
os'^T a inar«li on th«r l^t nver •idr. from th** llilfMoon. a littie fort «t tlkt Vtrmh 
nation of the ui]t«ade«. tf» the *itf> of th«- :)r»*«« rit Fiiltun M^trki't. ThU manth wm 
bounded on the wp«t by the hich crnuo'l of (toMrn If ill. and wa« called ibe ll§. 
being an abbreviation of ^aJl^y : and from it» owner it wan denominated dMcc* 1'^. 
•oon chanjred br tlit Kn^li-h'into " Smith'* Klv " Now. dunnje Lord Bellantotft 
government, the .VafWc Pmdje. or " Maiden Ijin^." whirh rnuinenr'tl on tbe bigk 
groond. or at " the Broad wa v." wsu rontinii«*d throiifh the I Ijf. and a * idjp" fennad 
which wan called the " CoanieM** Slip." in rompliment to the irovemoor* Udv. 
Ibe CoonteM of Bellamont. At thi* •hp. wa* aA*-rward« pUc«-d the FIv Market 

Tbe Golden Bergk, a* the Uatth '-ailed it. i« now onlv rem^mber^ bv GoM Ptreet . 
bol " Cliff »treet" reuim the name Dirk lea dfr (Jiff: and "John itreet." apart 
of which w«pi called "Ciolden \\i\\" ha# *tjll it> oriirmaj denomination. demcd from 
Jtkm Hmrpndimfk, who i^vr to the Dutrh roncreiration the ground on which tbe 
North church u built, and who«c e«cntcht;«n ii ihtra pfcterved. 


France, in February, 1698, pursued their hunting near Lake On- 
tario, but were atucked by the Algonkins, at the instigation of Fron- 
tignac, and suffered some loss when unprepared for resistance. 

In April, the Earl of Bellamont despatched Colonel John Schuy- 
ler,* and a Dutch Clergyman of the name of Dellius, with tidings 
of the peace of Ryswick to Montreal. Father Charlevoix sajrs, 
that the Earl's letter, was dated the 22nd of April, and reached the 
French Govemour in May. Bellamont with these tidings sent all 
the French prisoners, taken by the English of New York, and pro- 
mised to order the Iroquois to deliver such as they held in capti- 
vity : he required of the govemour of Canada, all subjects of the king, 
held by the French as prisoners, whether Christiatis or Indians. 

The count would not acknowledge that the Iroquois were sub- 
jects of New York or England, and insisted upon treating with them 
as people subject to France, who voluntarily considered the French 
King as their father. 

He required that the French detained among them should be 
brought to Canada, and threatened hostilities against the Indians, if 
they did not comply. 

The earl says, " I have sent tliis letter by Colonel Schuyler, 
member of the king's council for this province, with M. Dellius 
and two other gentlemen : they bring the prisoners which were 
held by our Indians." He doubts not but Frontignac will release 
all the subjects of the king in his power, as well Christians as In- 
dians ; that all amenities of peace may take place, etc. etc. Fron- 
tignac replied, that he would exchange or release the English and 
Dutch prisoners in his power ; that he never refused to make ex- 
changes during w^r, notr^ithstanding the ill treatment several French 
prisoners had experienced from the English, and the agreements 
violated by them ; that he is persuaded the govemour will not suffer 
Captain Flebusteir to be keep in chains and treated with 
extreme rigour any longer. He further said to Bellamont, 
that he could not comprehend, that he had charged the Messrs. S. 
and D. to demand the Iroquois prisoners in New France in exchange 
for Frenchmen ; that these Iroquois were, since last autumn, in 
treaty with him, and had left a hostage to guarantee their 
word: they are, he said, children disobeying their father, and 
had been under the domination of the King of France, before the 
English became masters of New York ; that his orders on this 
point were precise, and he must obey them. Nevertheless, this 

* Charlevoix seemi to comider this Colonel Sehuyler, u th« celebrated Peter^ 
the grandfather of Philip, to famoos in our reTolationanr conteit; andthii ideinwnw 
to be conveyed by the expretdon of Bellamont, which makea Colontl Sdmyttr % 
Bember of the council ^ •> 


ibould no: interrupt their zood iaie!l:^enre ; th^ he haii uk-ra 
inea^^cre^ lo hiniier the liiiiiiTiii liorr.iciiiated with ibe French irrjn 
commitiinr ho-iilitie* :;,---Iri-i i:.r En::lL*h i^ulemeiiu, ic- " Me*enw 
S- and D.," -ay? i*;v J»>Tiiiii- " dej>Aned- charmed with ihe r«:*c- 
lion tbev hail ii:*-t w :L:." S>ne IniLlan* «oon aftiirr inionxi-rii Froc- 
dznar tiwi BrLlniiioni hii i.'ilii a sjoa: r ouncil with the chieL? oi* 
the Five Nation*: ii.v. t:.- Moi.iwk? had told him that th^v sere 
the nia.»!er» ol" ij:r.-ir «f.„. :;r.d iiad h* •=-n lon^ bel'ore the Ec^***2 
appeared : ar.d iirni Si::?.:. :r: lWi[i.::\^ pre-ence. all treats they 
faaii sijned : iK* y. h'^-'v- vr:. r«rrim;**:.i the jovemour that they womii 
hold liie Iri.:i.i;i? ir:»=-v hsti a.- t-r>«., untii Frontimac j?eci ba<ii 
all the Iri»f{i:oi.« h- i.vid. To l.'.s. I>eLaiiior.r objectt*i : an*'' :^ 
quired the pri*or.*-> t^ i,,- pJi: in :.> :j -r.ii-. to he coudiKte,! :•> Mfl*- 
Ireal : tr.a: he iT«';./oitc'l aii ].-;-:!!/. -« -sriiri*! lvt Fr-rrich : b;-* « 
lo their IntiJAT. a^:.-_-?i. t:i--v \*ore *: llvnv — b^ii no: v».iii. tie Ii- 
dian.^ li*--:;.:*:::-!:.^': :r- ::.»• Frcr.- !i c*-!* : v. Ir ■:v;s4 *aii^, the Ir«>;;i:'t» 
lereed to ji\e IW-.ii.iV'»:.: Ujeir prL*oriT>. rut .iiii :t«j: Lx L::e rine. 
Fronii.aiar ^a-A mil I'lt-.iii.-oj: "nL-heii !•-» e«:dh!:?h liie r*j* erti^^rr 

lo diviiie ::ier:i. t •■ re; >-'-:.\nj I'.at i:;»"- Enj-L^i: vi.L»he'l :o "r-ecor.r 
fna^ter!' Mi":..e^- •»:■.::". :..•: i--r-Mn?-. F<>r ::*> p-irt>«>-e- he i::^;j=c 
them :o ri>r..- in >!• >..:-••-.:!. i...: -• ..■ ^i* 'sre::> amor.r then:. Sjcie 
canie tM M'tri-j-e:!. ^*:i-r-- :..* v were i"-:-a>:ed 'ind reuir.ed hv carwsci 
a Inn J Tir.». 

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niv tuukls ; ind ibe Indians haw ytromised to send them to ine.*^ 
He 5^ Ss U hostilities do not cease on the pan of the Canadiaiis, 
ibey must take the consequences: *^the Indians will put in mr 
hands the prisoner? they ha\e taken dunn^r the wiir« (ukhv than a 
hundred*) pnmded, on your |^art. you releas>e their countiymeii.** 
He wishes the cminf s do:emiination« and« in the meantime^ sends 
four Fienchmen, vho« as he savs^ ^^oiu* Indians hare hiouirht to 
Albany ;** that the ln>quois tell hinu that Frontipiac had 
Mot \%xifd to the up^>er cantons^ that if they do noi come 
intt» Canada in forty-livo days« })e nrould march into their countiy 
with fire and s«r<vtl« — •* 1 semi, to-ilaw niv iieutenant^ovemour, 
with lepilar kini:*s trooj^s, to op^x>«e any hostilities you may under- 
take ; and 1 \^ ill ann my £x>\ emnient to iepuU>e you ; and make 
reprisals for any damai^^ you may do our Imlians,*^ 

The Jesuit historian tells his leadet^ that this hi^rh tone of Bella* 
months indicates his want of nower — the English alwtys do 9a» 
when they know they cannot sustain their pretensions. FncHitieiiac 
replied, that tho kin^ ilieir mastoid, had agreed to settle their 
boundaries: Fnu>ce only wishes u> brini: back her childien by 
kindness^ if sIh^ can — if not. by severity. He says« the lioquoia 
bekMu: to France, anti leject the dominion of Enirland. 

During this conti\nvr?y» Lord Bellamont visited Albany to canj 
his point with the Iroqm^: and be<i>ie the aiiair w^as brought to 
any conclusion, the French pc^vemour died, at the ape of seveniy- 
ei£ht« on the i^^th of November, 16^S, 

Doctiv Cadwallader Colden ji^-es this version of the vSaix : — 
Bellamont or^ienNi the liv>qi:ois to bnni: the French prisoners, who 
were u> be in^^en up* according: to the tieat>- of Ryswick, as captives 
held by English subiecis, to Albany, there to be tieliveietl toCooot 
Fncvitifnac^ as so many prisoners to the arms of England. The 
French Govemour of Canada would ikw allow this — as it placed 
the Iroquois in the lirfit of subjrects to Great Britain, He insisied 
that the Imlians should hrini: il)e French prisiHiers to Montreal^and 
ti^ere deliver them as their captives. He thivateneil to continue 
hostilities against the li\iqui>is, if they did not comply. ^ He further 
insistetl that ail the French Indians must be included in the peace. 
This last, the lroqui>is lefusetl, sayinc that they would be levenged 
on the t.>rTsw^s and Alionkins. They were embineivd ai^ainst tbt 
latter, jvwticuhriy lor the death of their hunter?, who ihouirht t 
selves seciued by the peace of Kyswick. '*Must //' said a 
riour of the lioqucus. who w^as killed on this occasion, " Must I^ 
who have made the earth tremble, die by the hands of children?* 

Bellamont. hearing that Frontiirnac was preparinc: all his power 
for the chastisement of the conledeiates, sent as we have seeiii Co* 
looel John Schuyler, with the Duirh minister, DeUius. lo CaBada» 
notinin^ him of the peace concluded in Europe, and of his deter- 
mination to uphold the Iroquois. 


ke skosU cooskkr k the rionr mf hb torenuneni* iki find out 
fif ji J iP l ID necoodle ptitr $pini« mod 10 provide apdi^ ibe dbuse 
of deemiisw lie nKooKnended an incmtse of suc^bet^ in dtt 
m9senbhr« &v«n 19 30 ^\ The opponents of the tonamour had* 
bow^T^er* pr^rmiled in the eWiioos of tius mss^enddy. 

A neir assietni^y attervmnis met, aind. mhiioucii it vis cosi- 
po»d of tbe lhend$ of Leiskr, a$ opposied to tiie JutistocnMrr vhicli 
ind dourisbed under Saout&ter* In^oid^y, mnd Fle^ecber* vec diqr 
ekose James Gimbune their speaker; but Abtmhun tnwnnefiieur, 
vhe hnd adhered to Le«sler« and who bad been charged vich tbe 
of murder and treason bv the enemies of Letsier* vna$ nov a 
lor Onn^e counrr^ and an acdre^ influential man widi tbe 

Acts v^effv passsied lor indemninini: thoste vho vnene exee|«ed 
of tbe i>i»ef«l pomioiu of 16^1 : az^ainst pirtres: lor tbe ^iHileineflC 
af MiSKHune's estate ; lor pre:$«eatin£ the i^>Te^MNir and his ben* 
writh ;! 1«^X^ and ;£^MH) : lor conticuiac t2>e rerenue six Tears 
': and lor re:pilazizi£^ ejections. 

About tills time« the niends and adhemsxs of Janoib Leisler« 
e it i ncied their ^«en5e of the bjjttstice that had Keen done to him and 
MilKMune^ by lemovinir their lemaiits fitwn ttie piace in iriucb tber 
bad beeniaieffted. bke maieiKtors;. aner tiie anocsous muider that 
bad been committed by executii^ them« in a mocl^fT of judicial 
proceiMfiniFSL They actraidindy disinaened their eomns* and vich 
Cray mark of rMf»ct« buried them as maityi^ to the cause of tbe 
peopiev in tbe DiMcb Church, t^arden Sneet. 

1 find as one of tbe treasons pren by LfOid Beikmont« kMrranoriag 
Ba[]ranl ttnm tbe oaunciL amoni: cbarjes of a moie criencHis BanHe> 
** dttt be bad adiised the printiiur a scandaiotts asd m^|icioiis pam- 
pUeLcandeda lemer 6ora a c^t^knian in Nev York/'in arhicb« and 
in a pampbkt printed at Bosacwk it iras endeavoured 10 cast ererf 
species of odium upon Letsier, and tbe rmciiutioQ he e fcca w L 
And ater Beihmowt^s decesase^ and the preralence under Conib«nr^ 
of tfaa ari^octaiiek faction. 1 find amonr the ^* heads thtt com- 
phifted against tiie Eari of Beikmont in hb j^Temment of Neir 
Yailu*^ ibe ibikminc* ^ Ha permined. if iKtt direcfled« tlie takii^ 
up at midnicht, with stound of trumpet and drums* the bones of 


FrMB AdbMMt TVmh» M mjemi iomI i^mvh Veoter. rMn 




Leisler and Milbourne, who had been buried in their own gnwti 
near nine vearst and to lav in state some weeks, and aAerwards to 
be publicly buried in the Dutch church, against the consent of the 
officers thereof, attended by a thousand men in arms, and a mob of 
1500 men, chiefly Dutch," to the ffreat terrour '* of the principal in- 
habitants." And hii« Lord.ship is charged with bavin? '^ honoured 
the funeral, as it is said, by looking: out of a window as it passed 

The reader will divert this, of the exaggeration of party, and it 
gives a picture of the times, and the people, not otherwise obtained. 

According to a work published in 1699, entitled " British Em- 
pire in America," New York then consisted of 1,000 bonMflu 
That the chief defence of the city consii^ted of the fort, and tfan 
two batteries had been erected — one on each side of the Narrows. 

Dellius, the clers:\'man who had been employed by Bellamoot as 
a messeriirer to Count Fronticnac, concerning the Indians, had been 
a commissioner for their affairs, and had. Chief Justice Smith says, 
fraudulentiv obtained Indian deeds for an immense tract of land — 
a irrant for which, he found means to procure from Fletcher : and 
Nicholas Bavard had likewise obtained a grant for another immense 
tract of countr}*. Pinhome, with as.sociates, obtained a patent for 
two miles on each side the Mohawk river, for fifty miles in extent 
These extrava^rant patent^, grained without any shadow of adeqoaie 
compensation to the province, were recommended to the lords jns- 
tic<:s a.-* beini: vacated, and were accordinirlv vacated bv law. Del- 
litis was siis{Mn(ir(l from the ministn*. Thus Bellamont, by undo- 
inif tile corrupt practices of his predecessors, opened a field for real 
settlers in these countries on ad\anta£;eous terms for the province, 
and restore^ their ri::hts to the Indians. 

Colonel Schuyler anti others had been parties in these im- 
mense patenu with Dellius, hut had withdrawn their claims, 
indignant at the fraud by which the errants had been ob- 
tained. Dellius, Pinhome. and one Bancker. under pretence 
of a deed of trust for the >fohawks, obtained a transfer in fee 
for UieniKelves, and i^ot a patent from Fletcher, reservinir a nominal 

rent of a few skins, to he paid to the irovemment.* 
1700 The abilities, firmness, an<l elcirant manners of Lord 
Bt'Ilaiiiont, roniliiniiij: witli strict honestv and enli<rhtened 
desiire to promote the welfare of the province, raised the oppressed 
Leislerians, and went far to convince the aristocratical faction, or at 
least :tuch of them as were accessible to just and bono tumble feel- 

* SteTbonas F. Gordon't hittonr. prefixed to hii ezeellcat G«x«tecr vf New 



ings, of the errours they had committed and caused in their oppo- 
nents. The Leislerians were the people — the democracy oi the 
province— ^ and they found an efficient champion in Lord Bellamont, 
who, at the same time, was the friend and champion of the honest 
part of the aristocracy, or gentry — "the people of figure" — the 
determined foe to the dishonest, selfish, supercillious intnguerst who 
had governed his unworthy predecessors. 

M. de Callieres succeeded to the government of Canada upon 
the death of Frontignac. Charlevoix, tells us, that the Iro* 

2uois sent deputies to Montreal to condole for the loss of their 
kther— or to gain intelligence. Callieres grants them a truce of 
sixty days, but insists upon their giving up their French prisoners. 
The new Canadian govemour, attributing the hostile disposition of 
the Indians to Bellamont, sent secret emissaries to Onondaga, to 
counteract the govemour of New York. The consequence is a 
visit of two chiefs to Montreal, who announce a general deputation 
from the Iroquois in July 1700 : and on the 2d of that month, two 
Onondagas, and four Senecas, appear, who are treated as ambassar 
dors from the confederacy, and much state and ceremony used by the 
French to gain them. Feasting and presents of course. 

These ambassadors inform Callieres of a visit made to Onon- 
daga by Peter Schuyler, as an agent of Lord Bellamont, to per- 
suade the Iroquois not to send deputies to Canada, and to prevent 
these six chiefs from coming. They, however* complain of the 
Ottawas, or French Indiana, who had, since the peace of Ryswick, 
and when the Iroquois thought themselves sxscure in hunting, at- 
tacked and killed several of their men and viromen. They demand 
that Callieres should send three officers with them on their return, 
to convince the nation that he desires peace. This is complied 
with, and a great council being held at Onondaga, a French priest 
harrangued the Indians, telling them that " Ononthio is their father, 
Coriaer only their brother ;" the Jesuit missionaries love them, and 
France wishes peace for their welfare. 

Other French agents tallc to them in the same strain, and en- 
deavour to persuade the Indians that the power of France is to be 
dreaded ; but the fatherly love of the nation is boundless. But 
an Englishman, sajs Charlevoix, accompanied by an Onondaga, 
arrived at the council, who tells them from Bellamont, not to listen 
to the French ; that he in ten or twelve days expects to meet the 
Five Nations at Albany. This lordly tone, the Jesuit says, dis- 
pleased the Iroquois ; and the missionary increased their discontent, 
by telling them, that the English treated them as if they were sub* 
jects — tbBi to avoid slavery they must be reconciled to their firther. 

One of the French officers went to the Seneca nation to recover 
the prisoners. Liberty is given to the Frenchmen to return ; but 
the greater number being adopted, and pleased with the savage life, 

VOL. I. 31 


Ib lereUiiic the ibrt, ii %$ said that the tablet, wkitk, with its inacriptioi] 

Jilacad in front of the first church of New York, (built by Ki^, in J 64 
bond and removed to the Garden-street church. It is likewise 9mid tl 
BiMns of the Earl and Countess of Bellamont were found, in leaden ec 
■ihrer plates engraved ; and that the coffins were removed to St. Panl'e c 
■hrer plates deposited in Gardner BaJcer'$ Museum, and on that prop^ 
d is pos e d oi^ they were sold, and are lost 

John F. Watson, Esq., in his book called " Historic Tales of Oldc 
says, that an old gentleman told him, " he saw the old fort cut down," ai 
leaden coffins of Lord Bellamont and lady were found, and removed to 
dwreh. Thb person is not here stated to have sssii these coffins. In a i 
on the same subject, deposited by Mr. Watson in the New York Hietor 
ty's library, he sa^s: " in taking down the ancient Dutch chapel vault, 
to tlie remains of Lord and Lady Bellamont, in leaden coffins, knovm 
escmeheons and inscriptions on silver plates. These coffins, with tb 
several other persons, were taken by Mr. Pintard, who told me, to 
chnieh-ground, where they all rest now, in one common grave ; that 
plates were taken by Mr. Vanzandt, for a museum ; but he dying, tlx 
bands whidi, with much bad taste, converted them into spoons." — 'nim u 
in Mr. Watson's book, above mentioned. 

Mr. John F. Watson has told us what was told him, and mach ciiiic 
lor which we are verv much obliged to him. The facts elicited by him 
short virits to New York, (and even the errours consequent upon ao b 
amination,^ have led to further investigation, and much that is now loio 
anhsequentiy be discovered, must be credited to his ardent and peraoTer 
knowledge. Now, any person ma^ see at this time, (1839,) that there u 
with the New York Historical Society, part of a coffin and the remsuna 
plate, much decayed, on which neither arms nor inscription are to be aeei 
Mr. Pintard had reason to believe, from engravina to be seen in 1790 
remains of the coffin and plate of Govemour Beuamont. There heir 
plate, contradicts, in some measure, the above story, told to Mr. Watsoi 
plate being deposited in a state of decay, with the New York Historic 
contradicts the notion of the two plates being melted up for spoona. J 
well known that Lady Bellamont did not die until thirty-six years aftt 
and at a time when her eldest son, Nanfan, was Elarl of Bellamont, it in 
ble that her corpse was, in 1737, brought over sea to be interred und 
Dutch church, in the fort of New York. 

It may be asked, why was the English Govemour of New York bni 
Dutch church, when the English church, called Trinity, had been recentl 
This might either have been by his desire, and to show his detoRtation oi 
and adhesion to the Leislerians, or, by the influence of the latter, aAei 

I am willing to believe, that the bones of Bellamont rest in St. Paa 
yard, (if not subsequently removed in the usual mode of transfer,) ai 
parts of a coffin and plate, now to be seen, were devoted to his remains 



Continuation o/KidcCs affair — Persecution rf Robert LivingiUmr-^ 
Reversal of the cUtainder of Jacob Letslevy and restoration (^pro^ 
perty to the family — Lord Combwry^s family and character'^ 
Bayard^s trial and condemnation — Reprieve — Relief by the arri- 
val of Comburyy and reversal of the judgement against Aim— 
Nanfany and the assembly of 1702. 

1701 The adventures, piracy, trial and execution, of William 
Kidd, made so great a noise in America and England at 
this time, besides involving the good &me of many English nobles, 
that I must devote a page to the subsequent story of this unhappy 

The Tory party in England endeavouring to destroy the Whig 
ministry, charged them with abetttng Kidd in his piracies, and shar- 
ing the plunder. These gentlemen, as has been seen, had in con- 
junction with Bellamont and Robert Livingston, fitted out the Ad- 
venture Galley, and Kidd, on Livingston's recommendation, had 
been placed in command. 

When Bellamont seized Kidd in Boston, he imprisoned him, 
and wrote to the ministry for a king's ship, to send the pirate for 
trial to England. The Rochester was dispatched for the service. 

* The traditional place of resort for Kidd and his crew, was at Sachem's Head, 
a rockj peninsola, jutting from Long Island into the sound, near the town of 
Guilford. Stories of treasures found in this neighbourhood, are believed bj manj, 
and some of them asserted upon good, or what ought to be ^ood authority. Colo- 
nel Stone, in his Commercial Advertiser, asserts that within the last eighteen 
months, a pot, containing (1,800, was ploughed up in a field upon Martha's Vine- 
jard. The Thimble Islands, near Sachenf s Head, were asserted to have been the resort 
of Kidd. The largest of these, bears his name. They call another " Money Islaiid," 
and it has been dug most industriously. Upon Kidd's Island is a cave, where it is 
said the pirates us^ to sleep. On the &ce of one of the rocks, are cut his initials, 
R. K., which are soberly given as testimony that Kidd frequented the place, and 
cut these letters. Unfortunately, the pirate's name was William, and not Robert 
Every thing about this island is called Kidd's — a hole in the rock is his ponch- 
bowl, and a flat rook is his table. 

There is a proclamation extant in the East Jersey pronrietor's office, iisaed by 
Govemour Praase, authorizing the arrest of Captain Kida and his vessel. It is da 
ted August 24th, 1699. , ^ 



and was driven back by stress of weather. The cry waa 1 
raised that this was all collusion — ^that the ministry feared to b 
Kidd home ))ecause of their nefarious connexions with him. ' 
party even moved in Parliament, that all concerned in K.idd*8 
venture, might be turned out of oHice. Kidd at lenjjrth was 
upon his trial, with nine of his men, at the Old Bailey. The ] 
of Portland, Lord Somers, the Earl of Oxford and Lord £ 
fax, having been impeached by the Tories, the fitting out of I 
for the purpose of piracy, was made a charge against each of tl 
Endeavours were used to make the unhappy man criminate tl 
gentlemen ; but in vain, for the truth was too notorious to adm 
his saving himself by accusing them. After many vexations 
ceremony of a trial against each of these noblemen, they wen 
declared innocent, and acquitted with honour. 

Kidd and his nine men were found guilty of murder and pir 
in May, 1701, and accordingly executed. 

To return to New York : John Xanfan, Esquire, the Lieute 
Govemour, was in Barbadoes in March, when tlie Carl of B 
mont died ; and the aristoratick party seized the opportunity to 
deavour to undo all the good which die deceased govemour 
done for \\m province, or at least to revive in tlie most fierce 
deadly force, the animosities which broke forth when the cili 
raised the standard of Protestantism, and William of Orange. 

In a late instance, when Sloughter died suddenly, the ariatocni 
party, which composed the council, elected one of the body (Ingd 
by) to take the (j uhernatorial chair; that party were now a n 
minoiity, but one of them was the seniour member, they there! 
insisted that in the absence of the Lieutenant Govemour, tli 
member from seniority was entitled to the chair of authority. 1 

democratical majority pleaded the late precedent, in favour of an el 
tion. These were Abraham Dc Peyster, (to wiiom Bellamoi 
letters are addressed,*) Sanuiel Staals, Itobert Walters, and Ti 
mas Wearer. 

Colonel William Smith was the person claiming the chair 
right, as beint,^ the eldest member of the council ; and he was r 
ported by l^eter Schuyler and itobert Livingston, who, by abef 
ing themselves, threw ilic government into perplexity. The asM 
bly met, as convened on the 2d of April ; but the chair being 
cant, they adjourned from day to day. The majority of the council «• 
ing to tliem a statement of the controversy, they <lecided in favour o 
election : a decision which, Smith says, was afterwards suppoi 
by the board of trade, in England. The dispute, however c 
tinned — the minority being principally supported bv Livinntt 

Snc Appnndii S. 


and the assembly, doing no business, adjourned to the first Tues- 
day in June. In the mean time, the lieutenant-govcrnour arrived, 
and ended the controversy. 

This conduct of Robert Livingston, added to his never-forgotten 
or forgiven support of the Albany Convention of 1689 — his 
thwarting the measures of Leisler, and finally aiding in bringing 
that unfortunate man, with his son-in-law, Milbourne, to an igno- 
minious death, as rebels and traitors, raised against him the decided 
animosity of die democratick party. The next assembly persecuted 
Livingston — called upon the lieutenant-governour to pray the king 
to remove him from his office of secretar}*^ of Indian affiRrs — and, 
in the meantime, to suspend him from the exercise of his commis- 
sion. Livingston had refused, likewise, to account' for sums re-* 
ceived by him, as collector of the excise ; and the committee for 
examining his ac<;ounts, charged him with the amount of ^18,000, 
(an enormous sum in those days,) for which he did not produce 

The affairs of the city were likewise thrown into confusion by the 
same party spirit that perplexed the council and assembly. Mr. 
Noel, the mayor of the city, met with such opposition, that the busi- 
ness of the corporation was suspended.t 

During the brief rule of Lieutenant-governour Nanfan, the 
younger Leisler, under the influence of Bellamont and Livingstoni 
(now again the enemy of the Leislerians,) obtained all the redress 
from the English ministry tliat the nature of the wrongs done to bis 
family would admit. He petitioned for himself — for his nephew, 
the son of Milbourne — and for his father's friend, Gouvemeur-— 
and obtained an act of parliament, reversing the convictions, judg- 
ments, and attainders, passed by Sloughter's court, under ^e influ- 
ence of the ^* people of figure,*' against Leisler, Milbourne, and 
Gouvemeur. The following is a letter to Lord Bellamont from 
Lord Jersey, secretary of state :| 

• The removal tinb^equontly, by Sir John Johnson, of the books containing the- 
truiflactiona with the Indiaiw, leaves as in the dark respecting many circnnutancea^ 
connected with our history. 

Although LivingRton was a fuvourito with the nristocratick party, when he op- 
posed Leisler from 1(189 to 1(J90, and again when he opposed the Leisler- 
ians, in 1701, yet, while acting in conjunction with Belluinont, we may judge 
how Bayard and his party spoke of him, by " heads of charges against Bella- 
mont's government,*' w/ure, one is, the rcmovinff from the council *' Colonel Bay- 
ard, Messrs. Mienviel, Pinhomc, etc., consideraUc for rirheg, and putting in their 
places Abraham Depeyster, a mtrchant, Samuel Staats, a DutcJi barber swrgeom^ 
Robert Livingston, a Scoedhmm, the contriver of KidtPs piratical voyage^ Robert 
Walters, a soM,nitno of Leitkr's,** etc. — three of whom ,the same document accu- 
■efl of not b^ng rich— and the whole are called " Leislerians." 

t See Appeifdix T. 

X An abstract of the record, made of this dispute, will bo found by Ibe roider 
under the head of miscellaneous matter. 



alwM4 m ftMi cf ibe fine tknrrh of X«« r«rk, (tail Wf Et^ 
Mai aM MMovcd to Ike G«r4*«-4Crcc< cterek. h m 
•f te C«l aad Cmmm of 

t«4 ; ABd ihftt Ike 

4bf«M4 flC dw« verp Mid. aad are loit. 
Mm F. Wmwb. Ilia . IB hift boMi rallH 

lliq . IB iMft bo«c ralM - flftk Ti 
iM M ttU gttoU'OMn la'jd hiat. " be mw ibe aid Art csl 
•f LonJ BHUakftoi ABd bdv mt ' 
htn •tot«d to have 
br Mf . W 

Ml te MflM WltfCt. dfpOMU^ b; 

n'i hbffy, b* mt«: - la uk^ 
to «w fMHiw a/' Urd aad Lad 

»i^ mtrt tkktn bj Mr. Pteavd, 
«rbt«r ib^ ail nsii 

b« Mr.' %'aBsaBdf. fat a 
vnb math bad ta»t*,r«iaicfi*i^dMa 
Mf. Watoaa'* bc^k at4.i« Btfat i ^w^ 
Mr iaba F WaMoa bM i»'id a* wbai 
«• arr «m aorti obb^tid i* 
%wm la Xt« Vc^ri. > aad rrra ik 

.^ bair b-d la fnrlhrr orre^tifaXieB. 
ba dMTMi mid, mofi be 
Naa . aa,% prrwa ma« «p* az iBit UBa, ( 
wiA ibr^*««r York ||t«i<«nr*i t'mim. pan af a 

Mf ISaMri bM r«^ji«*B ia Iw4irt«. Craaa ei 
af ibr r<»ftB and f-Wir Af G«»i> 

IB Mvmr meamLTt. ibr abarr laarr. lay la Mr. Wi 
A a «ale «d om« . antii tfw Near Yb 
lb* bmjab Mf Oar ;« a fitasM betBf lacBnd ap Ug 
Ami Ijidi Ilf-I;&iiic&: cid tttr. die vb:£ tbirrrHa vi 
aad as a titar vitfii hrf f%ttr^ -f-ti \hxtihn. vh* nf Bf4iaaMV. it 
bfee laai bftf r<-r;iw ■* iml .c ITJ.'T sr.-.h^i: <'«rr wik u> lit uim rif C 
Daic4i rimnA it. aw v r f-'" N* « \ ' :» 
h BMt kr aabfc •».« u h* 3k l.txind. nf %r» Yirt i i aj aid 
■ tMti :tif l.tiT^Hit rftiUKSi. ral*<«<: Tniun bac iinta. 
fidlMtf hit « :»(f J. : • l>» M>s.rc u<£. si iiti(*« tut ofif^kiMO. ni Fa 
ii iiH 1.4 .T«i«:.j.j2« {.* } ( isk .TifjiifBTc 1/ uh laa'^ lAi^i ibi 

1 aBk viftoic ^ imitf-if uito: :ih tN.BT* nf IWfbaBmB: mc n. S-» PaaJ* 
■ if BM tiijhw*( jiftj:'* r?nii'-ff. .z. ttn iM-ua. nif>at iif truiMf«rr aad 
«if a rafiia u«i: iiiMr T«f'« ^i- }n w^<i; wf^ iH'viilf*!: ir tii» Tvmaiiy b 
a ba Mf If II.- fhft.7iii..rF» ir Hm fur: — I iimaiunt. ajiTHimH^. bi tta 

It. ifi*--.. UK {.((.'rtoii. v.: Oiiruio. Ix. )(e^ uh L«'tJ<«rBBci 
la IflUfc rtif |;f f^fiii K' MiIht Km u. l^il m* ]kt»f"oBc Jafei 




Cmimmatiam ofKidd^s mgitir — Penenoiom of Robert Lkrin gMom 
Ratroal of the aiiaimder of Jacob Ltidery ami rataraiiom ^prv- 
ferty to tke famUy — Lard ConJnny*$ fiaaibf ami dfcomcfer ■ 
BajfonTs trial and amdemmttiom — Re p r i eit R elief by tie am- 
wmi of CanUmry^ amd rererml i^ tAe Jmdgew^emi agamM kirn 
yam/am^ and tJu iusewMjf afl7Q2. 

1701 Ths adventures, piricj, triml and executiony of WiDiain 

Kidd, made so great a noise in America and En^and at 

tiuB time, besides inToiving the good frme of manr English noUes, 

that I must devote a page to the subsequent story of this unhappj 

The Tory party in England endeavouring to destroy the Whq^ 
■unistiy, charged them with abetttng Kidd in his piracies, and shar- 
ing the plunder. These gentlemen, as has been seen, had in con- 
jmiction with Bellamont and Robert Livingston, fitted out the Ad- 
Tenture Galley, and Kidd, on Livingston's recommendatioD, had 
been placed in command. 

When Bellamont seized Kidd in Boston, he imprisoned him, 
and wrote to the ministry for a king's ship, to send the pirate for 
trial to England. The Rochester was dispatched for the service. 

• TW tndiiioBal pbc« of rvMit for Kidd and h» crew, was at Sadwrn't BmL 
a Tockr peniiiMDila. juttmir firom Long Uaiid into tiie aoaad, near tka tawm af 
Gvlfeiti. Su>nMoftreftmrMlwBdmtk«iie«|[«balieT«dk7] 

oad Mine of them aaierted npon good, or what oufht to he ^ood authoffitjr. Cohk 

>ft» that within the kit ei fh ta en 

■al Stone, in his Coaunerrial Adreitiser. aaaeits 

Months, a pot, containing $1,J!W, was plonghed np in a Md nnon Martha's V 
janl. The Thimhle Maiad^nenr Sachem s Hand, were aiwr tg d tohave heanthe 
of Kidd. The UrgKtt of thesa^hears his name. Thej call another "Money iahadL** 
mnd it has been dog most indnstnooslr. Upon Kidd*s Island is a care, where k ia 
•Aid the pintes naed to ileap. Chi the &» of one of the rocks, are eat his nitirii^ 
R. K . which are soberir giTcn as teainnonT that Kidd frequented the placa, and 
cut thc^i^ letter*. UnfoftunalelT. the pirate** nanta was William, and not Rohctt. 
Evenr thing about this vftuid 'is cnBed Kidd's — a hole in te rock n his pnach- 
howl', and a flat rock is his table. 

Ther^ I* a prodamation extant in the Ea#( Jersey pnmrietor's office, imaad hf 
GoTenK>ar Frame, authorizing the arrest of Captain Kida and Us TaaseL h ia da 
lid August a4th. 1689 ^ . 


i.i?5E%'T:cx* J5 xxv to: 

a."*: wv.? :_'-■ 
n - • • • 

f\ ^ . - 

«/ !'.:• • 
K-v::i-. . -•• • 

S -C. 

5L-.:jBr. The cr 

•■ i.T 


Ki^i'i 4:. i -j^ '-.-.-: ":^- »Trc i. .rA r-Il^'s" ■■"-•: 

.-\f -. •. : t'. .-ri.r; 

r 1 .'C i^ u-jtr 

C-. I. ■ '.-...• ..... . . ^"T .• . .T.. 


. ^ 

XTTT "serr n 



*• ■ \ • .ir^jt y 


and the assembly, doin? no business, adjourned to the first Tues- 
day in Jime. In the mean time, the lieutenant-irovemour arrived^ 
and ended the controversv. 

This conduct of Robert Livingston, added to his never-forgotten 
or forgiven support of the Albany Convention of 16>S> — his 
ttawaituijET the measures of Leisler. and finally aidin? in brincnng 
that unfortunate man, witli his son-in-law, Milbourne. to an igno- 
miniotis death, as rebels and traitors, raised airainst him the decided 
aaiinosit}' of tlie democratick party. The next assembly pen^ecuted 
Livingston — called ujHin the lieuienani-irovernour to pray the king 
ta remove him from his oliice of secretar}' of Indian atiitirs— and, 
ia the meantime, to suspend him from the exercise of his commis- 
flioB. Livinsrston had refused, likewise, to account for sums re* 
oeived bv him. as collector of die excise : and the committee for 
esaniining his accounts, charged him with the amount of 4;iS,000, 
(an enormous sum in those days,) for which he did not produce 

The afiairs of the citv were likewise thrown into confusion bvthe 
same part}' spirit that perplexed the coimcjl ami assembly. Mr. 
Noel, the mayor of the city, met with such opposition, that the busi- 
ness of the cor{H>ration was suspended. t 

During the brief nde of Lieutenant-covemour Nan fan, tlie 
younser Leisler, under the influence of Bellamont and Livingslon, 
(now again the enemy of the Leislerians.) obtained all the redress 
fiom the English ministr}' that the nature of the wn>nt;<i done lo his 
fiunily would admit. He petitioned for himself — for his nephew, 
the son of Milbourne — and for his lather's triend, (louvemeur— • 
and obtained an act of parliament, roversin*: the convictions, judg- 
ments, and attainders, passed by SloughterV court, under the influ- 
ence of ilie '* people of figure,'' against Leisler, Milbourne, and 
Gouvemeur. The followinir is a letter to Lord Bellamont Atim 
Lord Jersev, secretan' of state :t 

• lOir wniom! «iKHHjnf*iitlT. by Sir John John-ion. of the hook* containing the 
fMnmrtionii with the latlcui^.'tearM n* in the dark re^pfrtiasmanycircnuMiUni i ■ 
tonnecU'ti v\ ith our hi!itor>'. 

Although Livinff'Ston was a lavouriio with iho ariiiomtiok pam. wht^n ho op- 
noffd L*i!»l*r from I6H9 to ItW. and a^in wh«*n he opposMPtJ the l^wler- 
iu». in 1701. yet. while tctinjc in conjiinciion with Ufllaiutint. we ina\ iiid|re 
how Bayard and lu.i party spoko of hiin. by " hoJiU K^ti^o:> aculii>t Bella- 
niont'« government.** irArir. one i*. the reniovini: rri>ni the rotiinil •• Tulonel Bar* 
■jd. Me«ir* Miemiel. Pinhorno. etr.. c*yu>ui(TaUe for richtf. and putting in their 
■ilacciT Ahraham DepeT^ter, a wktrrhant, Sainnel Staatfi. a /)iirrA haritr surgftm^ 
Robert Ijving^ton. a hrMrkmimm, ike ntmtrirrr tf Kvitrs pin:i<iil rojfuge, Robert 
Walter*, n Mm-ta-Z^nr rf I^ritirrrr rtr. — thre«* of whom .the Aine document acco^ 
tea of not being hdi^and the whole are called *- LAMsieriami.'* 

t ScN* Appetidix T. 

I An absMTt of the rpconl. made of this dlvpotc. w Jl be found bj ite reader 
oader the head of nu#celUneoua maUer. 


of die jurors were objected to, as ha\'h]j? said, ** tbat if Bayinrff 
■eck was made of gold he should be hanged.''* But the coort 
oremiled the objection. AtT7ood charged the jury, and the co«t 
adjourned to the next day. 

The 20tb, Mr. Weaver being appointed solicitor, insisted npoa 
being with the jnr\'. Corbett. Cooper, Cortlandt, and De Key, 

rested against his presence, and insisted upon their right to send 
such persons as they pleased. Weaver threatened that he 
•* would have them trounced/" — ^whereupon the jury broke up. !■ 
the afternoon the court met and sent for the jury. Weaver coei- 
plained of the opposition to his will, and the court dismiaeed die 
refractory jurors, and sent for Boelen. The jury separated witbovt 
finding a bill, and Atwood, the chief justice, was heard to say, **if 
the grand junt' will not find a bill a^rainst Ba\*ard, I will brine an 
information against him for hi eh treason, and try him upon tbau'' 

On the 21st, the crand jur\' brought in a bill endorsed, **billa 
vera/* sismed by the foreman. The counsel for the prisoners, 
Messrs. Sicholl and Emot. objected to the bill, that it was not found 
by t^'elve jurors. All objections were overruled, and Bayard wis 
ordered for trial on Mondav. the 2d of March. 

When tlie coun met, Nicholl. who had been raavor of the citv. ob- 
jected to the indictment as ille<ral. Weaver replied, *' when yoo 
had the srovemment. Dr. Staats had a bill found asainst him bv 
eight men of a jury of fifteen/' Nicholl said, that he never beard 
of it : but if true, it was no precedent. The prisoner was broufflit 
to the bar, and charged with rebellion and treason, for conspiring to 
procure mutiny and desertion anion:: soldiers in the pay. and be- 
longing to tlie (rarrison of fort Willinni Henry : and for procuring 
them to si^m liliels airainst the present irovemrnenf. The prisoner 
pleaded, " not iruilty." 

On the 6th of >[arch, Nicholl moved to postpone till the next 
morning. *' No,'' said Arvvood, " we shall not £rive Mr. Vesev an 
opportimit}* for an'^iher sermon aiminsi us." From this it appears, 
that the Minister of Trinitv Churx-h. was enlisted widi the Bavard 
faction, or aristocracy : and we shall find that Combun* was a per- 
secutor of presbyierianisni. 

<.>n the 7th, upon the non-apjvarance of the attorney sreneral, 
the chief justice, Arvvood, ordi-rtvl a minute to be made, that the 

• A* the iiaine» *how th»» ^tjiv oi* *^v:r^k i: :h * tn^e in New York. I pnp#«rT« 
iheni. JohaiiiH^< De Pev*ier. .irrenijin. ■ l»j\:ii Pnn.^os:. Martin Clock, Lecodrft 
lluccni. ItAffni Ro>nJrr*. Jobiiii:* ? Vin kWt Sj*ei{t«^ll, Johwin*''* Outmui. Peter 
Van Tr!hiir;fh. Jnhanne* Van liris^n. ASrnhim Ken>ta«. Ilenfihrk CHlifra. 
Ar>en Hi>«^cil»nt. Wtllt^m Ja>'k>«^n. Jitnn Torb^n. Johannes Van CorUaodL Caleb 
Cooper. John Van Honm. Biirrer MYndi'T^. tiemt Van Ho«ini. Jarobiu de Kty. 
AHrahun Kipp. ukJ Johannes Van Zand:: vJacob Baien and Johannet HardeD- 
bfook did not appear ) 


RODraBy genenl* hitb Deflected his majesty's seirice. He iImi 
proceeded diiis : ^Mt b no wondex« people here contemn his m»-* 
jestT^s aatbority, since the attomer general, though commanded 
lo prosecute by the eovemment, hath neglected to do the same, and 
pren mn opmioii directly contraiy to the lieutenant-goveniour 

A pedtioD was deliveied in by \^uiu: Bayard, the prisoner's aoa« 
prmyioe that the indictment mi^rht be set aside, as not found hf 
WBj twelve jurorss ^^ though the most part of them, as is eTidenthr 
kDOWH, are your prisoners mortal enemies,*^ on account of the im-^ 
kappy divisioQs in the proTince. But if the court persists, be then 
peciiioiis diat he may be tried by £n«rlishmen, or of English ex- 
iractioo. the jury selecteil beinsr all Dutch, and several so igno* 
tmnU ^* that thev can neither read nor write, nor under^tuid the 
English knguage/^ He turther says, that the petit jury are moat 
of them **handicrm6 and labouring men.** 

Atwood onlered a minute that the petition was reed, and that 
the coon found that the indictment was found bv more than twelve 
jorois. The trial proceeded before a jury, all Dutch. The soli^ 
citor, Mr. Weaver, in a violent speech, accused the English inha- 
bitants of endeavouring to introduce popery and slavery. Bayard 
being the leader. He accused the enemies of Leisler, as of^iosers 
of a government that was now justified at home, as being legiL 
He accused the adherents of Bawd, as a ne^ of pirates, who had 
o fered the late Lord Bellamont ^* a reward of £10,000, to connivo 
at their piracies, and ;iUOO to himself to solicit it.*^ 

The court was ad^umed bxxa day to day, >fr. Emol,* being 
the principal advocate on the pan of Bayard, who was found guihy, 
and beinc asked if he had anv thin^ to sav whv sentence should not 
be fKonounced, answered, ** nothing but wliat my counsel have o^ 
fcred. and what is contained in my petitions.** Atwood, then in the 
hardest and most unteelinc manner, pronounced the horrible sen- 
tence then customary upon traitors 

The prisoner then asked, whether he miglii have leave to answer 
his bonour*s speech, made before sentence: but was answered, **no.** 
He replied. '* then God*s will be done.** Hutchins was con- 
demneii in like manner. 

Ba\-arvi applied for a reprieve, until his majesty *s pleasure migitt 
be known, which was granted. Hutchins was with more ease re- 
leaded on bail. But Bavard was not released from confinement 
unui after the arrival of Combiu^* : all \i-as then reversed : At- 

* It %^ 4 cuhovs rtmin»tuK^, tint Mr. EnoL oae of iW r«MUHid tm BkjmJ, 
adrmBrrd tbe doctriBf . not adounrd in Kngfawd oatil lo«c •Af. tktt - A» jfmj mm 

S64 cornburt's admixutration. 

out, or retained in a state of unproductiveness, which obstnicted co- 
lonization by ihe free poor, and encoiu'aged slave population. The 
reader has seen the efforts of Bellamont to remedv this evil.* 

Beside the inferiour courts, the province had its Supreme Coun. 
and tl)e chief justice had ^300 a year. Incases above j£lOO. 
appeals mi^ht be made to the govemour and council. In those of 

more than c£300. to the king and privy council. 
1702 Comburw on his arrival, not onlv relieved Bavard, but de> 
chred himself the head of the party : but he soon conducted 
himself, and the afiairs of the province, so as to make those who most 
desired his presence and countenance, ashamed of him ; and by 
his violence, rapacity, and oppression, united both parties in oppo- 
sition to him, and, in some measure, by this common sentiment, 
the discordant elements of two factions, naturallv irreconcileable.t 

On the 3d of Mav. 1702, Lord Combur\', a man hunted out 
of England by a host of hungr}' creditors, came to the govennneni 
of New York, the «>mr^ protecting him from those he had injured, 
and affording him an opportunity of injuring others. The council, 
at this time, was composed of William Atwood, (who fled from 
Combury and the part}*, fii^t to Virginia, and then to England,) CoL 
William Smith, Col. Peter Schuyler, Abraham De Peyster, (the 
friend of Bellamont.) Samuel Staats. Robert Walters, Thos. Wev- 
▼er, (all Leislcrians, and the latter immediately flyin?,) SampsoR 
Shelton Brouirhton. Wolf<rang William Romar, William Lawreoee, 
Gerardus Bceknian. and Kip Van Dam. 

Col. CaK'l* lleailirou* and Dr. Brid^res were called to suppiv the 
places of .\iw*kh1 and Weaver. 

A short timo after Coriibur%-'s arrival, the vellow fever was 
broucht from St. Thomas, and provine ver\' fatal in New York, the 
^vemour removed to .lamaica, L. 1.. there held his courts, and 
displayed his characier.J A new assembly met him. composed of 
the party ho had espoused, Iiavin^ been elected after his arrival. 
War ha\ \nc been declared by England a^rainst France and Spain, 

• Th** !««• r^*pf-fMi|f •'i.'w^- «1:"«^oaraz«»ri manumission by a h^avy fine : and no 
N#|rrft. Iniiian nr Mu latin, thonrh tire^. could acquire property in hou«^ or luid. 
(S^ Uw- from Uv\ lo 171^ . 

t SiH- Anpontlix V . 

I I rail thf ihr \r;Iow ftM^r. alrhnujrh i: wa.i not *o ralM in I7»r2. I ha^^ *^rn 
mttmtvKhtkt lit' ihi* di*! *«-\ an*"! wa* re«id^ni ai Perth Amhoy at ihr time mention«>d 
hy Dr ll«t«ark. ill ihi iiii.ow;^^ note. " During ib« }ear 1*^11. the yeiiow ievvr 
Wa* aK«» miTo.'iii r-il .nJotftf c/.y of Amboy. NV« Ji»n*\. from the Havana, but did 
not aprejid he^ onil tho«e per^^n* who wen? lir*t a^arked in ron*eqnenfe of their 
iiw i di>ie ripo^iin^ to the air of the infected veMel. The locml cirrunwiaores of 
Anibo%, it« rir«ai«si !>iina:.iiu. if Ary and laady *oil. it* wide vtreeU and apacjoy* 
hoowa, their d)*rai»re from each other, and the remarkable cleanhnem of the town. 
HMM aniMlarttnW neconni for the «ndden ertinctioii of the disease, whik ibe ari- 
dmmt^ of lU impoitttion aiMi be admitted to ha condaara.' 


Iw obiHBed jC1«S00 Cm- the definice of the fimnders : ud (torn the 
same putinxi$« w£d.000 to pay the expense of hb vo^ige.* 

The fim act? of Lonl Cornhury, which sinick at his popaiarity;, 
proceeiie^l fixwn what was called his real fortheestaMishiiieniaf the 
Episcopacy* as practised by the Church of Enxrland. and dxinjriipoD 
the peof^le of the pfonnce a state rvlipon. It seems trafonoMiB 
for the Church of Kn^r^and that its 6rst advocates shotild be «Kh 
dc!9f»icab!e ^tetches as Slouirhter, Inpi^ldsby. Fletcher, and Cora- 
burv« men « hose acts decSaresi them to be unerf v void of ChrisdHi 
frith* the love of C«o^i, or their ne^hUitir. The establishment of 
Epixxipacy. and the ritual of the churvh as adopted in Enehiid, 
w«s a political mestsure : and it is not stranse that the coveromeot 
sboaM endea«H>ur to spnf^d the same indigence over the cokmiea, 
as it was a safepiaid acainst }X^*^^r\~ and the means of iiicieosiB|^ 
power; but for this puqx^so liu^ minisiiy wert* peculiarly uafeitimalB 
IB employing such vile instruments. 

When the ^rallant o>^ emoiir. Petnis Sttivreant, was iorced« hx 
the will of the }>t>^p:e, to sv.rr^mier New Netl>crland to a superior 
fiirre, he stipulates for /tArrrjr -.y'^^iwrfV^-r f?W cA»irA c'^frrmmmf then 
asd tbrever. McoUs £rrtnted it. and it was as fully j«ciued to tlw 
oofoniscs as their lands, houses, and personal property. The tdi- 
ofthe province was Cahranistiok. TheielonnedTeiicioii.iBCOB- 
uty to the word aini decrees of the ^ynod of Dordnpcfat. (or Doit) 
professed by the Dutch : the Endi^ who haa become infaabittnlB 
of the province were pfe$b>"terians tnim New Eiurland. In the 
Bnicles of surreiHler. it micht be said that Nicolls onlvcranted libctfr 
flf coQscieiice. •• in divine worship and church i^>vemmeni,'* to the 
Dutch : but he altenrarvis publishcti an instrument to eatoonce 
settlers, in which he says. •• in all u rriiories of his loyal h i ghn ess ^** 
which iBcludeii New Jersey, •• liberty oi conscience is aDomd, pwH 
vad^d such liberrv is iK>t convened into licentiousness, or the distm^ 
bsiice of others in the exercise of the proiesiant ielicioa»** 

The Dutch of Lon^: Islami werv of the professed reKrion of the 
Syiwd of Port : their chuirh i?>vcmment the classis of AinsienlaiB« 
unul 177:}. when the Dutch church of America estabiislKd an n 

* A: & cx'^uiKil Im^U fti JaauW. Q«^^*i« C<^.irnr. ilieTth^bTof X^^ftifc*!. TlfK, 
>-.*jr^**'". \V:l';jiaj LAwfYT^-y R.p Vir Pir.:. yr>6 I'jl^-S HeaibnM^. Ea^fil 

c^^B r«s««i^ Cmuiv C>rtE 
llw ffuTrr w&i rwp»»il>» f . cui ikm Kew Cirr Hrfl 


pcDdenichflBsaiidSjDodslike tboaeofHoDuid. Haapmtmiimi 
a aunister 6om Sumfordr a preabjteriaii. Jamaica, (origiinOj Roii- 
dorp) sealed a minister eariT. Episcopal cfaorches were tsuhBakei 
m some towns, aod Qoaken toimed societies in Qfiter Baj 

EFerr where the people felt that they had die right a c ciued to 
of worshipping in their own waj, Ustening to soch ministrj as 
diem, and paring them {amd (miff nek) Sar their serrices. Fleicha^ 
as we hare seen, by means of the aristocratick party, procmcd as 
act of assembly to be passed for establtshing certain mirriUfn is 
some of the towns or counties, who were to be paid by a tax Bpaa 
ail the inhabitants generally. His intent was to make the people 
icoosnize the Church of England : and fixced the dissenters to pay 
far ministers of that cborch, with liberty to mamtain preachers of 
tfaor own. Comburv went farther. 

When he was driven by the fever, which prevailed at New Tsifc, 
to seek refuge at Jamaica, the Rev. Mr. Hubbard, presbyienBi 
Bunister, resided m the best boose m the town, which was p i u i i de d 
faj the people who had built a church for him to preach in. The 
mMe govemour borrowed this hoiee — who could refuse Lord 
Coniburyr The clergyman removed to iniierioor quarters. Bm. 
there were people in Jamaica who were episcopalians ; they had as 
church and no parsonageThod^. or giebe ; and the govemour, is 
return far Mr. Hubbard's bospitalitv. seized the church, hooae 
glebe tor the members of the Episcopal Church : for be had i 
tioos which required that the zoveraours of the plantatioQs sooujd 
**give all countenance and eccouraz^oest to the exercise o£ tbe 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, at far oi amn- 
mtmtlif might be.*'t 

His Lordship thought this seizure " conveniendy mirht be :** 
Mr. Hubbard, and the majorlry, coc only of tne peopk of J 
but mankind, thought otherwise : a^d this in&mous 
was one ingredient in the cinlice of which be was Fiibsequeacy 
farced to drink, but not before ne had played a number of xnsd or 
tantawirk tricks o&lv to be expected from a dmnkard. 

Another article in the insa-jctions riven to proline iai ffoverDo«c» 
most not be omitzed. by which asy schoohsasier was prohteec 
from teacliing, unless licensed by ihe goverDOLLr:! and ihose comisc 
far that purpose from Enrland. must produce a license from jsm 
of London. 

cf Nrv York, ifaat Ibe 
toR «p she • jOi^ firt poamiim. im a 


Thehouseof assembly, which' met Lord Combury at Jamaica, 
generally composed of the part)', at the head of which the go- 
vemour appeared. They declared in answer to his first addrMf 
that *' they were not sufficiendy able to express the satisfacdon they 
had, both in their relief and their deliverer." 

Lord Combury, though appointed by William UI, did not ar- 
rive at New York, until after the death of that prince, Vhich took 
place on the 8th of March, 1701, and the throne was occupied iitf* 
mediately by Anne ; under whom the war with France was conti- 
nued, and of course the hostilities of New France or Canada are 
ceaseless towards New England, and New York, as are the in- 

trig^ues with the Iroquois. 
1703 M. de Callieres dying, the government of Canada devolved 
on M. Vaudreuil, the govemour of Montreal. The Iroqum 
were averse to receiving French missionaries, but wished to hold out 
prospects of permanent alliance with Canada. The Indians and 
the French appeared to strive which should outdo the other in ai^ 
dfice and flattery : though occasionally " Ononthio," threatened the 
Iroquois. A deputation of Senecas visited Montreal, and the gover- 
nour •* caressed them gready." The chief of the Senecas, is made 
by Charlevoix to say, that the belt he gives the govemour, conveys 
to France, the soil, and absolute dominion of the lands of the Se- 
necas ; that they, as children, are to be protected by their &ther; 
and he, the speaker, will die before the missionaries shall be driven 
away. A French agent returned with this deputation, to remain 
among the Senecas. This state of neutrality between Canada and 
the Iroquois, protected the frontiers of New York, and enabled the 
borderers to carry on advantageous trade, of which New England 
complained. Combury was accused of withholding the aid of 
the Five NaUons, from New England, for the advantage of New 
York. The French, and other Indians, burnt Deerfield ; deputar 
tions were carried on upon New England setdements, and the in- 
habitants of Albany were charged with supplying the Indians, who 
ravaged New Hampshire, with arms, and with affording a market 
for the spoil. This is recorded by James Grahame, in his histoij 
of the United States, who at the same time, adds, that Colond 
Schuvler, and others, endeavoured to counteract this conduct, and 
that Schuyler exerted himself to discover the projected expe* 
ditions of the French and their allies, " and was able, on some oc- 
casions, to forewarn the people of Massachusetts of approaching 

It is certain that the French of Canada abstained from sending 
their sa^-ages upon the New Yoric setdements, and turned them 
upon New England. The govemour was evidendy afraid that the 
Iroquois would be induced to commence hostiKties again. ** T»- 
ginnessorens,** says Charlevoix, when at Montreal, tM the goter* 

VOL. I. 33 

858 schuylbr's efforts. 

DOur, that the Europeans made peace, and then without, or wl 
it suited them, '' took up the hatchet again.'' Why then may i 
the Iroquois do the same ? A party of Iroquois, when hunting n 
Cadaraqui, (fort Frontignac,) had been attacked by the Ottai 
and Miamies, and"Pitre Schueller,gouvemeur d'Orange," that 
Peter Schuyler, Mayor of Albany, had called upon the Five I 
tions to revenge this injury, sustained near a French garrison, i 
on their own land. He persuaded them, the Jesuit says, to bn 
with France. 

The French govemour had two agents with the Senecas, ^ 
informed him that the governour of Orange, (that is Colonel P( 
Schuyler, the Mayor of Albany,) had called a meeting of the 1 
quois at Onondaga, and intended to oblige them to drive off 
missionaries ; that is, the priests and Jesuits who acted as sp 
They likewise inform Vaudreuil, that Schuyler intended to ezi 
. the Iroquois to oppose the French Indians in their hostilities ( 
rying on against New England. That he likewise wished the I 
hawks to send back the 5lohicans dwelling among them, to tl 
former dwellings near Albany ; and to gain permission for 
Indians of the far west to pass through tlie country of the Iroqi 
for the purposes of trade witli New York. 

All this was probably the wish of Colonel Schuyler, and he '. 
the authority of Cornbury for endeavouring to eflect measure 
which the governour knew not the advantage. In April of 
year, he visited Albany, and had discretion enough to le 
both plans and execution for the defence of the frontiers, and n 
agement of the Indians, to Peter Schuyler. The govemour 
turned to New York. 

It appears from father Charlevoix, in his history, that the gt 
son of the French at Detroit, had some misunderstanding with 
neighbouring Indians, who attempted to bum their fort. The 
necas likewise sent agents to Montreal to complain of hostili 
committed by the Ottawas. M. Vaudreuil promised ample si 
faction, and required of them to be at the council called by 
English at Onondaga ; and to prevent any measures that might 
attempted against the French interest. He felt secure of the On 
dagas, because of his agents who resided among that tr 
1704 The Senecas departed with the instructions of the go' 
nour of Canada, and met Colonel Schuyler at the cou 
of the confederates, held in the great castle for deliberation 

The three principal French agents were present, and the Je 
historian says, they *' manoeuvred so well, tliat the council septn 
without concluding any thing." Schuyler did not intermit his 
forts, and meeting some of the French converts, or Caugnawahi 
at a Mohawk castle, he prevailed upon them, by means of prase 


to follow him to Schenectady, where he exhorted them to remain 
neutral, and endeavoured to prevail upon them to remove to the 
provmce of New York, or to return home to the Mohawks. These 
Caugnawaghas, carried the colonel's belts of wampum and pro- 
position to their fellows, and they were accepted ; but the French 
interfered immediately, and the belts were sent back as rejected. 

The reader cannot but remark in all this, the persevering efforts 
of Colonel Schuyler for the service of the English colonies ; and 
the deteriorated state of the Iroquois, since their intimate connec* 
tion with Europeans. The policy of the French was to keep the 
Iroquois quiet, while the allies of the Canadian government ravaged 
New England. On the other hand, Schuyler wished to aid the 
sister colonies, by instigating the Iroquois against Canada. " Pre- 
serve a neutrality with the Five Nations," — such was the instruc- 
Uons Vaudreuil received from home — ** unless you find a good 
opportunity to strike them a blow that shall destroy or cripple them, 
without incurring expense to the king." The Iroquois, when first 
seen by Europeans, had all the proud virtues of Spartans — a na- 
tion of conquerors, oppressors, and murderers. They were, and 
felt themselves superiour to all around them. They were more 
wise in council, and more bold, as well as expert in die arts of de- 
struction, than any people they knew. Every individual moved 
proudly as a freema»>4uiowing no superiour but the more wise 
and valiant of his nation, and preferring death to dishonour. But 
. when they met Europeans, they were at first dazzled by the supe- 
riour knowledge and power, arts and arms, of the strangers. 
They became lowered in their own estimation ; they submitted to 
be influenced by the intrigues, and debauched by the presents of 
the white men. They by degrees gave up independence for blan- 
kets, guns, powder, lead, and rum : such they appear in 1704, but 
they had not yet quite fallen. 

In 1702, the proprietors of New Jersey not proving equal to 
self government, after many and repeated quarrels, made a formal 
surrender to Queen Anne of all their powers, ** to govern and rule 
the provinces of East Jersey and West Jersey," and her " most 
gracious majesty," having on the 17th day of April, 1702, accept- 
ed the surrender, immediately appointed Edward, Lord Visr 
count Combury, govemour of New Jersey. 

The commission was directed to the queen's trusty and well be- 
loved Edward Hyde, Esq., commonly called Lord Combury. It 
reunites the two into one province, and directs him to govern by 
the laws and statutes made and agreed upon by him, '^with the ad- 
vice and consent of the council and assembly," to appoint courts, 
judges, etc. He had the usual power over the council, and -the 
assembly was to be elected by the majority of freeholders, witli 
powers similar to those of New York. 

The eoTerxMTjr ««< in<iru€ted to edl ooe eoienl 
ihe Uniied ProTizMres : to sh first at Perth Ambor. 
Bur&nzVKi, azxl a{tenraid« aiienaiehr in those two pbce&. Tk 
Toiers (bj an ameacmes:; vere to possess freeboids of s 
bondred acres, or personal properer to tbe raioe of <^50 «; 
Duties, etc.. to be tbe «az:e In New Jerse}' and Nev York. I^ 
bertr of conscience granted u> all persons except pa piate , Ts 
•olemn afinnaTion of cuakers to be taken instead of mn 
tfaer are to be receii'ed zs rr^ember? of the coonciL 
the mwmber of' itkhahifcfit^ fir fCT twrA iiJif oHk** u imaiL d 
of TCBsels of var to be prohibited from the iflipressmem ot 
Milors. Bv the sixtr-Lbth anic!e. Comhurv is directed to ** 
especia] care, thai God Aimirbtj be devoudv and duij serri 
** the book of ccTsmon prayer. a« bv iaw established, reai: 
Sundav. and hoiv da v. and the b!e««ed satrament adznin: 

ordin? to the rites of the church of Enriand." Minbci 

h fmhodox church are :o be f;;rr.Lahec "with a house and zi 
die cvmmr/n <hars*, Preferrinz n::EL?'^r* to benefices, beloo^f 
his Lord»h:p. provided ih^y have a certlDc^te from tbe B^iuD 
London : whose i'^rl^diciion L« to take place a* •• far a* rr*, 

V fc."' HI? iordshi? i* er.ioired to i>uni*h druiikeac< 

VQ^u ''■' t^fkzw/itz. ana r»:«:oranieaa:nt uie saia rompiav to 
e«p<riai r-arr- that thr *.ii : : rr vj-'^p rr.ay h*vi* a ri:.r>:.-ir.: and «::£- 

tfai« trade in n^ejri-^-. hr iL'-r*: t'ornr/^r..! i- :ij riv* i- *rrri--r 
to the queen of vt-? -.'j-.:--: v.-.::. v.r.; h :>.•? rrr-. > e '^ '.-r:.- v n:^ 
pi^^L anii at »::v. nv -- 1 .: > i.-ii-r j "r.r :. .r. ir^ri ir.^^ iiree ir- 

<nt laicniotii.r". r-^r ir- -. - : ..-: c: tr.e j-'Vr.-r.our an-i ihe zrxc 

of the p:«"kv:r'*»?. •--"•;•■! i! m."^- > 'ix-:- '--.i: •i''«i A.:r.:ji::T «ha 3* 

dulv serv-d. ar.'l in a:-. I-:* *■.;- rv .:" -r-jr'"-^* "ce . ri"-: -•:: ir^io il^ 

colonv tor th^ eVTfiv^ri^T^-r: .::':*-* \l. .1. \''ry\T. CoT.nar.r. izi: 

, • . .. •. . •" -. 

fCOod ot a.. p4rt:-»*: r.^*--**' r-rj-'-trs -^-.-^ .:.-t-'r::»?i: v- nor-riess *uv«t 

in a fi>n? : zn ^■•*"» ^^ "' "'• . i-'^T >■ ~ c *. i«i * 1 ? :■• ■ ' : . ^-yz -ic- -? r.v ,*^ rc-rn i^xn 

their hon:^*. it/" vc.t,:. -. .-^-1;* ir«: v .-:*=*- ^.'f. :-•-?. -iie coiociaOL 

Hi* !''»ru*" -"* •* ■ ' "' ' ••'.'^' *t.r '.^•^ ^-c I i^ DJi*.**-:!: xr v.e r»*sm:*-Z£ 

with ^•■k'.Tf tr«i" w"' ■ i .,■.:-; .'H'' I-.: 1-^ ir«: r«*-i-«-e*. i::ii a ir se- 

«e ?»•*. ■/ -^t-' •■ • ; '"i" "ir •: -:• ' * r -^o 1. : ?if :: r ^ v- vi • . ■_-* ■ • > '.w: ••o«;ntfeu)r 

HfMAii imi ^r* VMiffWir tin^vrv 

F)V||*ftAii uni (#r tm^f <iit''«r» 


As amons: these instructions^ care is to be taken to enforce the 
£nj[lish Navigation Acu I will . here place before the reader an 
abstract of that important document, which was more felt in New 

York than in the agricultural province of New Jersey. 
1660 It was enacted, that no commodities should be imported 

into any British setdement in Asia, Africa, or America, or ex- 
ported from thence, but in vessels built in England, or her colonial 
plantations, and navigated by crews of which the master, and thre^ 
fourths of the sailors, should be English subjects. Penalty, for- 
feiture of ship and cargo- None but natural bom subjects of the 
English crown, or persons legally naturalized, should exercise die 
occupation of merchant or factor, in any English colonial settle- 
ment No sugar, tobacco, cotton, wool, indigo, ginger, or dye 
stufis, (wood) produced or manufactured in the colonies, should be 
shipped from them, to any other country than England ; and ship- 
owners were required at the port of lading, to give bonds with ae-> 
curit}' proportioned to tonnage. These prohibited articles were called 
emummitft)^ and as soon as anv new article was brought into notice 
by the uu:enuit%* or industr\' of the colonists, it was added to the 

list. Soon after, it was in addition ordained, that no Eun>- 
1663 pean articles should be imported into the colonies, except 

in vessels ladm tx En^lami^ and navigated as above. 
It was avowed, that it was the policy of nations to keep the trade of 
colonies ct>n6ned to the mother country-, and the colonists depen- 
dent on her. 

Charles II imposed a tax of five per cent, on all goods imported 
into, or exported from any of the dominions of the crown ; the par- 
liament proceeded to tax the trade, which one colony carried on 
with another. These enactments, intended to hold the colonies 
in perpetual subjection, were the original cause of our independence. 
After Lord Combur\- returned to New York, from his visit to 
Albany, he proceeded in August to his government of New Jersey, 
and began to put in force her majesty's gracious instructions, but 
soon returned to New York, and in April, (1703) met the assem- 
bly, who by this time began to be alarmed at his lordship^s 
demands for money on x-arious pretences, but principally for guard- 
ing the frontierss aiul erecting batteries to defend New York at 
the Narrows. It was seen that for whatever purpose granted, k 
was appropriated to the govemour's pri\^te use, and e^-en his own 
party, (the rich, the gentry, the people of figure.) saw that thejr 
were to pay high for his lordship's countenance.* 

* Tbe vote on the warn tad meuw to nu^e this team » sinimlar : ererr 

oTtbr couBcil to pav a poll lu of fortr fiiilliBft : an ■■^ndbly bmb, tww rt y 
kmcf : a lawyer ia pnrtx^. twenty •billing ; every bmb wcanDg a pemim 
•ilifling* and itx peace : a bacbelor of twenty ire yeaia and apwarda, two di 
tmd tkree pence : OTeiy freeman between azteen and «xty. now pcsoe : ikm 
etv of sftarea. fer eneli. omt 

8(v^ tAlKNbUKVV l»It5tfC^TID?i^ WITH THE 

iiimiiici iif- iw 111* cittittf piir}iiii4f wimtBvei.'' Chi tlKlHth of JmL 
tJMsv nsijuiitjC! Im a^M'^Miimimii tifu iTeBsurei. *^Bf^ a memviD o^ 

Hif u';* iiii^iappIiciiliuiH' in imurt:.^' 
17{)4 'J'iik^ ue.iuv \v HcrutiiiiKf tiit- LnrdaiiipF cxpenditmee oTAi 
puuUc iiiuiiev in'.!rett»*jci. und uf coinw Im iiofaiiitr. faonniBi 
afid f^uuutrv wtsrt ufrt*tidud. Tiw ut»enibtv talked of their ri 
and liu^ iuicUiliip lold tiieiu. '* J kiiov uf no rurin tiun ynu 
an Ubbtiiuolv. but buciJ hb ilie tjueeu ih iiiesBed to allov yotu*' 7%r 
Wubt-, tiiuu«cii ^'tt^Usd l>v iije iordKuijt'h partr, were pruvobdli 
anv, tiiat Um.*v (^oukiid^ired tlieirritrink- loiifc. civi] iibem . declaivd ibI 
couiii'iut:d i/\ Kii^lit^L kwfe. uud to that eien' iree ILncrliafainm ii 
«uti(ied. 'fh**\ i*Mo\v^ 10 addr^Kb tiie roveniuur far an esaca ar- 
oi>uut ol lije ie\eiju«::'. 'J'ii^v refukted to hdmh ttie c:ouDcII'f 
lueut l(j b jnoiiev bill, und im lorOBiiij' disBCiived ibem. 
iii«ble)>. iww>::\ef, till:- Kiiglifclj Umrd of tradt. c^ould •"conoeire 
remmHi: why (iif <x;uij(;iJ should not hvrt h nch^ to amend aU faiBi 
meni up by tiie ab^frfnbly. eveu t/imk rtUvt.ih£ lo ittimcuS^ 

hvj^niiu^ Uj Madvju Kjiifrhu New York iRa&. ai this time, ^a 
ultsii«aia well 4 oiujiartifd pjar«. '' l*he bull din erf. brick ^nenlhr: 
111 b«>iiie li«iija4:'&> ol diiffffe f-olourv, arid laid in cbeques. being placed, 
liiey look uri V a;irtr«-abl»f/* Of iJie iiiride the lestiSe?, that ibev 
*'mai Ui tailiuijaiiiifi." 'J'li<r fire \}h<ie\t had no jambs, as in 
kui \Uii b«i< k» luii Miidb uiiij tbtr ualN, **and the beanb is of tiles, and 
ift llii oiiiiiii</tlir i«>ofii ai i]j<r Mill ^. a:- b«.- for*.' I he fire. "(i.e.) five feel in 
iliL' liiv*4 J ji>iiin&. >hi' ftpi-ak^ ol u >'iairf«jH'. *' laid all with tiles," 
aitci 4 kiii lit Ii Mith bf i( k lioof. The: people were makinsr great pre- 
uMi^Uiiite to lit (lu- ihtif ^Mi\<-nioijr. Lord Cornbur}*. fiom Sew 
.Ic^i&i-y, aiiil the iiiiliii;i tut iii'd out, for the occasion. The episco- 
|Mluh& liail *' II Nt'i^ l'.ii,;::luii(1 ;:t'ti(l<'iiia:i. for their minister.*' 

'I'lu* hiiu h Miiiiitii \ioM' ** iniitc-lie.'*; \«hich are like a cap and 
4 lii^Hil tMiitl III tiiK , Ira^iiiL' ihi* f-ar^ bare;** ear*rin?:« and fin^er- 

llllgS iitV\ ^^Clt(' III Atllliul.tlll I'. 

MhiIhm Kiii.:I«i ^^-i* * lu»tiiM lad V, of education and refinemeoL 
Hlui iiiiitU- ilf«' o. .••<■« ui \r\% \ ork on horse back, sometimes 
art «Hii|i^Hi«it 1*^ ' i'-*«- ^-•*>^:." -umI at others by a friend, crossing 
Miiiii' ii^«i« M< 1 >. o" »»\J I'tt'crn 1)\ folding- The roads, taverns, 
aiiil itdi«-i <«• i •^%#*^i«> ' It' imiciim^. uiTv much improved since the 
Dull K iMiNn>»* i«« lljit.«M\l. I«iit Htill in a state that would now appal 
ihte « iiiti««{^ •*! •••<* i*->i •« l«.u kutHHUiiinn or an Indiio Seoul. She 

I'oiiiiil «• M II* k «iiiiir •:tmd biiildin^rs : a neat little piace. 

Miih J, .•4t.i..«M» 1IVCI ttriiwr. i\iloneI Heathcote's seat sbe 
•ditiiii.*! .«••«( *«i> ii*ld tu- '*i%j<« a \iTv tine i^nilenian/* New R«^ 
chellc wtta ilicii m i lc-4iii prruv place, with passable roads, aod t 
bridge broad riioui>h k>r a cart. 


1706 The new assemblv coD\'ened in 1705 were no le» demo- 
cntkrk than the preceding. The former gnint for the sup- 
poft of co^emment had expired, and a continuance was nes^ected, 
ahhou^ a French pri^-ateer had entered the harbour of New York 
and fri^rhtened the town : it was remembered that the money roted 
far batteries at the Narrows had never been applied to that uae. 
J^3,000 were voted for foitiJications ; but instead of giving it to hb 
k>rdship, the assembly deposited it with a person of their own chooe- 
m^. Thev talked of thiir trrtismnrr : and the council, still com- 
posed of persons always the govemour^s dependents, or friends* 
joined him in his endeavours to wrest from the assembly the power 
of the purse, but in ^-ain. 

1706 As if to increase the unpopularity he had drawn upon 
himself, bv his indecent conduct. Combur\' undertook to 

1707 exert power in religious auuirs^ as his iustrucdons made him 
the judge how far it was contfmie/it so to do. He forbade 

17 OS the Dutch congregation to listen to a presbyterian minister, 
or open their church for his reception. He imprisoned two 
presbyterian minisiers for preachini; without his license. They were 
hberated alter si\ week's incarceration, on giving bail, by Chief Justice 
Montpesson.* The govemour. appearing in the streets dts^^uised 
as a woman — his debaucheries and contemptible extravagancies might 
have been borne — but when he interfered with the rights and conscien- 
ces of men. New York and New Jersey joined in addresses 
to his mistress for his removal. The unanimous and reiterated 
complaints presented to the queen, obliged her to revoke Us 
commission : and when no longer hed^ied about bv that hak> 
which marks the sanciitv of SLKrnrisrns ij% tA<rir otm nV^/, and 
all in auihoritv under them, his creditors of New York threw him 
into prison, where he remained until the death of his father released 
him bv hereditarv rights and immunities, and raised him from one 
of the jails of the City Hall, in Wall street, to a seat in the Britisb 
bouse of peers — making him, from a contemptible debtor in a 
New York jail, a law-maker and jud^ for a great empire. 

During the year 1707, the French goveniment of Canada, not 
finding the opportunity the court directed them to await— of stri- 
king a destructive blow at the Iroquois, with safet}' to themselves, 
and little cost to the king, kept them in gi>od humour, by presents 
and datterv. But, savs Charlevoix, while we succeeded so wel 
with the Five Nations^ who were idolaters^ the Govemour of Orange, 
L e. Peter Schuvler, Mavor of Albanv, was almost as successful 
with the Iroquois chrislMns. Their piety, he says, had become 
relaxed, in consequence of their drunkenness. But while Jod- 

« 8«e Smich'i Uki. ir«l. 1. p. ldl^, aid ml tf McKtnit. ptiMe^ ialTtt. 


caire, the governour's agent, and the Jesuit misBionariea kepi the 
confederates quiet, the Indians in the neighbourhood of Detroit ven 
troublesome to the French garrison. However, in 1708, Vaudreid 
ibund more pious emplo^'ment for his christian Indians than getting 
drunk, hj sendins them to scalp and murder the planters ol" Nev 
England. The Govemour of Canada made up a war paitr is 
attack the English seulers: the christain savages, (a stiance 
combination of words,) were joined in it with 400 French soldien; 
but on the march, the Indians deserted and returned home. Tin, 
the historian attributes to the intrigues of Peter Schuvler — hijrh 
praise to that great man. who, while he interposed the Iroquois be- 
tween the French and New York, defeated their plans of havoc oo 
the frontiers of New England. 

Vaudreuil wrote to .Schuyler, reproaching: him with debauchine 
the Indians who were domiciliated in Canada, at the same time tfau 
ke, from his respect to the Dutch, and particularly to Schuyler* had 
left New York in peace. Schuyler replied, that in endeavourincto 
prevent tlie Indians from attack inj; New Endand, he had acted as 
a christian. *' I must believe,*' said the Mavor of Albanv, *^ that 
it is my duty to Ciod and my neighbour, to prevent, if possible, the 
cruelties of barbarians which have too often been exercised on the 
unhappy people. You will pardon me, sir, for saying that I feel 
my heart swell wiih indisniation, when I think that a war between 
christian prinreit, obliirated to obey the laws of honour and genen^ 
siiy/* (and Ik* iniirht have added humanity.) ** should be carried on 
witli sava::e baH»ari<^in.** 

Charli'voix savs, that Peter Schuvler was a verv honest man : 

• • • 

but lie kne\* wry well, by what had parsed for the last fifty yean 
in tliis i^art of America, that it was tlie Kni'li^h who had reduced 
the French to the necessity of perinitlinc: their savasres to act. He 
Mvs, the French Indian^ never exerci-sed crueltv. but a# rf.iiri^iU; 
and lor tiie purpose «>f making tntrk kind o/ icirniri ceasv. 

In the spring of 170>, Juhn. Lord Lovelace. Haron of Hurley, 
was ap(H>inted to the t:ovemnient of New York, but did not arrive 
until die follow ins: Decenil^er. We find ever}* chan;re ^-as hailed 
witli acclamation, but the chances were all in favour of the co!onists« 
in getting rid o( a man they despised and detested, that his succes- 
sor, must bt* bet' r. Lovelace dissolved the assembly, and con- 
Tened another. To them he recommended an increase of the re- 
venue, pressed the examination of public accounts, ** that it might 
oe known to all the world, that the public debt was not contracted 
in his time.** 

All this passed, while his predecessor was confined by his credi- 
tors, not bein^r vet liberated, and elevated bv the macick of be red:- 
*My dignity. Any reflection upon Combury was graiityn; to the 
■■I inbly, but the demands of Lovelace, damped the joy tkej ex- 


pressed at his appointment and arrival. They complained tbtt 
previous bad government had deterred settlers from the province, 
and even driven au*av inhabitants to their neischbouis of Connect!- 
nit, who enjoy more libeny and prosperit}'. Tliey at length, on 
the 5th day of May, agreed to raise .£2,500 for the charges of go- 
vernment one year to come : of which jC 1,600 was for the gover- 
nour, and 1H)0 for the fia's and lights of ilie forts at New York, 
Albany and Schenectady, together with printing, and other small 
charires. This mode of annuallv assiirnins: the sum to be raised, 
would certainly have caused dissention between govemour and 
assemblv ; and miirht have tested Lovelace^s character, but he died 
before the knowledjje of the vote readied him. 

The government devolved ujwn Hichanl Ingoldsby, who was 
at the time lieutenant-irovemour : and a!rain the province, happily 
but for a short time, was in some measure placed in the power of 
a man who had proved himself unworthy of trust, and incapable 
of conductiniT a crovernment. Iniroldsbv ruled for eleven months, 
during; which, anotlier feeble attempt was made by tlie English mi- ^ 
nistr}-, for the conquest of Canada. The project of this enterprise 
wiut conceived by Colonel A'etch. who had made himself acquainted 
with the iSt. Lawrence, by actual examination and sounding : Fran- 
cis Nicholson, was apiwinted to command the provincials, and 
arrived in New York at the rc(|uest of Ingoldsby, certainly inaus- 
picious names, and the event agreed with tliem. 


Prq^ rations for suMning Canada — AlarrUtj of Sac York — The 
[rofpioijt join — Tnx*ivt half f»f JIwhI Crrrk — English armameni 
*ritt\< to Port u seal — 77*'* prorinrlah an^ hd back — Discontent — 
Kj-prdifion from Canada — Schnifh^rs plan for engaging Eng' 
land in the conquest if Canada — Hv goes to England fcith^m 
[jtdian rhitf'a — Prfydturs another English attenqity whi€'hjails as 
hrf'otr — Gorernour I Inn ft r — Ills Cottnril — Arriral <f Germans 
—Lewis Morris — Jacolats J'an Cortlandt — Hunter^s dematidi * 
i//>rt« fhr Assemhltf — Drfuils of' thr failure of the attack yjion (kh 
nada — Treaty of Ufreehf — Pirates. 

Father Charlevoix in his Histor}- of New France, tells us, that 
immense preparations were made at tliis period by Great Britain, 
for the subjusration of Canada ; that a powerful armament was fitted 
out at Boston for this purpose ; and at New York, an army of 2,000 

VOL I. 34 ^^.^ 


men "waF aHsemWed to H*»iz« C^rnTi-i-ir.. ful! «»i. !Mnn:i»i!il. Tiif 
suBBiouan' Bpv at Oiiorid'con. ::it.d :»€f:irt r:' er ii:»:ir-( lim: ui* l-cmufis 
were urred v.» declar*: wuj Lri.i.:i^": Frutif:* : Mr iKn' lie teli?- A'ai- 
dreuil. ttniT lL! ::ie T:^ *r Nu:i.i:i-. ^-l-v;!*. :ii* >*'ii*":ji-. d«cliirf oiMiurr 
in their vIIlartK- tim: die^ vrr. ic: "n- v hi. ui* Lurii'^: in ai: nca'jc 
upon Call udiL Tri* rr^'iir*. iiiirrsl'iiiLr; l* Oirmaiiri*. v'uj- v-Tinn-C 
to dejian. and for ftL*- r*' ::;- :u. 'i:-*:*v i:i::i-i*i" inn- i!h iiaiirL' nf 
the New Yorktr-^. vu- •. »i:^f''^:i :•.■ .-^;:;;.:;- v ••! :"*;iit*'c:. aiic: car- 
ried 10 New Yori:. 

M- Vaudreuil afie.' :n:r.:L:j: Qu^ttif/. i: i r?:!!;* ti: ut'itJin-'. a:*"eTiuec 
lor tilt same j»i;rpir)r»e :o ^]rl: '.r-jLl. t/ici i!it I'r*iir-i iul';. exiHfnec 
tfast E I ijrlaiid V h ! . t ere t* fi-.;* ■: i.: i c: i--: : ' • . v i i ui :: s?* 'j. ; i: i l : i if effti-5 
of tbe ct*iam«sl? v • <i'^ erw : i^ 1 ?:.<.' j .u i. i j.. 

Wlieu lilt j>rov:!i'.:e* x^ere n-'v.:"--: v •■ -'>:i"-ir.- ii li u:ui"i m 
Canada, iiont bijf.jv^tri s:T*/t:*'r i.\hr*-:r '..n.z "^^'v '^ :ri.. v;ir:i :r'- 
Tine*: iia\iai:l»wii r*^:ir*ir-:! i'^ i^i^ !'.!:i'-^ i. (»' <. :r:i:iiiT^ . imc ifi!;; 
pleased vi'J: hdor^:-- ''if L'-^i^iU':- . <v:ic: cii*;:- ttviir* vm ?•:»?:- 
lustf: tjadiicit :o *'x:»^ri^:j'': ".'ir *f**:" '•:' ::i*r ::;i"*i *r rni'Miiu?- ii- 
strunio:i«-. lo ::iFl-=: uiio:. a T'^r'::£i:i-.'::: -liii'^. vt?r* u'li^'ir n zi^'.-r 
krraJTv. aud ;:: fc d*?^L-tr u» j-.cIj iii^ } r*:i'-: ]i'K-4^;-i^i:i:ii ic- ::i* 5i-i*jisi. 


«e;.»l**. Tilt lj'fc'j:f^::a:n-i:vv»..",i.-.:* L:r.: r-fiL::i'\., Li:i*-L : '- :!i* 
pcmerf 'J i in fl ueu'' ■*: cif C '.• j '.•:j*- . i ' ':'i» : S • : j i i -. ■: , i: i :: -j ■ • ■ ; c ; 'i* ^ I " : i : m :*.«? 

tht eT;!**':!:!-.''.- T'lf: y:*-:*'-: t^'. :••«. !--.'i' *!'»: -►' ( Li;ii:;i . r-irraz 

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arrived,) to await new? from the English fleet. At tliis commence^ 
ineiit of the waters that flow to the St. Lawrence, and tlie Allan- 
tick, where formerly Winihrop was stopped for want of canoes, the 
iVewYork troops accumulated batteaux and vessels of even' kindy 
to trau'sport themselves to Canada, when the British fleet and anny 
2^hould appear before (Quebec- But the first intelliirence they beard 
of this looked for armament, was, that instead of coming to the aid 
of tiie provincials, it had been sent to Portuiral. The summer \«as 
passed in the woods and swamps, that tiien and long after made the 
counirv about Wood Creek drearv and unwholesome, and in Oc- 
lober, the colonies were infoniled by the En^^lish Ministry, that the 
armament prepared for the relief of the provinces in America, was 
more needeil bv her maiestv's l*ortUi:ucse allies. 

At Wood Creek, the troops (such as were not in liospitals) 
were employed in huihlini: blockhouses and erecting forts, upon 
die news that Kn<;land had abandoned them. Those who sun'ived 
exposure, miasmata, and all the diseases peculiarly attached to raw 
troops, in unhealthy situations, wore led back, to exasperate still 
more the colonists, who had ruined themselves to raise and support 
an army by order of the Enirlish Court under promise of co-0|>era- 
tion. The lro(juois v.ho had been induced at a great expense of 
money, presents and promises to attend tlie provincials, lost confr- 
dfuce in the Enirlish power. The women and children of the 
Indian warrii»urs had hi en supported by the New Yorkers, during 
the idle absence of their husbands ami fathers, who now returned 
to their home- to sustain the ho>lililies of the French, whom they 
had provoked, by joiuin:: the Env;lish in this disastrous expedition. 
There was, on the other hand amom: the whites, a suspicion that 
the Indians had ac.'ele rated, if not rejoiced at, the wastinc; disease 
of their allies, and had imbibed a notion, not far from the tnith, that 
the two coniemlin^ nations i»f Europeans, tliouirh willing; to make 
use of the natives for defence or otfence, were only waiting tile 
proper moment to sacriliee them to their own interest. 

Tiie French historian of liiese events tells us, that while tlie pro- 
vincials of New York and New England were building strong places 
in the neii:ljbourho<Ml of WihmI Creek and between the Hudson and 
( Jyfc Snrnnuii!^) Lake (ieor^^e, M. liamezay was sent from Mon- 
treal to oppose tiie invaders on the land side, while M. Vaudreuil 
deseen<led to (Quebec to oppose the expected attack by sea. On 
the 'J^ih i)f .Inly, M. Kaniezay advanced, bavins: a captain with 50 
Frencinneii ami :ilK) luilians in front, sustained by 100 Canadians 
and 100 rei^njar troop- k\\ the kinir's army. The Ciovemour of 
Montreal followed Kamezay, at the head of -300 Canadians, the 
rhri>:t'in Ii'tHfwns formini: his rear «:nard, under M. Joncaire. The 
<>ttf»was and Nipi^in^* were the flankini: parties of this army. Ha- 
ving raised our expectations of an exciting combat, Charlevoix 

liar-;:.-:-., v ;:.' 
Mai K. ■^;ii;-:,; 

:atir i.r.- iii.; 

VCHUVLER's visit to ENGLAND. 26D 

sippi. Th^y knew tliat the power of England must be exerted for 
this purpose. 

Peter Schuyler was one of these far-seeing colonists ; and he 
knew that the movements of great nations are often caused by the 
veriest trifles in existence. lie had seen in his own day thousands 
of Hus^ienots driven from France bv the relicrious whim of a wo- 
man ; and the fleets of the great naval nation of Great Britain, the 
power of a protestant people, exerted for the destruction of 
the Dutch, (another naval and protestant people,) at the com- 
mand of the French monarch, a papist, and the enemy of both 
nations; but the source from whence Charles II received treasure 
for the support of his mistresses. Seeing and knowing all this, the 
Mayor of Albany conceived tlie project of moving the court of 
Queen Anne to tlie annihilation of the French power in America, 
bv means of exhibiting: five Indian chiefs in their barbarick costume 
to the people, the nobles, and the majesty of Britain. 

At hlj own expense did this patriot persuade (for it cost some- 
thing to persuade an Indian, even of Peter Schuyler^s time,) five 
chiefs of the Iroquois to accompany him to England, that by their 
exhibition and his eloquence, he might jKrsuade the queen, her 
husband, and tlie other men in power, to assist the colonies in 
throwing ofi* the palpable incubus which was wefghing upon them 
to extinction. 

Colonel Schuyler, knowing how important the Five Nations 
were to the welfare of New York, had used every means to gain 
their confidence. Thev saw in him a brave and wise soldier, as 
well as maii:istrate ; and he did not spare either himself or his ample 
fortune to gain that influence which he possessed over them. He 
frequently went among them ; and when they came to Albany, his<^ 
house was open and his table spread for them. The measure pro- 
posed, of sending their chiefs with Schuyler to England, was pleas* 
ing to the Iroquois, and the individuals considered themselves as 
the deputies of an independent people in alliance with the monarch 
of Great Britain. All this proves the fallacy of the story, that the 
Indians purposely poisoned the waters to destroy the New York 

As Schuyler predicted, the Enrrlish were delighted by the exhi- 
bition of five Indian chiefs. The people ran in crowds to admire 
five Indians — and kings too — for so they were called, and 
such their finer)' denoted them.^ The guards were reviewed in 
Hvde Park, for their amusement, tlie theatres were put in requisi- 

* Tli<*ir blanketi* and breech-clontn. brareleu and now jewels, were jotdj ad 
mired: hut the court went into mourning for »onie Earopean prince, and Amerieui 
kinj^ were drewed in hlark breechea and ve^t», with a mantle of tcarlel dotli 
trimmed with gold lace as a subetituie for their former rojal bbnket Tbej were 


tion for their edification ; they were received at court, and mi 
speeclies to the queen, which nobody understood, and which w 
dictated by Scliuyler, and translated as he directed. The aas< 
bly of New York had written an address, praying assistance^ ; 
entrusted it to the Mayor of Albany. His scheme succeeded, \ 
England engaged to send a sufficient armament for the conques 

Madame Maintenon, or tlie widow Scarron, banished i 
persecuted to death thousands, by the revocation of the edict 
Nantes : Charles II, to gratify his patron, Lewis XIV, cause< 
bloody war between England and Holland ; and Peter Schuyler, 
exhibiting five Indians, brought a fleet and army from England 
the river St. Lawrence. Tlic colonists again expected the po^ 
of Britain to be exerted for their protection. Again they prepa 
to do their part, and again their hopes were disappointed. 1 
New England forces, when despairing of succour from £ngla 
invaded Acadie, (Nova Scotia,) took Port Royal, and in comj 
ment to the queen, called it Annapolis. 

Ingoldsby, who had shared the favour and infamy of Sloughl 
Fletcher, and Cornbur)', might have now governed the provim 
only the representations of New Jersey and New York caused j 
dismissal from oftice before this period. Robert Hunter was a 
pointed goveniour; and until his arrival, Gerard Beekman 
the president of the council, officiated. 

Hunter was born in Scotland ; and when a boy, had been p 
apprentice to an apothecar}*. "He left his master," says Willia 
Smith ; that is, ran awat/y and entered the army. 
■J Education, superiour to common soldiers, ambition, and 

handsome person, we may suj)pose, gave Hunter his first pi 
ferment : personal i)eauty and a military garb, gained the affe 
I tion of Lady Hay; she married him, and in 1707 we find lii 

appointed Lieutenant-governour of ^'irginia. On his voyafl 
he was captured by a French privateer, and carried back to Kuroc 
When exchanged, and again at St. James's, he was appointed 
succeed Lovelace as (iovernour of New York and New Jersc 
Such is the honourable story of lirigadier Hunter, proving that 
had merit as well as good fortune to enable him to ascend the la 
der of military and court promotion ra|)idly and steadily. A ft 
ther proof of his talents, was his intimacy with Swift, Addison ai 
the other wits of the day. 

The council, on the arrival of Goveniour Hunter, was composi 

tricked off by •* th« drewere" of the theatre, and conducted to St. James* in t^ 
coacheii, by a noble courtier, where llie lord chumberlain waited to introduce th< 
to the royal presence of their mister, Queen Anne, to whom they gave toiiM 111111 
ofwamiNim, for which the countiy paid full dearly. 


of Gerardus Beekman, Rip Van Dam,' Colonel Rensselaer, Judge 
Montpesson, Mr. Barbarie, and Mr. Phillipse. Beekman was one 
of the rich possessors of city property, and perhaps other lands. 
His orchard, occupied what is now the space between John street 
and Beekman street, (within my memory known as Chapel street, 
after the building of St. George's Chapel :) beyond the present 
chapel was the swamp, to the north and east of Beekman's Orchard. 
Rip Van Dam, though a Dutchman and a merchant, had worked 
his way up to a seat in the council, and was one of the rich. The 
family of Van Rensselaer is well known. Montpesson stood high 
as a lawyer. Barbarie was a rich Huguenot of distinction. Phil- 
lipse seems only distinguished for wealth, and attachment to the 
English government. The last of the race possessed l^hillipsburg, 
in Westchester county. 

Although the two great parties which had convulsed New York, 
w^ere in a manner reunited in opposition to the vices and follies of 
Cornbury, the leader of the aristocracy, still that party governed ; 
and were strengthened by the accession of Hunter, who, though 
one of the people originally, had by his reception among the great, 
become as decidedly an opponent to the people's rights, (to manage 
their own property for their own benefit,) as any of the peers in 
England, or gentry in New York. 

With the governour came a number of Germans, driven from 
their native country, the Palatinate, which had been laid waste by 
the inhuman policy of Lewis XIV, and were now, to the amount of 
near 3,000, transported at the expense of Great Britain, to become 
valuable colonists of America. Many of these Germans stopped in 
the city of New York, where they built the Lutlieran Church, almost 
adjoining Trinity, which was burnt in the great fire of 1776. The 
site is now occupied by Grace Church. Great numbers of these Ger- 
mans, (called palatines) settled on Livingston's manor : the place 
was once called the Camp, and is now known as Germantown. 
Pennsylvania had a share of these emigrants, who have been more 
distinguished for their agriculture, than for their improvement in 
science or literature, with some well known exceptions. 

Hunter visited the government of New Jersey, and gained the 
assistance both there and in New York, of Lewis Morris, the chief 
justice, a man of extraordinary talents and influence. Morris was 
appointed to be one of the council in New Jersey, as well as Wil- 
liam Pinhorne, and Judge Montpesson, both of the New York council. 

The uncle of Lewis Morris, above mentioned, was an officer in 
the army of Cromwell,* and after the return of the Stuarts fled to 
America, in the garb of a quaker. He seated himself in New York, 

* Chief Justice Smith's History of New York. 


lion for tbeir edifjcaiion : thev were received at court, and 
spetfri.r* 10 xLe qii'.-en, wiiich nobody undcrrstood. and which 
dicuird bv ^^ciJUv]er. and trani-lated a« he directed- The assent- 
bly of New York irdd v.ritien an addre?.*. prayins asfistaDce axM 
eoini^ted ii lo the ALvor of Aloanv. His scheme succeeded, ajod 
England en paired to ^end a <fulncient arrnanient for the conquest of 

Madame Maintenon, or tije widow .Scarron, banished and 
persecuted to death tljoosand^f. by the revtf>caiioD of the edict of 
Nantes : Charles 11, to sratify }iis patron, Lewb XIV. caused a 
bloodv war between Kndand and Holland ; and Peter .Schuvler. br 
exhibitinz ^i\^ Indiana. brouL'iJt a fleet and armv from Kn^iand !o 
the river St. Lawrence. The colonists a^^ain expected the po wo- 
of Britain to be exerted for their protection. Azain liiey prepared 
to do t}jeir part, and azain their hopes were difappoinied. The 
New Knzland forces, wlien despairin:: of succour from Eniiiand, 
invaded Acadie. (Nova .Scoiia.) look Port Koyal, and in compU- 
raent to the queen, called it Annapolis. 

IniroldjJiv. wiio had shared :he favour and infamv of .Slouzhter. 
Fletcher, and Corn bur}', mii'lit have now I'overned the pro\JiiCe, 
only the rejiresenuiions of New Jersey arid New ^ ork caiised Lis 
dismissal fro:.'i OiTjce before iJii* period- liobert Hunter was ap- 
pointed tiovcrrjour : auil ii»;:ij IjIs iirri*. lJ. Gtrard Iieekman a» 
the president of t.» J e coLinrll. orilfiated. 

li'jiit.'rr .^d-r hr»rri i;; rr'o?!>:.ii; ii.M: w}..-;:i a bov. :.a«3 Ic-rr. iiut 
apprentice!.! tu aj;o::.v' fir.. ••H».- ■•.:! I:!-^tvr.'* :rt.v- Wliii^jt, 
Smith: li;-.! i.-. I'm: '></'/./. t:-^i ^:. ';:•-- f».«; llj<.' ar:j;v. 


Educalio::, -up-.-rio-i.- lo ayw.wjiw .-oi<:l^-r-. ::!':!i::!o:j. ajid a 
handsoiije p«:r*o:i. v.^- t.-jv. *'j:»:.o-'.. i'-.\- H ..;:♦. r j.i- :;.v: j^re- 
fennent: i>er^oij:i! \}*:>,\^w tii^i ii i:.i!!v.rv j^rin j-i::.-.-.; i:.e acv- 
tion of Liadv Hlv: •^e \\,\ir{.*-j\ :.'::=. :iij i >. 17'»7 wv ^I./: jji;^; 
ap[Kiint%d i^ieiileiiani-ro*. f.-r:jo jr of \i:/jj^2. < >ij i,i« ^o;. c^-e. 
be was captured bv a Frer.'^ )j i-ri^ ^jT-e:. ai.ii <^ <iiT\K^l l.-j'.k to V.^.iiju*:. 
When ex'^hanjed. iiijd ajj-.::: iit St. J;-.:.,*. -V. ],t u:-.- iij«ji«iii.!*.-.i :.j 
succeed Lovelace as (ioveri,fi -.' of N..v. Vo:k \i:.d N •.'.'. J ♦-:-»'.•. 
h?u*"ii Ls the liorjourabje ^torv nf h^.s-'-'i*' H-.i-V::. ;.rovi:.j i:.'-i •> 
had merit as well as ;:oofi foni;::e lo rh-c:*]: \t) ar'*:,MJ i:.f. [aC- 
der of miliian* arid court nror.'iOt'.rn ::;♦!<:] v aijd -:• ^.i;"v. A lu:- 
ther prfiof of hir lakni-. wd? ii> luv.-.iiLf y w'liii >^a\::. A.;i:]-o:*. a:..: 
tJje other w!:.- of i:.'-- 'lav. 

Tjie cfju'.y:'.]. o:i ::.<.- crri'. <!l o* Ti'.'. •.rr.o .r Il-ji/if.-r. v. a- <'.-:r:oT":.; 

».. r* 

frKkud fir" !..v ■ ::.- •>< —-r^ r.f "i.*- :'.»-i'r-. \r.: ** :..•:•*/:»■: v. >: Jjj .. r. •» 
ca»rh» .. .'.v 5, r.... ... to^irL^-r. wfj'.f* ::.- ?'t-i t.^:!.*.. r^.n v*i.>.; ro .'/rr ■:■'» t.v:.. 

to ih* royai pr«-M^rK^ ^'t'^' -r -.->r. Qa^*-!! Anji*-. to whom t/.fr} j»vt K.-ac •':ni. ji 
•TwampaiB. for wlucfa iik« rountn' pud fulic^tri^ 


from whence he found his way to Jamaica, in tlie West Indies, 
where he supported himself as a scrivener. As a proof of his boyish 
propensities, we are tohl that when a pupil to Luke Coppathwait, 
a quake)*, Lewis hid himself in a tree by which his teaclier was to 
pass, and in a feigned voice with crreai solemnity called upon Lukci 
(from above of course.) and ordered him to ijo and preach the Gos- 
j>el among the Mohawks. Luke considered the bidding miracu- 
lous, and prepared to obey, when either by compunction of the boy 
or other means, he was undeceived. After several years passed 
io the West Indies, the wanderer relumed to Morrisania, and was 
received bv his uncle with foririvcness and jov. To settle him for 
life, the undo brought about a marringe between Lewis and 
Miss Ciraham. 

The biographical ** will" tells us, that the uncle " dying, what 
he had, felf' into the hands of the person who has occasioned this 
notice, ** beini; his sole and oiilv heir," and that there had been 
'* articles of airreement and partniTsiiip entered into between his 
uncle and his fatlier, tliat if eitlier of them died without issue, the 
sur\'ivor, or issue of the survivor, if any, should take the estate." 

Before liovernour Hunter's arrival, I^ewis Morris had been one 
of the council of New .Jersey, (where he possessed estates as well 
as in New York,) and was a judire of the supreme court in that 
province in 101)2. I'pon the surren<!er of New .Jersey to Queen 
Anne, by the proprietors, Morris had been named by them for 
governour, but the (jueen ciiose to a|)point her cousin, the infa- 
mous Cornbur\', in his stead. WJien C'ornhurv was removed, 
Morris drew up the complaints of New Jersey, and carried the 
address to England. 

To diis gentleman, (Jovernour Hunter was indebted (or sujypari^ 
both in New Jersey and New York. In the latter province he 
secured the attachment likewise of Nicoll, the speaker of the 
house of assembly, Liviuirston, and l>e Lancey, who though a 
foreigner from ('aen in Normandy, had by his personal merits, 
and the inHuence of ^'an ('ortlandt's familv, into which he had 
married, already attained great wcijrht in the province. 

Jacobus Van C'ortlandt was at this time mayor of New Y'ork, 
and one of the most successful anil opulent merchants of the city. 
I presume him to have been the son and successor of Stephanus 
Van Cortlandt, so conspicuous in the aristtx^ratick or anli-Leislerian 
party, in 16S9 and aftenvards. The reader will see, that the leading 
or most conspicuous families for political anitaiion of New York, at 
this time were all in union wuh the lOnijlish irovemment, and 
occasionally in opposition to the people. The Hayards, Phil- 
lipses. Van Cortlandts, and De Lanceys, were sixty years after 
ranged on the king's part ; while the Morrises of Morrisania, the 

VOL. I. 3-'> 

S74 HnrrEE's ADXDnsTmAnos. 

Lmncfloot, the Scfaurkn. were kaden on the pan of ike 
pie. The cfaiinpioiis of ibe peo{de in 1710 are fink 
the eooitlr hkuMim. 

The De Lancers of the preseot dar, and of tbe tanr § 
duiuur our rerol-juoaan' FOiigrle* derive iheir Amchcaa 
from this Piene De Lar^cey. wbo mairied a Van ConiaiMk. m ;ke 
etgbteea'Ji cea'ury : bui ihe reader will find Stephen De Laaeer 
in New York, aad an ^'idtrzmn, b ibe rear 1691. Kctre. «Be 
of th<Ke HuzueDoi? ^bo escaped iioin the trianny and bicoor dl 
Louis Xn'. wa« aided b his dlrbt bj a protesxant mocfaer. 
BOC oslj care him tbe pas5p<>rt5 of educadoD for ius saiiesr, 
jewels, whkb esai^Jed him b Holknd to procure wbax 
sarr to appear b Nctt York as a vreaJthj mercbant ; and 

hini DOW a repre^cHTJre b ti« as^cbjT of tbe prorzaee. 

1710 Peter Schujkr had reiJirjed b safer with his Iroqaoii 
cbieiiains. and the cojo^ies irere arsJc called utipos: to 

in tbe cooqcest of Casadi- Gorersour Honter raei ibe 
of tbe Fire Nations ax AlbuT. znd look X3>easures to seccre 
and tbeir constirueats. b ibe b^erest of ib^ province be Eorcmec : 
but declbed. :bourb or^ed eo to do. usinr his b^Deace for vx 
porpr»5e of e::^^^^^ tbr Iroquois b warfare wiib tbe Fresica 
Indii:^?. t^/.o £1 1::!? l::;*: carried ibeir Qe?trjctive war&re i2xu> tbe 
New EsriaM «:L«aQerfis. I: was tbe poiicv of uje GoverDoarci 
New York- to prt^r^e cuieT on his ows froaaers. bv xseans of the 
DeutralliT su^f*r::ii: i*e:T^e*.-} ihe F:ve Niiio::* i'd '.Jire Fr*?Dcb. 

Rerzrr..r.z y* Nr- Y'.rk *::r.'. L* fou?:': ".r.r =L-r:::.i:v aver?* to 
p]»cbr ir-e 7-V.!c f-t'.> a: iie Gi*rosai of ::.«? rc»*rr-«'...r. ••bej 
wisr.:-:r '.'J r^=ri iri::-^: T>.e rL^^i: illcs-l-:-- t^for% eiz-entDcec. 
Uu^^Tcr .123 s«jrwj 'j;^ 'ouT'Tl. vito er-oec-.o-red to u=,tzc. •_:»? 
mosej hi:;*. *Dd -jj* THTo iou^* -a^ere ai i«T;e. Hu'Ter rT:r^'rs«: 
the as?-rmt*.y OS the ^xtj of N:»TeTiWT. ro: i h *:•■:»* 1 r. r :<: o?:«ct!< 
then UL'il tn: hid defrirt .ri=Lr:?iv:> iron: r.e nbi^vj e/c lie 
board of traae. wni-.r. b* ".y/s: the Droz-er mewjr** :-:• •^•?r-c -re 
accord ir.r to hi* wirh. Drrlr^ vye wbter. tbe zo'^^rry.iT "=rc* 
arzie:: ry -jie boird for dl-^-cL^iz :b^ anLrsof 'Jse piaiiui : !:*• tid 
bv her crecio*^ im'-esr^. with sj:b b*cruciJon* a* ei.c':.;rd h.r lo 
like viTi o:»er.;T wiih rhe -.ojwil- aad when h^ rz*: the 

1711 a&a-enjL'Iy b ihe sprbr. i;e i.>!d \zxzn iZ'siz^ i&er Mc^n'a 
t'jrjderLe*? to ibtm- which n^ade ber ^-izz^ a i^rz.^ZjtzX 

revenue for ihe roveniiDen! : for wb*^L Aey were :ef: to :beT_?e!ie*. 
they mide too £T*cI cins of moaey to tbelr roverso-jr?, fcv acts of 
aaseriihiy : whertL*. ber nuiesn-. by 5xbs tbe salaries of oScers* 
erf which il-je w** i iiener jjoee xbaa tbei* coujd be, and i>r«iirj- 
»£ it»e miJLisr iTjy pr^'seats to yieir roverooars, took tiwre a>i 
beu^r care of tbeir f*ropeny. than ibev knew bow to do. He 
hoped ibey hid conae to /T^Tuie a suppon far ha majesrr'i go- 


vernment, iVi the manner she has been plea^ to direct. He, there* 
lore, asked them, whether or not they would support her majestr't 
government in the way she had been pleased to direct — pay the 
debts due to officers and others — and provide for the defence of the 
frontiers ? 

The assembly could not be persuaded that her majesty, the board 
of trade, the ministry, the governour, on any others, were better qui* 
lified to judge of the necessity or propriety of g:iving money for the 
support of the province, than they were : they passed a money bill, 
which the governour*s council again attempted to amend. The right 
to amend a money bill was denied by the assembly, and the bill de- 
feated. The governour told the assembly, in May, that he would 
pass no bill, until provision was made for the government. 

In the mean time, Nicholson, with the forces furnished by the 
eastern provinces, had seized upon Acadie, and aspired to the con- 
quest of Canada. Great Britain persuaded by the eloquence of 
Peter Schuvler, backed bv the exhibition of five kinfi[s of. the Five 
Nations, made preparations for the relief of her provinces, from the 
annoyance of their French neighbours, and called upon them agaiii 
to assist in this salutary measure. To this call New Y^ork cheer* 
fully responded, and the assembly created a debt of ^10,000, by 
issuing treasury bills, to be redeemed by taxation, in five years. 

By orders from home, (as England was then always called,) a 
congress was held of all the colonial govemours from New Jersey 
to Massachusetts, both included. Two regiments were raised by 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, to join the 
British armament, when it should arrive at Boston. 

Nicholson was appointed to command the provincials, and rous* 
tered at Albany 4,000 men, under Colonels Schuyler, Ingoldsby, 
mnd Whiting ; these were raised in New Jersey, New York, and 
Connecticut : New York seconded by every means this attack upon 
Canada, and spared no exertions for building batteaux, collecting 
provisions, and fonvarding the enterprise. The influence of Schuy- 
ler procured 600 Iroquois, in adddidon to the other forces of New 

While these preparations were eagerly forwarded by the pro- 
▼inces, twelve men of war, forty transports, and six store shipst 
with frigates and bomb vessels, bearing the regiments of Kirk, HlU, 
Windress, Clayton, and Kane, summoned from Flanders, toge- 
ther with Seymour's and Demey's regiments, and a battalion of 
marines, from England, the whole commanded by General Hill, m 
relation of Mrs. Masham, who had superseded the Duchess of 
Marborough as the queen's favourite, sailed amply provided with 
artillery and stores, and arrived at Boston eariy in the summer. 

Nicholson and his army inarched by the former route from Albany, 


bdsiir irjteuded tt^r&uiFi Moinre&L bv the Tfirr oT Wood CrBck 
L«jk«r C/hnTuplsLui. J>ut liif ::f utTdJ reriiuued sr tiit^ furu uvrjxuic 
neM^frc^rij Ux iit>fi- Adr-ircu ^^ir Housdon W&Iktsr and Oenexh! 
I Jill, wiiij » flt*^ of upwiLrL> ^rseieun. carrrinc 6.4"tK> 'Cxxf^. 

of Au^u>«L tii^ &*:^ iLri(-i)o;-<rd iri (Jsi^^ietr Jbisiy. lo lakfr is vood bdc 
ir«lA*r. Jjrj 3i>rf«:ndi»iv: iti*- >u Liiwrfiire . liit anuameni was eniazkpec 
•niid rtjukt vnd i^iiiride o'j ine ur.»rtLr:rij s^itore. 

To opj>»/w- 1 i lih o ^ en\ Jit i rii i ti r fore e nd ^ sLDrizi r bj land mnd 
upon il*t two «.-'XU<rii:iufi* of Si> proviucf- X'audreuii. orderMi 
fc»rur d« Ik-aur-oun. lo Jia^eu trie fortincrduons of Quebec* 
hold liitf irv/fjjii!'. n:£ri^l-d!> sifjd xLiiiti'd. In readme^' to zmjrb «i 
iIht <rij*-triy sip|>(-ar<:C. IjitiiaJi* i^tre coliecied ci MonirwJ. uk 
elllLtM^»riL-^ M'fji to di-u* ij ij**. Iror^iioi* from il*je Ecsriii-i: fitndtrc- 

'I'lwr Ji^uilJ". I<,oiijii«.-il. and Jomcau. were seiiU lir^ od€ io 
Oniiiida;ni. i^>«r oTr:*:r to tla- Sennas, and prtvti-rd on r;5i.y to ho^ 
back froijj .S.iiu\ltT. and lo ]}iv^n^ i!!tir neuirallry wrjj Fraix^ 
ftlttiou;:)! AljHihaiii S fjuyli-r. a* Ciiarievolx Teii? u». had bees: 
lllfuu^h the Fiiir .Nation^, etideavouni;^' to make 'ihem take cp 
viii«. Nti f'lion a!nn:ar!» to i.^iw bet-ri oinitxed bv \ audreuiL lo 
prt-icnt tlic lro<^iJoi» iVfin yniiluj: witb li.e pr'tviriciai? in ibe n>- 
Uriided atU( L ti|i<jij Montn al. The force of Canada appears tt> 
ha%c Ur* II iiia(if:(}.-«!i- to ri.-*i*: tiie annii.*^ Vidi wct*.- dirt^ ivd a^TAins:;- 

WalktT and liill. 'mi-jh tn jjaie been ecuaiiv uLlit for the imsa 

t\u-\ ha«i u\t.r :i li. » : omI :-.r:: '. -*-f-i in vit::';ii'.r 't f'-:r.!n" t'^-^v 
• , , • . . " '. 

i»€:ii- titi:t' «r..i.:.:.ii ^i.■;.. 1 i:.:;:ir;. lo li,* .;«:i>v • f ::.c Arii^n^s:: 
pi!«;l* !'• li* « ! \M ..?•.! :■.:. '. T. i.ji li.,. v;::a of A'.:.' J-:, in a foj. 
and M^rni tr.iri*ji.»ri". w/.'i -*l iik:i. w >- v,ro* kc*: a:.;i io:^t. 

A vtnxiit i{ oi MT! olii'.t.r- dc uitd x::*! it \^.i* i:nrir:i«~ tic able :o 
procM'd. 1. 1 ltd ii:«- fu»:! t./il ri lo a •<!!<: r.^rbo ;r. :n r» n:, ar.o 
on ttn: Mill of .S|i*.i ri: • r. ::.y\ ;i!i* :»•»:# •: ia >;i:i:;>:. K:.-..- KjiV. 
II*»ri' :i rokiii* il ot w;ir w;i» :.i-.d. L::ti c.::i.ri:.v li-*- t::o;. -.;-:i:::rd 
of lie .11 **MU M!ii<« r». -I'.iTit r*. :i::ii •«.ar::»::, ai.i; • Mri*..:- :„ ^ :i,i: 
lhi»\ lia*l but ti-n uirK* ii:i»\.»iti:i. an.: r.nav r*earr r li..;:. .\»-a Kr. •- 
land. ilii-\ iia.«:;;:i;i !..-.% » .»:i< . .:• ■: :.»' :;«»*-:.!"* :..::. ^rr ,.*. s 
rtrall to Nii liolMin. wi.n !:.iii a*:* t!H'» .i as tar a.* Fort < m".*,'-, .:. ; 
Mili'd uith ail di*|ia(i .1 li>r ( in-di hrit;::::. 'I*o .-.tM l<i::.r :...>ivr:..::r^ 
of lliii* lltiri, on int-ir ar-i\ai at I'or:^(riO'..:i.i. in K:ij. .:.:>:. ^ rc'^e.v.T 
gun »bip ^a» bloun Uji, and an on UMrd ^H:ri?^<:«i. 

Th* r'rvnrh luMurian *.i\*. liui trie b^ui^ ?e::i ni;t t v li-.o C^ni- 
dkuiftt after li;o in-.i> ni" t..o wrx-Lk of i-a::. arni i:» ;^irui:v of i:;r 
MnMincicf o! tik* Kn;iis:i lU'ot. tauziii ::.t- iiu.k* of t-i.Ti: jrti! si^:;-*. 
Md nr«r .'i.iNNi tlniui.oii nu:) on tiie «::oiv«. Ar.;i*:-^' L'lc-in were 
Mro(niZ(-tl iivoi'iitin* coni;>a:i:e* of irif c;'^:t"en'> tuiri:?, kri^wn and 
<liMin^'i.t«h«'d b\ ihiir r«ii rHimet»: and *«verai .S:«>icn umil:-?*, 
inirmlc-d in (Hopli i^Ar.aii.*. Tht} I:kc«i^ four.d ihe queen* 


» directed, for cheir own interests, and that of En^iaod : but 
to pjvem a* men seeking the i^xxl of the people for whom 
xber were to enact and administer laws« thev were contrasts in lU 
things, to the rulers then and subsequently devtifd by the peo^ 
pie. They were in most respects, contrasts to WLLliam Burnet, 
tie is described by histor}' and tradition, (tor the latter source of 
iofonDoation, be^ns now to dawn upini us.) as polite, sociable. w«U 
rettd. quick, intelli^nt. and well disposeil : but ino«t extraordinary, 
he had not the usual desire to accumulate monev. 

Burnet had received a knowled;^ of the state of the province, 
and of the leading: men, while ne^K latino his exchans:e of offices; 
and the council named in his instructions, were. Colonel Peter 
Schuyler. Colonel Abraham de Peyster, i^'aprain Kobert Walters, 
Colonel Beekman. Mr. Kip Van Dam, Colonel Caleb Heathcote, 
Mr. John Barharie. Mr. l*hiUipse. >[r. Byerly, Mr. Clarke. Mr. 
John Johnston, the ex-mavor, and Mr. Harrison. 

Ooveruour Burnet was intiLuate, in a short time after his arrival, 
with Lewis Morris, who was of eminent sen- ice to him, both in New 
Jersey and New York. He soon understooil the value of Cadwal- 
bder Colden, and advanced him tootnces of prodt and trust. To 
use the wi>rds of iiulian C. Veq^lanck, Esq.. ''amon^ tfaoee to 
whoni thisoountr>- is most deeply indebted tor much of its science, 
and for verb" many of its most im(x>rtant institutions, Cadwallader 
Colden is verb- conspicuous." This j??ntleman was bom in Scot- 
land, February ITth, It)-^*^. He was, of course, at the beg:inniQf 
ot*i»ovemour Bumet*s administration, ^i'i years of a^. Educated 
at the University of Edinbunrh. he had devoted himself to thestudj 
of medicine, and the culiivjition of mathematical science. His first 
place of residence in America, was Philadelphia, where he pne- 
tbed phvsick, with success. He returned to Europe, and after 
some residence in London, visited Scotland, atid there married a 
ladv of the name of Christie, with whom, in 1710, he a^ain came 
to PennsyU'ania. 

Two vears before («overnour Burnet's arrival, Colden settled in 
rfie cit\- of >iew York, where his mathematical k now ledi:e procured 
him the ap^xMiitment of suney-v^r-trei^t ral. trom his country man, 
Goverr.our Hunter : from whom, soon after, he received the addi- 
tional apfxviinnent of master in chancer}-. " The state ot societj 
in thl< country ,*' Mr. Verpbnck rer'.^arks, -which did not yet allow 
of the i\*cuiar di^i?ion either of labour or of protessional study, 


discharge of this otnce.*' 
With Morris, Colden. Alexander. ,<chuyler. Smith, and ajooBfar 


tholic King of Spain had granted to the most christian Kinp of 
France, the exclusive jfrivilcge of supplying his colonies with negro 
■hves, was transferred, by the desire of the dff:ndcT of the faith j the 
Queen of Great Britain, to her rrformcd and protestant subjects. 
The queen engaged that her subjects should, during the aborc 
mentioned period, transport to the Spanish colonies 144,000 n^^gro 
slaveSy at the rate of 4,S00 per year. I have already noticed the 
royal instructions to Lord Cornbury, on his being sent to govern 
New Jersey and New York. The title of the treaty between 
France and Spain, the benefits of which were thus transferred to 
Great Britain, was thus : " Traite fait entre Ics deux rois tns 
christiens et cathoUqiics^ avec la compagnic royale de Guinee etab- 
lie en France, concernant I'introduction des nc^res dans I'Ame- 

As early as 1716, Licutenant-govcrnour Spotteswode, (or Spot- 
wood,) of Virginia, proposed the purchasing of land? on the Ohio, 
and establishing trading-houses and forts to trade with the Indians, 
and counteract the designs of the French, which, he saw, were to 
enclose die colonies by a chain of forts from the St. Lawrence to 
the Mississippi. The ministers of George I, opposed this wise 
plan of Spottcswode's, they having secret reasons for keeping well 
with the Court of France, and this necessary project for protecting 
the colonies was not only defeated, but the French were encou- 
raged to build the fort of Crown Point upon the territor}' of New 

Firacy, wliirii was repressed by the punishment of Kidd and the 
exposure of Fletciier, was airain encourasrcd by Charles Eden, the 
Governour of Morih Carolina, and iiis secretarv, Tobias Kni^^hL 
To the commercial restrictions imposed by CJroat Britain upon the 
colonies, and the fre(|ueiit wars between France and Enjrland, the 
evil of piracy at this time, may in part be ascribed, as it existed on 
the coasts of Ameriea. Tlie colonists were induced to become 
tmugt;lers, because the laws which imposed a tax upon their indus- 
try and onlerprize were imposed by a forei:rn IcLrislature for foreign 
benefit ; and from snniir^liiii; and privaleerin:: it was but a step down 
to piracy, and this step was made more easy by the encouragement 
or pnitection oft^oveniours and their minions who had expatriated 
thenist*lvi^ for the purpose of makini: money. The gamjs of sea- 
roblH?r« were likewise recruited by English and other sailors, trained 
to feriMMOus injustice, and hardened to utter disrejrard for suffering 
humanity, by the legalized piracy of the slave trade, encourasred by 
christian nionan*hs, nobles, governours, planters, traders, and men 
of all classes and denominations. After Kidd*s arrest and execu- 
tion, Quclch was the hero of piracy ; but after committing depreda- 
tions and atrocities on the American seas, he ventured to go on 
ihore in Massachusetts, was arrested, tried» and perished on the 


gallows with six of his companions. Soon after. Captain BellamT« 
with a ship o\'2-^ cuns and l-.»0 men, infested the American coaal, 
but was wrooked on Cape Cod. and drowned with his crew, except 
six. who wore h.\na:od ai Inx-ion. Wux it was at Providence, in the 
Bahamas, ili.ii tiioso frool>oo:crs fomul a place of refuire and formed 
a rojiiilar sonlonunt. T'mo inicrrupiion to commerce, caused the 
niinlsirv of (icor^o 1 to <ond >imiio shin* of war against tliis indus* 
triors \Vo<: liuiia ro:njnuni!y, and thov broke up tlie establishment 
before it havi booonio a diilv roro^ni^-ed state amonc civilized nt- 
lion?, but w.;s donominaiod a don o\ robbers. 

But in Nonii i 'iiiolina apjvarcd the celebrated Blackbeard, tbe 
terror of »ill prav^Mblo traders, and a> much the deliiiht of the 
wonder-Ioviii::: as ihc I V.u aboard of another hemisphere. This 
v.reich \\a> o::o Thor.oh, wiu> acquired the title or nickname for 
which ho i< admirod, as other tilled personages still are, by encour- 
aging the crowtii o\ a ven- black beard, which attained ver\' un- 
co:ii:noii loiuiii. and was so dispi^sed of by the wearer as to increase 
the forooiry of his appearance. He had once been the chief of the 
pira:e> of Now Providonoe. but found Pamlico river, in North 
Carolina a moro secure j^laoe of resort. Amied with three pair of 
pisioi>, a:ul oilier e ;;i;ij>]ron:,- tor destruction, he is described as 
having in battlo tiio anj^.jaranoo and demeanour of a demon : among 
his iVllows at 0:1:0 r linios liis ooiuluoi was liule less than demoniacal. 
He was dro.idod ar.J. ailnylrcd in proportion to the extra^'agtnce 
of liis drunken inhu.nani:v. In riot, ebrieiv, and debaucher\\ die 
spoils acquired by robbery and murder were spent by all the de- 
praved oo!nnnir.i:y : ar.d l>l,u*k beard, it is said, would, at table 
with his oornrados. himself bv blowing: out the candles and 
disv-harcinc his pistols ai ranviom amoni: his jruests. Another of 
his freaks was 10 rcoro-ont hoU, himself the rei^ininc devil, sur- 

roui'ided bv ti.'.nu^s aid sulpluir. while he was amused bv the suf- 

• I • 

foe a: ion fro:u wijioii )/.- co'.n pan ions with diilieully escaped. 

At ono linio Tiioa.^i^ look ad\ania;Xe of the kiuir's proclamationy 
otTorinr p.irdon to piratos who sub milted to the law, and surren- 
deri\l bim^oif and tw-.vitv of men to his Iriend Governour 
Edon : but his tro.:s;;re bo in:: oxi;aus:od bv the usual excesses, be 
a^rain o:nb.«rkovi in open robbiTv and liuman bulcherw 

iiovornour Spoiteswoilo o\ Virjinia, a rare instance of sagacity 
and \irtiio in a colonial covernour. apjHiinied by England, odfered 
a re\^ ard for the approhcn-iion of the piratical monster, and one 
Masnard an oriioer bolon^rini: to an En dish man of war stationed 
in tno C'iie^apeake, collected a crew of picked men, and manning 
xwo small vessels sought Blaokbeard. with determination to like 
hiui. Ilo tound Tiuach in Pamlico sound, safe, as he thotiglit, in 
ilie pr«>iooiion of Governour Eden. The pirate was surprised to 
see twi) vessels bearing down upon him with evidendy hostile 11- 

S80 riBATKSw 

Mition ; MMfaing rlanntedt he manoaifTed aa<i feuisfat his tcsshA 
ftkiil and dfi«p«Tftti^>n, but Ma.'^nard rl«>»e<l in and boarded. 
ifae cool determiitttion of the avengers of in&alied justice and bs- 
iDftnitjr ftoon overcame the furv' of hnital coora^ Theach fonk 
uhet bavin j^ received manr woundi^ amoof the dead and djin^ 
combatantji. Thrive who a.4ked for quarter were spared to ander^ 
go the sentence of the hw. 

With Blackbenrd expired the open «y*tem of piracj- which had 
been encourasred bv tho?^ on ^hore, who neither shared the dao- 
gefA nor incurred the puni.^hment. Piracy continued, but wxl3 doc 
protected by the colonial qovemment* 


Court of Chunrcnj — lifj fhr. trmtij nf I'trfrht^ fit*' IroqurnA conr 
n'ulrrrd nuhjfftA of HH^himl — /'///r St:hu*jhr — (.rovf.rnour Burmel 
— Ihtr.toT (,\ Cohhn — i hv* frt,^Cnjiirrtss at Alftdhu — Spotted 
v^jfk — Fn/i/'/t plan nj t rtrntlm*^ jortA from St, I^ncrcnoi to 
MiMuntippi — (^h vfilirr Hf Jonrairr — -lium^f^jt ;;/////, !» ojfj)Ofit{oit 
to Franrt — Frnirh of .\tf/irtini — fionrft'/t/r liurrut'g fJiffiailtia 
and Ji /ltd nmnral tn Mn.<sm hn:<ftt> — (li/irartcr, 

1712 At a council held at Tort Anne, in the city of New York, 

the 29th of Si'i»ti!inluT, HJ^, presfni, his Excellency 
Robert Hunter, Cf)ir)nel De IVvster, >Ir. \*an Dam, ^\r. Bar- 
barie, and Mr. IJyerly, (.'jili'h Heathrote,* mayor, and Francis 
JIurri.-«on, ^hiTilF. LikewiH* Robert ]^i\ini:sl<in, mayor of Albany, 
and Thomas Williams, >lieritr. 

In this year the Tus<'aroras and other Indians, endeavoured to 
put an end to white (Mieroachments, by an attack with intention to 

• Hir <iiU»4*rt Ilrnlhroti*. tlw fsilhor of Calrli. wii> a vi-ry rirh niprrhaiit of London. 
niii< of Uii* iiriiiripnl foiiiuliTN of thr Dank itf i'.n:!l;iMi!. and onci* lord ninvnr. The 
IuipwImIi** I haw of thi« Kcntimian. is fmin a iH'w-pappr: hi](.<«onJolin^iirroodpd 
to bw titli* of Uuronrt. mid by niamintf ili«' b«'in>thril of Caleb. dro\«* him to Ame- 
rira with hi« rirliri. II«' married Xlw iiaii:r!iT«>r of Tancfir Smith, of Lonz Inland. 
I Imv« aorii a ropy of tho will of the ^aift i*olnn»'l Cab'b lli-athrotP. throuch tho 
IkvMir of WiUiani Whitrhrad KM|uirt\ tiy which hp deviHcd to hi« Mtn. thp eftato 
■Mnlionrd by Ma«laiii Knight, .Murmurunn'k. one of hii^ dauKhter* married Doctor 
liffwii JohiwMi, of IVrth Auibov. uiid anoUier Lieutenant Govcniour Jamet Dc 
lumiy. oTNqw York. 



destroy the colonists of North Carolina, many of whom they mur- 
dered : but beins: defeated, the Tuscaroras fled, and were received 
as a sixth nation in their coiifo(h?raii()n by the Iroquois, lo whom 
they apjiear to hive belonired originally. 

When Huntv-^r, lo counteract the iniris^e^ of the French Jesuitft 
among the Iroquoi.^, |)n)i)()sed lo the sachems in council to send 
them protectant missionaries, and lold them the queen wished to 
clothe their souls, as well as bodies, they resolutely declined 
the favour, adding, that it would be a greater kindness to send 
some bhicksmiths to reside among them. They, accused the 
ministers from New York, who came among them, of encoup- 
agino: the practice of drinking brandy. They were struck 
forcibly with the difflTcnce between the missionaries who came 
among them impelled by zeal, and those who were ]»aid for the 
service. *' 1 love to feel where words come from," was the re- 
mark of an Indian, to a quiiker. 

Ciovernour Hunter had not only been faithful to the queen and 
to himself, in studiou-ly endeavourinj: to prevail on die house 
of assembly (by their fixinir the salaries of the officers,) to make 
office-holders independent of the people, but he, without con- 
sulting the as-embly, erected a court of chancery, exercised the 
office of chancellor himself, and appointed Messrs. Van Dam and 
Phillipse, ma-icrs, with an examiner, register, and clerks. 

The assembly saw, that by this, the power of the govemour 
and council wa< increased, and the house of assembly propop- 
tionably diminished in wciirht. They protested : die affair was 
referred to the lords of trade, (ever ready to support the pretensions 
of the j^overnour and council,) and they let the people know that 
her majesty had an undoubted right to appoint as many courts as 
she thought proper. 

The reader will see hereafter, that William Smith, the father of 
the historian, contended that the king could not erect a court of 
chancery, wiiJiout consent of parliament ; so, no such court could 
be erected in New York, without consent of the assembly — the 
people not beinir represented in parliament. This was in 1734| 
and wa< the point mooted in i77»3. 

Lord Bellamont had strenuou-^ly contended that the Iroquois 
were subjects of Enirland, and by the treaty of Utrecht, as already 
observed, the Five Nations were declared to be "subject to the 
dominion of Creat Britain." They were permitted to be free to 
trade with ehher Euirlish or French ; but die boundaries were left 
hereafter to be determined. 

We must consider the countr}* of the Iroquois such as is deline- 
ated in the map, co])icd from Mr. Gallatin, and inserted in this work. 

The French, at the conclusion of the treaty of Utrecht, held Fort 
VOL. I. ' 36 . 

groaod that be was not a sL'bjec: of the cro^n. De Li 
tbit h» ira? made a de-!zen in tr.jlan J. " in a j*a:en: 
pa3:eJ in t:ie re.rn o.' Jarne- II. ani unler i£:€ ae?: o;" xlI* sw- 

bat a (e'di exirtei "Dr:":vr?n h'.::: arj : rsarv o: lie pm-*rji.-:i* ar 
Burnet. The a?s^'.:^!v clilrr.ei trie njji: r.f t:jiijirro:":;-eir 
member*, and £i:.:o..jn tj-e rov.^rT:ojr *iLi neM a c;a'<«{?T. ; 
condjci in ihL* csk- vri? c«-n?*ii-rrri jnToniTlv^tionil : an-c ti* »- 
position to Da Lin?ev. to nive orir'' =t-r i in ih* ia::er"* errousnc 
tbe French tra^e in o:^?o?lio:: zo B^^e:'* piin of trai^ 5* 

1725 Tie ?ro?>e-::v o:"Oi':^er'« in ::• '^i n-.-rerce. L*re ElzE^ 

• • • ' . 

• - . J . . . 

in rrear r.'jrr.oer- ro;r.r ir::.-r.r '.:.^ ir.i-i:ii. =.--: reCFir^nc 

1726 w/^ ca.">oe- l='irT •.r!*ji i-e^tr.. "x-.? = ?ore T-.r.ri^rari-rc » 
the Frer.c:i of t'lii.^s. r:-r--ir' -.1: ".: :r:i!:i:ei a= irtci- 

pation of rr.eir =-::.e:r.e •::" :.e:r.r..!- .J :r. ::.r r,>..:.->^ ^.j rrea::* cc 
gammon?, ar,^ ::iT ir.n o: ::.^ .v«-:rrr. :r.*.-r-. Ir. i *r . -^sr 
pa: in exerjiioi ab-o.: ^-r-). b ;•..-; :"•«: rrii? =.-i •;'.*!-r--:e TOiTjeat 
Thcv a^ a: o-?e f:oT. for: Fr-.r'ijr.i'r i: :r.e frv>^ or cirt 

••E::i • :r. -:.e ;.r = .: of L^i-arj: : 

of Lake Ontario, ar i '.n-^.^ o-.r : rr. 
takinr p«>5A.>iiir.-: of cr.? f .rrr.rr '<••! 
repairinr the for? s-i err::;-^ s ir 

M- He Loir;e!.. '.- .0 : = : * ; - rr :r : V; : ir.r!! :r :he rrr-Ters- 
ment of Ca.ia ii. af^er : re ■ir!'.,- •.•e • »-:-ir.:ijt- : ■■ Me rer.-^rse^'a- 
dor * of 1.1* Je* .. .:i. *' -r ~ : ■: . * v : . " . -r . . l ;. : * ■ i . : • - ].- : : -^-vrt 
to ::-* er^b ^r-. vi: i: >.:j'::i. 'i* ■: -• f :' .: v' --?■:: t«-c 
asree. ari ::.e S-^r^:-? • vrrvi • -■ . i' f: :.. > :jiri. Tie 
French r.->:r--rv: :: e : :' r.:r>^. \' : >F. J - ■ ■::-. •-^' -- :. .v-*!--e-f- 
exerted nlr.i.^.: :-> riii-ie v.r I: ■ : -ir : "..•;*. .r r':-. - ■ . -:--i:.^-- 
ment 5or the'.r "'-rref.:. .-.:•: ... ■ ;■ -r :■•.•: \.-j :..t Kr.-.>:. ^^ 
monoDolLzi ': z '.'i.k.: '.ni^. ' r. -: * -= *-; . ; ■ . 1 j ■ i - - : w-r - - : r ; 1 : h- 
meoti of :hs: r*rr':>.r. Jo- z!;^. i >-=-'t • -v li: -.r. =-■: t 

mm ' 

fji-ourire w::r. :r.e •Avr. :s,-i-. "i^ -■ -^^-i-: r* jr-ji: i.-f .-rt'^ 
throufbont w /.h -..".e r i^' - :> : r ri -r -. r. :. 1 : 7^ i> ^-r : . ;. . i^i f : r f i^r- 
wardinr the p'.in* -r :.'• -.o -"j*- ..-i. Kr :"i ../\".t : *. •: rf-*er'ic-3 
of rab«Ioiarer. s-. : -r-re::-? :•..-.. • ..-.:-;,•.-;- -=.-':.-: ^ rri^^-re 
of >ew York. Ir. ^1!- re:er S. .-.^vr -r^rrv: ..l:>*^.f :r r^?r- 
auade or briie 'jie I-:-!-^ m il- r-l?- Ji-iij-T, :.e :rr?er.ei 23 


as directed, for their own interests, and that of England ; but 
to govern as men seeking the good of the people for whom 
they were to enact and administer laws, they were contrasts in all 
things, to the rulers then and subsequently elected by the peo- 
ple. They were in most respects, contrasts to William Burnet. 
He is described by history and tradition, (for the latter source of 
information, begins now to dawn upon us,) as polite, sociable, well 
read, quick, intelligent, and well disposed : but most extraordinary, 
he had not the usual desire to accumulate money. 

Burnet had received a knowledge of the state of the province, 
and of the leading men, while negociating his exchange of offices; 
and the council named in his instructions, were. Colonel Peter 
Schuyler, Colonel Abraham de Peyster, Captain Robert Walters, 
Colonel Beekman, Mr. Rip Van Dam, Colonel Caleb Heathcote, 
Mr. John Barbaric, Mr. Phillipse, Mr. Byerly; Mr. Clarke, Mn 
John Johnston, the ex-mayor, and Mr. Harrison. 

Governour Burnet was intimate, in a short time after his arrival^ 
with Lewis Morris, who was of eminent service to him, both in New 
Jersey and New York. He soon understood the value of Cadwal- 
lader Colden, and advanced him to offices of profit and trust. To 
use the words of Gulian C. Verplanck, Esq., ''among diose to 
whom this country is most deeply indebted for much of its science, 
and for very many of its most important institutions, Cadwallader 
Colden is very conspicuous." This gentleman was bom in Scot- 
land, February 17th, 1688. He was, of course, at the beginning 
of Governour Burnet's administration, 32 years of age. Educated 
at the University of Edinburgh, he had devoted himself to the study 
of medicme, and the cultivation of mathematical science. His first 
place of residence in America, was Philadelphia, where he prac- 
tised physick, with success. He returned to Europe, and after 
some residence in London, visited Scotland, and there married t 
lady of the name of Christie, with whom, in 1716, he again camd 
to Pennsylvania. 

Two years before Governour Burnet's arrival, Colden settled in 
the city of New York, where his mathematical knowledge procured 
him the appointment of surveyor-general, from his countryman, 
Governour Hunter ; from whom, soon after, he received the addi- 
tional appointment of master in chancery. ** The state of socie^ 
in this country," Mr. Verplanck remarks, "which did not yet allow 
of the regular division either of labour or of professional study, 
rendered this last appointment less remarkable than it might other- 
wise appear to a reader of the present day. Doctor Colden's gene- 
ral knowledge and habits of business soon qualified him for the able 
discharge of this office.'* 

With Morris, Colden, Alexander, Schuyler, Smith, and ayoooger 



luhBfifufpJ ft fooA naOj in Jszzm ftlfiiiiuw ; 
escfaan^ of Coldea fer PbQlipsef was ahogedicr in &Foizr of 
ptorince. Is a^ however, rerj difficult to jodee, exoepc m 
cases* of the eoodiict of a man who has pa«sed awaj a cencnrr te»; 
certain it isy that &Ir. Buraet, who had marrifed a protinciaL (Mm 
Vaa Home) left New York with reeret. and was moch recrcoed I; 
manr who had wioiesaed his public acts and shared in the 
of a Iraraed, scientific, and benevolent gentleman. 

Burnet was free from the vices of his miliiarv predecessors ; kt 
was noc infected by ifae petry pride derived from a red coat tDd la 
cpavleoes ; neither had he the desire to accomnlate mo n ey a 
as Xr. Thomas F. Gordon jusdy observes, -- common lo 
goremoon." His conversation was the delight of men of 
and be earned little with him bat the love of his asociaies €nd tm 


— P:v::^ .-' 3/jv-ir-^'R:-'*:c^ — Rip l\t% P.:.n — C^^imd 

■^.r*" i>J>rsi-V tci:h ViiM l\:n /J'^J.vrJ ctjiJ 

«;>.*, 4:.x.f .i:':\r4;.":*i"r — Tv iirw.\\^»;rjVv «:.»»? Jmo- 
*jV** «:.x j :kfir UaJtm — /V XA:.«iyy a.%J PAiiVwe— • 

' son of Bishop Buniot ivlucnndr abandoned a pro- 

? had fkithfully endeavoured to sene. ind in vrhich, 

iaio :he fa»nl:v of Van Home* he had connected 

' ar.oien: i::hablra;::s. Manv rwrvrtod the Joss of 

e:y. and ;:u»n ofliiorature and science felt his loss 

-.^ werv some who ihoiiirhi the higher of him, that 

tson of his fathor's prv^i^easliy ;o liie study of diri- 

ini for i:ha! which :>n>duced a smile of derision in 

i:::on of :he piuphecies, 

i to Massachusetts, he was succeeded bv the ho» 


iicvv.uene« a courtier, who had been irroom of the 
•.\ Prince of Wales : who, on becoming George 
nd. rewarded his ^rvv^m — bv luakinc him rover* 

.e loth of April, 17i^^, as jt»vernour and chin- 
ew York. 

rded, to the honour of Monti^>merie, that he 

'launi: in the laner cajvicity. until the lords of 

.iinister9« positively ordered him so to do: ind 

lanu at a later day, thou^rh: that no company 

hiinf miliiarv« but had a cvan in it. fit to £ovem 

1 17:i^^, the nwu who p.^venied New York, 

3IL qualified tor a chancellor. 

roubles in Massachusetts, and he vis not dan 

3 reception iiulicated nothing less. He wis 

lee on the borders of Rhode Ishnd, ind 

V such 1 «arr^^, as never cnced roftil 

ter. Gratifietl as he must hai-e been bj 

annoyed by the hng ^^icrt kfjatw mtat : 

e isked Colonel Tailer. one of the Boemn 

^ iemffkg ceremonies wotild be sbonened. 


fii}* ir-:v'':"i:\r — .ViV;':,;": c'^r'^i '■'"> — .Vf^^rnt or' The cc*viml 
tz: :\:s :;'*i: — D:\::\ .;•' j/j^:ir.'>'';rW: — Jff;ji J'.jri P^im — CxJond 

C-'>}- , c:. "'''■' "'^ Pi^'ykU u\:h IflJi Aj»3 />'-j*?vnf c;*^ 

iJr »jr- "■ — S ••; . • ^ i7 »i .f -■!.■: J*. J ':,:V^- — Th/ a nji:s\-rtVu'i' /; >. J cf ^n^ 
i-'^jrjri" ?x;r:;,«. ijr,J :hcir U\2Jer$ — De Lj%cev arui PAiiTizw*^— 

17 C7 The >on of Bishop Bur::c: rvlucrantly abandoned a pro- 
vince ho had faiihfally or.dcavoured lo >eno. and in which, 
bv his marriage :n:o :ho far.i.h of Van llon;e. he had connected 
hliiise'f w:::: ;:io ar.cior.: :-.:hjl»!:.i:::>, ro*renod the loss of 
his ;\oasa::T Si^cic:\. a:ivi ;:ifn of 1i: era:;: re and scienoe felt his loss 
s^rverely. Then- wort* some who though; iho hi^rber of hiin« that 
he inhc rhed a ;vr:;o:T of his ia:her's pro:v:^siTy ;o ihe study of diri- 
r.::v. an.i val.:;\i h/.n for i:ha: which :'»i\>d;3ced a smile of derision in 
oih e rs , ^ ':•; :> e \ rH^> ! : ion o f : h c prophiHrics. 

Reii'c r-c-.nox: .; :o>ach;:>eT;>, he n'ss si:cocoded bv tbe ho* 
no/.rai'!e Jo! :: Mo:* a courtier, who had been xiXKun of the 
charciber :o l^corje, Priiuo of Wales : \*ho, on becoming George 
II. K::-: - of K;uiand, rewj^rded his crw^r.i — by raakinj hizn gover- 

He arr:\ed on :ho lo:h of April. 17t?>. as covomour and cJian- 
eeV.or. of New York. 
172S It is r-ccorded, lo :he honour of Monicomerie, that he 

div'.ined ofnci.iiin^ in the larer eapacitv. unrll the loids of 
trade, or ::-.e kic^s '.ninisters. pos:::\oly ordered him so to do: and 
who. like Lord l\"..»:":.r.n. ai a later dav. though: that no companv 
of his !:"i.v-. >:\ V .nanrhinc re.i'ltar^". b::: had a man in it. tit to covcm 
a pro*. -/..t-. ::;o.'.^.i in 170>. the r.x\n who cc-vemed New York, 
was V; th.e .■..■p.^;..:'.nent, for a ehaneellor. 

B;;r::c: aniieipaiod iriMiMos in Massac hn setts, and he w:asiiot di^ 
ip p o '. -.I : e d ; a '; : h. o .i ^h his recep:i on \ n d i c at e^i n o:h. i n c 1 ess. H e wes 
nviiicd bv a committee on the U^rders of luhode Island, aad 
attended to Boston, bv a cort^f. as never graced renl 
covemour before or after. iir?.:ifieii as he must have been by 
these hoiHMirs. he was annovod bv the /.^k^ c^^icrf hfhwt mm ; 
for it is rtvor^ied. that he asked Colonel Tailer. one of the Boston 
comminee, •• when these If^gthf ccwmoaies would be shonened. 

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294 BIP VAX DAM • 

who was called bv Mocuorcerie to die council, thou^ a to=± b 
1729, ju5i after his rei-jm irozTi the uiiirerHir.'/"* Morris hid lea 
suspended bv Mo.':ro:rierie. for K/ine words relaiiveui "iie £or«ff- 
Dour's di*fis 'jpoa i:.e r-rvvij-:/' 

Mr. Vlti Di-:- -i-rerr.- Vj j-iie bee:: passive a; lo FrtZjrL i£i^t: 
and ihey. tie Frer.'.:.. :.o: coi:-?:::: w:::. die h'jlc sieps i=ie- ii iic 
vesu lo se<:ure L5i-.-Or.".s.-Io. ver." o:.»e:.iv seized liM^r. LLi.e <"' •:;■-- 
plaia. on i:-e ?^o-::. ;*iir:. £-*.i e:-:::e: t for: a: Crov^Lpcl-- m Ui* 
Iroq-ois \trr:'jjr.\ Lu: c o:.ili*::(:i. even li L'-h: -^e, ptr: c-r'N**" 

Mr. V&ii D^Ti. ss I have berore ?c:d, hid bv ci:.: ::' -^^tiJit 

made trade proLVal/.e. rLsei :.!:.' self :":o::j 2^ rr-=::r.:yer ofi'^e C'^ltiii 
couDci] 10 a r-fcc". >j hi* r:.i-e--.'; .-r ::-e i-ov-rr:. .. .r"s •: : -l:!: i-i-r 
beic^ o:^e of :hv p^o:.-:. :o :.v!'^ io^-!-v:^: o:.e of :-t :'e:-:-i v 
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ins:r-c:e: j'^rror. f' : ::.r: 05::-:. 
1732 G o*. er:. o -.- L' •:»• :. v v. ^r l ; . : o' r. M i : o = - : : v e : M : :. : z \ :i,t tj*. 

buTcii ::o: arrive -;.:!. ::.': Jr::.;"A ;j:r:. 2T.>i; — ^-^i^^.ir Mr. 

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which attended, or rather preceded his arri\-al. Meeting Mr. Morris, 
who had a seat in the assembly, he, in the true spirit of an Euro- 
pean mUif(}in\ lookini: down with contempt uiK)n an American pro- 
vincial, on hoarin;! of the craiuitv voted bv the assemblv from Mor- 
ris, (one of the momhors) oxohimed, '* Damn them ! whv did not 
they add shillinjrs and pe:ire :*' 

But Van Dam, the merchant, who had srovemed the province 
durin:! his residence in London, caused still tiercer ire in the breast 
of the colonel, when a settlement of accounts was called for. While 
the provincial was in the irovernour's chair, he received the salary. 
Colonel Cosbv brouirht with him the k in ji's order, dated the 31st of 
May, 17i?'J, for an equal partition between himself and the presi- 
dent of the council, of the salary, emoluments and perquisites of the 
office, fn>m the lime Mr. Nan I>am first administered the srovem- 
ment to that at which C olonel Cosbv relieved him.* 


In consequence of this, the colonel demanded half of the salary 
which the president had received for the thirteen months during: which 
he executed the office of irovernour. The merchant immediately 
saw diat Cosby had received more in perquisites and emoluments 
than the amount of sahu"y. and offered to make division according 
lo the sovereign's order. He stated his receipts at .£1,975 7s lOd, 
and those of the colonel as .£t>,-107 IS 10. The Enjriish sjover- 
nour demanded half the salary : the Dutch merchant apreed, pro- 
vided he received half the perquisites and emoluments ; but refused 
otherwise. He would retain his salar}', if his op|K)nent was con- 
tent ; otherwise he appealed to the order for a division, which gave 
him a balance of upwards of .£*2,-lOO. 

The go\*ernour, to comj>el Van Dam to refund half the salary, 

* A question was rai9od, whether Van Dam 5houUl receive the whole nUij 
allowed to a govomour. aiul the opinion of the a.<s«Miibly wa^ a>ked ; but they de* 
clined givinx an opinion, leaving it to the council, who con:M*nted that the wamnlB 
ihould be drawn tor the whole. Cosby, on hi5 arri\al and friendly reception bj 
the assembly, wa'.ied until their adjouniuient. and ilien produced tlie kiug':ii in^tnic- 
tions to take to hIIn<^'l^ one halt* the Mlary and emohnnents during Van Dam's ad- 
ministration, leaving hmi one lialt'. Van Dam agriH*?. provided Cosby accounta 
for certain monies recfived by him. and j>hare« with Van Dam. :$uch moniea. 
Cosbv reluws. and er^H'ts a court ol* exchequer, to compel Van Dam to complj 
with Kis term;*, ^^uits commence on either part : but (^oshy appoints the ludgct. 
Van Dam denies the legality of the proceeding^'- Chief Ju:4ice Morris deduiaa 
to obey the governour'5 orderji in the castv aii illegal, and is by him suspended, after 
serving twenty years unimpeachably. James De l^incey was appointed in his pkce. 
Here the Morris family are connected with the democratick side, and the Delaiiccy 
with the royal, a* afterwards in 1775. Frederick I*hillipso was second judge. The 
Phillipw's took the royal party, likewise. The court decides ajrainst Van Dam. 
Van Dam. in his published account, state* that Cosby received. l>eft>re his aniYei 
and while Van Dam administered the government, emoluments, i. e. moaiee 
received by Cosby for pretended sen- ices and expenditures, as for Indian nrt- 
•uits. neve'r given'— a voyage to Albany, not made, be, Coeby. being in Eogndl 
rercbarfee of doibinf. tubeiiteiice. etc., for iroopi. 


five Iroquois, to the delight of court and populace ; but his. council 
could tell him what to do, and the ministry had amply furnished 
him with presents, very persuasive arguments with the Indians 
of tliis time : he procured for them guns and powder, blankets and 
lead, and they gave promises in return. 

From his journey to the end of civilization, he returned gladly to 
New York, to enjoy his ease without care for the interests of the 
province ; while the indefatigable French of Canada, carried on 
their designs by means of their Jesuits, and their trading posts. Mr. 
Montgomerie had no particular party to uphold ; his aversion to 
chancery business pleased the assembly, while the council seem 
to have been as quiescent as the govemour could wish. 

Burnet, however, although removed to Massachusetts, did not 
forget the interests of New York, and knowing the designs of the 
French, kept up a necessary system of watchful intelligence, in 
regard to their movements. He learned, that they were not con- 
tent with posts at both ends of Lake Ontario, but had determined 
to demolish his fort at Oswego : of this he informed the govemour 
and council of New York, and however indisposed Montgomerie 
might be to action, or ignorant of the policy of the province, (and he 
appears to have been ignorant on all topicks,) several members of the 
council were possessed of the requisite knowledge, and disposed 
to carry into effect, the views of Govemour Burnet. Golden and 
Alexander, were attached to him, understood his policy ; Van 
Home, was his relative by marriage, and Robert Livingston, the 
second, was a man of information, and the son-in-law of Peter 
Schuyler, which alone, would make him adroit in Indian affairs : 
the other members, (Walters, Van Dam, Barbaric, Clarke, 

1729 Harrison, Morris junior, Provoost, and Kennedy,) would not 
oppose, if they did not urge Mr. Burnet's desire, and on the 

receipt of a letter, in March, 1729, sufficient force was dispatched 
to Oswego, to deter the French from an attack upon the fort, 
and to encourage the Iroquois to stand forward in its defence if 

1730 So far, the views of Govemour Bumet prospered ; but 
the mercantile interest, which had been concerned in the 

1731 Indian trade by the way of Albany and Montreal, prevailed, 
aided by French influence at the Court of Great Britain, 

and the acts passed by Burnet in favour of the direct trade, were 

Montgomerie enjoyed the govemment of New York about two 
years — dying on the 1st of July, 1731 — at a time when Mr. Rip 
Van Dam was the eldest member of council, and, of course, his 
successor in power. *' He took the oaths,'* says Chief Justice 
William Smith, '' before Messrs. Alexander, Van Home, Ken- 
nedy, De Lancey, and Cortlandt. This De Lancey, wbs James, 

ovtalhiBODfoflnioluiiieDty ^ptocBBdodp' 
Dam* in the exchequer." Van Daoi a 

liis, Coab^andl 
the prendent of the council itis popular, a 
aaetoC In thecooitofchanceiyvCodbj 

In certain instances the judges of the 
ceedcd according to the course of the 
■uasions directed them to " make such ndea 
08 may be, to those of the English couita of kii^i 
pleas and exchequer." This had |^ven the hnft 
•en tor proceeding in equity, " as De Laaocj an 

the goTenmur's intimate ftienda." 
1733 The counsel ior Van Dam, were Mir. 
(the fiither of the historian,) and Mr. Janm 
hAfBt of William Alexander, aftervrards Loid S li i lii^. 
were the two most eminent lawyers in the cohmy, 
obaerved, arrived at the same time, 1716: t 
Van Thuot excepted to the juiisdicti o o of the 
govemour resoited. Chief Justice Monis soppotted 
tmn ; but Messrs. De Lancey and Phillipee, two of 
ovoTuled the plea. Morris published his opinioa, mmi'dilf 
removed him fiom oflke and placed De Lancey in hia mtt/L Tim 
die military govemour did, without consulting his owa^ ^mi 1m 
aujnty's council, and thereby set himself in iT| n i nniii 

The order for ovemilin£: the plea of Snuth jmd 
delivered in presence of a crowded court room ; where 

Sat indignatioD, and immediately after, (the 9th of April, 
vemour Cosby departed to his province of New Jccot'. Oi 
his return, in August, he preseoteid Mr. James DelaiioeT tf it 
eooncil board, (where there was then no quorum,) as dttef jaMk 
without asking any opinion from those present ; and Pfaifaiew 
second judge. The council at this time consisted of Mcan^QA 
Harrison, i^ennedy, Horsemanden, Colden, De Lnacq 
Cortlandt, Livingston and Phillipse. These judges (De 
and Phillipse) were appointed during pleasure. 

The province wts now divided into two violent 
democratick or popular, sided with Van Dam ; the art 

people of figure, with Cosby ; who, notwithstanding 
— e asmts and conduct, still held a majority in the ~ 
aentatives. His advisers caused bun to pi ^ 
A^VS4 jde by several popular acu in the sesaioo of 
but the opposition assailed the court of 
heard bx and against it, but noitung definil 
*^>BHMi, the qoakers obtained the same exe mpti o u fim 
^^ in England ; and aj 
P*>Y3ega of testiffing 


which attended, or rather preceded his arrival. Meeting Mr. Morris, 
who had a seat in the assembly, he, in the true spirit of an Euro- 
pean militaire, looking down with contempt upon an American pro- 
vincial, on hearing of the gratuity voted by the assembly from Mor- 
ris, (one of the members) exclaimed, " Damn them ! why did not 
they add shillings and pence ?" 

But Van Dam, the merchant, who had governed the province 
during his residence in London, caused still fiercer ire in the breast 
of the colonel, when a settlement of accounts was called for. While, 
the provincial was in the govemour's chair, he received the salary. 
Colonel Cosby brought with him the king's order, dated the 31st of 
May, 1732, for an equal partition between himself and the presi- 
dent of the council, of the salary, emoluments and perquisites of the 
office, from the time Mr. Van Dam first administered the govern- 
ment to that at which Colonel Cosby relieved him.* 

In consequence of this, the colonel demanded half of the salary 
which the president had received for the thirteen months during which 
he executed the office of governour. The merchant immediately 
saw tliat Cosby had received more in perquisites and emoluments 
than the amount of salary, and offered to make division according 
to the sovereign's order. He stated his receipts at £1,975 7s tOd, 
and those of the colonel as ^6,407 18 10. The English gover- 
nour demanded half the salary: the Dutch merchant agreed, pro- 
vided he received half the perquisites and emoluments ; but refused 
otherwise. He would retain his salary, if his opponent was con- 
tent; otherwise he appealed to the order for a division, which gave 
him a balance of upwards of ^2,400. 

The governour, to compel Van Dam to refund half the salary. 

* A question was raised, whether Van Dam sboald receive the whole laJajj 
allowea to a governour, and the opinion of the assembly was asked ; but they de- 
clined giving an opinion, leaving it to the council, who consented that the warruitf 
should be drawn ibr the whole. Cosby, on his arrival and friendly reception bj 
the assembly, waited until their adjournment, and then produced the king's instruc- 
tions to take to himself one half the salary and emoluments during Van Dam's ad- 
ministration, leaving him one half. Van Dam agrees, provided Cosby account! 
for certain monies received by him, and shares with Van Dam, such moniea, 
Cosby refuses, and erects a court of exchequer, to compel Van Dam to comply 
with his terms. Suits commence on either part : but Cosby appoints the iod^M. 
Van Dam denies the legality of the proceedings. Chief Justice Morris decluMt 
to obey the govemour's orders in the case, asilfegal, and is by him suNoended, after 
serving twenty years unimpeachably. James De Lancey was appointed in his nlace. 
Here the Morris family are connected with the democratick side, and the Debiieejr 
with the royal, as afterwards in 1775. Frederick Phillipse was second judge. The 
PhiUipse's took the royal party, likewise. The court decides ac ainst Van Duo. 
Van Dam, in his published account, states that Cosby received, oefore hie arrival 
and while Van Dam administered the government, ipmolumenta, i. e. moniag 
received by Cosby for pretended services and expendituree, as for Indian Pft- 
aents, never given — a voyage to Albany, not made, ba^ Cofbj, being in Enpmi 
^orarcbargea of dotfaing, rabaiiteiice, etc., for troopa. 

wiiboatalhniootoeniohiiDeiit, ''proceeded,^ 
Van Dam, in tbe exchequer." Van Dam a 
a suit at common law. This, Cosby and Ua 
die president of the council was popular, and tbe ivy 
~ " ~ UidmIipii 

a set o£ In the court of chanceiy, Coabj 

In certun instances the judges of the sapnoM eoort faii 
ceaded according to the course of the escheyiar. Thck 
missions directed them to ** make such mlea and qvdan ■ 
as may be, to those of the English courts of kil^aheBd^caB 
pleas and exchequer." This had inven the hiat to fndhj's 
aeiB fiir proceeding in equity, ** as De Lanoey and PUU^pas 

the goveriKNir's intimate friends." 
1738 The counsel for Van Dam, were Mr. WHKam 

(the frther of the historian,) and Mr. Jamea AleBsndsi^ffti 

ftlher of William Alexander, afterwards Loid Sbriiog.) 

were the two most eminent lawyers in the colonyt and had, 
obsenred, arrived at the same time, 1716 : thqrt in 
VaD Dam, excepted to the jurisdiction at the comt to 
fovemour resorted. Chief Justice Monris auppofted die i 
lion ; but Messrs. De Lancey and Phillipae, two of .d» j 
overruled the plea. Morris published his opinion, and Cnlf 
removed him from office and placed De Lancey in Ua aeeL Us 
diA military govemour did, without consulting hie ownt and Mb 
aaajestjr's council, and thereby set himself in oppoeition to tfaalbs^F 

The order for overruling the plea of Smith ,^nd AJexander aw 
delivered in presence of a crowded court room ; where was expreml 
great indignation, and immediately after, (the 9th of April, 173IJ 
Govemour Cosby departed to his province of New Jersey, fk 
his return, in August, he presented Mr. James Delancey at ia 
eoimcil board, (where there was then do quorum,) as chief jaMib 
without asking any opinion from those present; and Phil&ien 
second judge. The council at this time consisted of MeaaaTcUf 
Harrison, Kennedy, Horsemanden, Golden, De Lancey, 
Corthndt, Livingston and Phillipse. These judges (De " 
and Phillipse) were appointed during pleasure. 

The province wks now divided into two violent paitias; Ai 
democratick or popular, sided with Van Dam ; the 

people of figiu«, with Cosby ; who, notwithstanding his opipriv 


measures and conduct, still held a majority in the 

sentatives. His advisers caused him to propitiasa 
1784 pie by several popular acu in the session of Jok, ITSi 
out the opposition assailed the court of excbeqner, 
beard for and against it, but nothing de6nite ■ ^"'mil , 
session, the quakers obtained the same exemption frooi 
alkwed in Eofland ; and appropriations were niadt £>r 
Tlie pnvuege of testifyug without oath, wfatch 

cosby's adbiinistbation. SD? 

of a quaker higher than that of any other citizen, was at this time 
formally obtained, in consequence of the sheriff, at an election, 
insisting upon the oath from the people of that sect, contrary to 
existing custom. 

Bradford, who had in 1687, set up the first printing press in 
Pennsylvania, while yet there was none m New York, was at this 
time the government printer, and issued a newspaper weeklyt in 
the latter city.* 

This publication was occupied exclusively by the govemour's 
friends, and ill support of his measures : but the patriots, as they 
were then called, who sided with Van Dam, did not lack an engine 
for offence and defence. Zenger, who acknowledges in one of hb 
journals, that he was indebted to Queen Anne for paying his pat- 
sage to America, published at this time a weekly paper in New 
York ; and this was the mouth-piece of opposition to Cosby, and 
snpport to Van Dam. The writers in Zenger's journal attacked 
every branch of the government, for Cosby had with him t majority 
of the council and house of assembly. 

Mingled with this controversy, was a charge brought against Mr« 
Haxrison, one of the council, of having written a paper threatening 
Mr. Alexander and £imily, unless mqney was deposited in a cer* 
tun spot for the writer. It was supposed that Harrison, wished 
(the writmg was declared to be his,) to provoke a criminal prose* 
cmion for the purpose of establishing a precedent of convicting^ 
** oo the proof of a similitnde of hands," and then by imitating the 
band writtng of one of the pqptilar leaders, convict him oo the 
eune ptnof, punish him, and bj the govemour's pardon proteet 
Haimoo. The paper being brongbt before the grand jury, Mr. 
Alexander, argued against their finding an indictment opoo soeh 
yro— di The matter was laid before the councily who deekred 
3fr. Hsrisoo incapable of the act^ and olSered £60 by prockmu^ 
for the discovery of the writer.t The Mmficiom ^SH nsied 

Pen BMde km iiinhMi ^mSt kmm 
prnied W Bndlbfil 

j«Kir r'imr^vf^m. ■ nf. *otn»* ':\**r ::ii.— 'Ta^nc^ -jiiiinc: n» licm. ar 

' ■»► .: ',f >:•>/: .«< ',»- ''rrTi*»nce!nEir r re ir^anr rHJLWuui 
/«•» .■r.4"-,i-f *-• . j-<- — • '•''t »-r --' '• •^:i ' r -!r!»ifi5 soi 

(fill -fn ritt". ' : Hw^r '* •■;.'■;.•.-. nr r?«fin :_!; .:ncciixncc rmc of 

jf.i.. ! 'i-n i^-r f. • rr ■•.'.■.•'.£ i-f Mit "XHSaHimaCE rtiTTi n ii'i _ vrfBCSL 

.fi tifif^riy^*. foi'i /'^4f t frr^'f/it « i.*-'"*~' 'f*— •mi: 3t IJUIG u iULA 
'U»«'1»'' '••' ■j'»^#':«' i* •;* trtr-trrr.rtr..* 'TizSr *.r-?t"i:tK! : "3*13 •' !' j: .'SBI2B. 

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',»«-i»t i^rilMiii **»fiiiij -ii^inv iJ r»- r"Uvl_llJ "JST 11 nt "TC'" 

of 'ii*fttift»\ •i«iiWfMi iipr h*"M^ \*Ti- .:r; ■:ii: ■::».■ -j&at?r?, uc>r*4- "^nw 

■ • 

ifiiy»'«( irio*i««'- •»♦« ii'»»li jiririw. -.r II "in: •s^UT 'lit ;?DeiiHQOr3 •: :>uiv. 
*if il«'*«'i ■••' iJ»»' iMMjii'ili(i«'*< rfjiriisir?! i; .»-^~3 'CCCIQ ; inm.T :;?.s .T! 
il'llJl i»»f »»»»•-* .!♦— ri'. I- f "llu-f ir»r^' '^Ti.T . -' _ ■ L»at*£t CLJ" 'TZCt 

I tiMVt* l«**ivii#'*1 •♦! Ill', If- »':ir*'*i*-i, 

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ffi/Hi*<«* ■»•♦■ ;>i-'i'i'i ii« .•".'■* M-' • •■■ "-'. '.m..j. .<ir:""i ^*n' rKt-n 
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•.•■f>fi> ill -ri'twic fi ■ n«> .^'li* jUt- n "i ; 'HT'"* .!? .; i.r?!" 

;iiiff#'» -inM •»•#• • {I'-r/'Mf-^^i* i» <;: imv ri '••, Vi r*. "!! J»'r. "T: ".]^ 

r>f»'|i|l:fr ^i#<i", .iufi ri j */ "J -V •i»P '^rJtiiVf'rs iUlI fir -.*\ ■.:..-«tO:!? AiT^ 
fijllv 1 III 'rt*»'H. 

I r«»»iMti from 'fti- ■1Iir''*=**iOM. r t .-. illf. ■(» tJf .jffcir:= il IT-ii. 

'I'll** -i|nilm. ii;il|Hf1><. *»*ri>rm 'iKir.;'*?. ind lUnvp al. *iome 'niiha 
tn ill*' |Jfni#»rr:«ii''k .io'irnal. ;rr:taUMi v'urfiy uiu :ii* »:(»uiK:i *u 

l^i^r for »lii» pfir{>o"«* of ihrf»wini( odium, or 'lUifrwue niunnj^ "hr iemncrauck 
p«ny In RnM<r<>rir« piip«*r, apiin Hnm^on lierium :he ''harj^ tkiMr vnd .naiiaoiu 
Oit of thi«. in p«ri. ^rpw ilie smpruoaownt and '^nai \»i Zrnpv 
' 8e« App^Ddii V 

cosby's administration. 299 

The objections raised against tlie court, in wiiich Cosby wished 
to decide his controversy with \'an Dam, lay principally against 
the judges of the supreme court, being at the same time, barons 
of the exchequer. " Had the govemour appointed other barons, 
all clamour against the legality of the court must have ceased,*' 
says Cliief Justice Smith. But this was not Cosby^s aim. The new 
Chief Justice De Lancey in vain laboiu^d to procure an indict- 
ment ajrainst Zenger. In the October term he renewed his efforts. 
He called the attention of the grand juiy to certain low ballads, 
which he charged to be libels. " Sometimes, ( says the judge,) 
heavy, half-witted men get a knack of rhyming, but it is time to break 
them of it when thev crow abusive, insolent, and mischeivous with 
iu" The ballads being presented, were ordered to be burnt by 
the conunon whipper ; and the inquest, on their addressing the 
govemour for a proclamation oAering a reward for a discover}* of 
the author, received a gracious answer. 

The council, about the same time, urged the assembly to a con- 
ference for detecting the writer of certain odier libels in Zenger*s 
Journal. The council addressed the govemour, desiring the 
printer to be prosecuted. The papers were laid before the assem* 
blv, but thev ordered them to lie on the table. 

The council on the 2nd of November, made the following order: 
** Whereas, by an order of this board, of tliis day, some of John 
Peter Zenker's Journals, entitled. The New York Weekly Jour- 
nal, containing the freshest advice, foreign and domestick, No. 7, 
47, 4S, 49, were ordered to be burnt by the hands of the common 
hangman, or whipper, near the pillory ia this city, on Wednesday, 
the 6th instant, between the hours of eleven and twelve in the fore- 
noon, as containing in them, many things tending to sedition and 
&ction, to bring his majesty's government into contempt, and to 
disturb the peace thereof, and containing in them likewise, not only 
reflections upon his excellency tlie governour in particular, the 
legislature in general, but also upon die most considerable persons 
in the most distinguised stations in this province ; it is therefore 
ordered, that the mayor, and magistrates of this city, do attend the 
burning of the several papers or journals aforesaid, numbered as 
above mentioned. — Fred. Morris, D. CI. Con." 

" To Robert Lurting, Esquire, mayor of the city of New York, 
and the rest of the magistrates for the said city and county." 

'' When the sheriff moved for the compliance of the magistimtea 
at die quarter sessions, the court would not suffer the order to be 
entered, and the aldermen offered a protest against it, as an arbi- 
trary and illegal injunction. Harrison, the recorder, was present, 
and put to a defiance for its justification. He mentioned the ex- 
ample of the lords in Sacheveral*a case, and their proceedings 
against bishop Burnet's pastoral letter, and withdrew. They for* 

9 OODOfOnBd mW 

ouftfm His uiuids pfocnred 
The CTcquiooi to fait 

«« The prisoner swwe, tint, CBoept Ae tooli of 
wonfa fbftf pounds b the world, and jet bdi 
As pankf of jteOO; qmi this he 
supuotieOy pioocciuca ns p s p<i» 

But bcMPe Cnis enaii^peflMatf vfeiu CTnici J' 
oi; (onless il vss the enhrgancm, of 
hole b the door,) Zenger, oo the S§A of Noreodher, 17M^ 
psper of that dafie, apdogiseB fiv doc pradv the 
■sly as die gysenioar* hf ramt, had pot fain is jril ^ 
he had die liberty of spfoking thwiogh the bote in 
could coBDBPe toeaienm his cosSMMts by puJiBiilM^ bis 
Ib aaswcr 10 csseof faisopponcats* he wHsmawhttiifK that he 
boogfat orer, ai the cfaariiable e ati c us e of the cron,'* for 
RtoraB dmks fo Qoeeo AmK. Is amdwr pawsgr, he 
Hanisoo bad uucaieued fo cane fain s boi hh svora 
%BtL Unk In tboee daiSy svoras vcn 
aod vom as part of the dresL 
1735 In April term, 173-5. Zenecr^s cooDciL or the 

pkms of the people, Messrs. 'Alexander and Smiifa, 
cxoep6oQ5 to tbe comzniaaoDs of tbe judres, De Lancer end 
Iqpse. First, to tbe tenure, vhich vnas ai sriD and plevore. 
oood* to tiw inresdXQre. Third, to the ibnn. And bidr, 10 1 
want of eridenoe, that tbe mmnl conctzrred vith tbe gmemuur 

Tbe jadces. of coaae, repelled this attack, and on tbe IGcb of 
ApriL Mr. X)e Lancer, cbief jostioe, addreasinff Mr. Saudi, aaid : 
^ Voo bare bronzfat it to tint point, that esdier we most eo 
die bencb, or too from tbe bor.^ — And tbe counsel 

Tbe court ^sslzned Mr. Cbaasbeis as counsel for John Pear 
Zeorer. vbo pleaded ibe general iasoe ftir im cbent, and i dmlund 
a role for a ssrock j^nj. 

Tbe trial aras bnracfat 00 at the eooit in Jolr, and 
ted bj tbe silenced laTrersio eireit a faroonhle 
bad poanad all tbe praeeding wjaj^pi, vixb ererr species of' 

ZEN6BE*8 TBIAL. 301 

position, tending to animate, alarm, inform, or captivate the mindB 
of the multitude ; and the stratagem to deprive the defendant of 
help, disserved the end for which it was intended. Aware of the 
inadmissibility of all proof to justify the libels, they had the art to 
exhibit them to the public by the press, and at clubs, and other 
meetin<rs for private conversation ; and, considering the inflamed 
state of a small county, consistins: at that time of less than a thou- 
sand freeholders qualified for jurors, it was easy to let every man 
perfectly into the full merits of the defence. Besides, he drew 
some advantas^es from a struck jury, since he could nearly conjec- 
ture, out of a panncl of twenty-four men, which of the twelve would 
be charged with his cause. 

These preparations being made, 31r. Hamilton, who had been 
secretly engasced, presented himself on the day of trial as the cham- 
pion of liberty. He was a member of one of the inns of court, 
an opulent citizen of Philadelphia, in high reputation at the bar. 
He had art, eloquence, vivacity, and humour, was ambitious of 
fame, negliirent of nothing to ensure success, and possessed a con- 
fidence which no terrors could awe. 

He asserted, that the matters charged were the tmth^ and there- 
fore no liM. He ridiculed the notion advanced by the judges, 
that *' a libel was more dana:erous for beins: true." His debates 
with the court persuaded the jury, before he addressed them, that 
the refusal of the judges to permit evidence of the truth of the pub- 
lications, added to the tyranny of which the people complained ; 
and then, turning to the jur}', he recapitulated the passages in the 
journal — asserted them to be true — and left his client in the 
Iiands of the jury, who pronounced him not guilty. 

Shouts shook the hall. The judges threatened the leader of 
the tumult with imprisonment ; when a son of Admiral Norris de- 
clared himself the leader, and invited a repetition of the huzzas. 
The judges had no time for a reply, for the shouts were instantly 
repeated, and Mr. Hamilton was conducted from the hall, by the 
crowd, to a splendid entertainment. The whole city renewed the 
compliment at his departure the next day ; he entered the barge 
under a salute of cannon, and the corporation presented him with the 
freedom of the city in a gold box, on which its arms were engraved, 
encircled with the words, "Demersae leges — timefacta libertas 
— h«c tandem emergunt ;" in a flying garter within, " Non num- 
mis, virtute paratur ;" and on the other front, " Ita cuique eveniat 
ut de republica meruit." 

I will here give a note, made by Chancellor Kent : 

" Report of the case of Peter Zenger, printer of the New YoA 
weekly journal. [This paper was commenced November 6tb, 
1733.] On the 17th of November, 1734, Zencer was airested 
and imprisoned by the order of the council, m printing ind 



^iilili>liinL' sriiiiioi.TJ ijbel?. He was xhen brouzL: i^M^ 'J* 
fiinl' jii-iiire. on i/jbtii,"? r.oq>u*. and iii« couns<-J oZf}emr^i lo "J* 
U;::iiity i»i* ijv- ^v-jmiiji. ri.i*j in-fi-iTed on his beinz fii:ii;::ed !*:• ijitL 
(J i!!ii'- A it xa :.<!«. r '.:A Wiiiiam .S:rj:ih were his cou:i*^l-^ Ke w» 
ufJvriti lu j:i\e h:'.. ii; t-»v»M. vi:i:j nvo suneiie?. eici. iz iir'A*. 
A-i ill- :--.vijrc •).-: :.•'. w-? ::.»: vn^rJj x4M. xhe :ooi* ofrii* :n.sir uti 
wvdTr.ij. ajipii'Ti rxi. •■:••.■. J. i*c co^ld noi cive bail, and w«j r^r^ijc- 
niiiK-d. i^:i 'J-y.i: Jz:. . r^\ 17:>j- i:...- iTand 'urr r.£vir-j: i:*.:!:-! j& 
bill a^raii:!*! ).'..:.. v. . jiV. .ir::v'.-i;vr;cnii ijled an fi'"'"v.:s'i -t arars 
hin:i. l«ir ;i ilsl-*.. «■ -•■-■.i.' .*«• ::;i.:;:oas and sediuous J>rl- K» 
coun^ti TO'»k v\:- ; Vu;.* ^^ ::.e co::i::;i*»ion5ol"the chirf ^.i^■^^^ aDC 
J u li J c P: .11 ! i ;*-■ . '. '. ■• - •■ : "'. •: c o ::■. :::;•?* ion rcin J n n •• £■ ; -. ^n ^^^r"-? . lm: 
nol durir,- .*■•■: :. .;.l'.':r. ".:.«: v»r:rt :jrc.r,!cd bv l',-? ivv-enc-r. 
wh:.'.*; T T. T :; :v! a..-: ■. -*ri: •••*::.r round:. Tnr 'V'.-iir:. «:c 'JJz 
10X1. • :'A: -!!.:■ :\- : : • : ^ or it„-:.A :::r: vxc-rpTion?: in^::: :^-::a: 
liie*. «..::.'^:. :'^: r. /.*.:■ j •.'.-.:;.. ::.'.v. bv urdt-r. 'jr'.. i*>'* 'vc *'" n :*? 

___ • • • ■ 

The ^'-r. ::-r::. ' . •..-.- l*.::v ».-: *.■:* :::e i-rlnier. aii-.-vrt-ri J via 

^^^ •• ■« • ■■■■■ -• 

\. ..1 .. -.■.*- r. * ... • . . . — . .. i..'.. i.r u-tat.rL. r:'.». i.i.-..t .»j ^< 

ir-ii cjl; ■-. ■ ■■ . : ■-■ ^.i-rT.r.v ':•.•: r. before lixcf^ vx\j 'uireN 
(J-ii'-i-* W- J = ■ ■• -' ':i^\:'r, i-id Frederick Philllr-s-r, t*v:i?ae 

• ■ • 

•• '\f> \ ' .' , ■ ■ . <l.\ J v.vr^ rorfe^.-fed. an i Mr. Ha.-iiii- 

•■■ *^" "I * ■^■" *■•**•-•*■ ^_" •"■* "^ -..»-■■_-» 

, r ■ ... - . • . 

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:^- . •' - »i.-. ; '... :.>■'•■? of i:.a:;k>i i.:o .\\'. ii;if-- ...f ihe 


• I. 

■ ■ ' i ^v • Zrrnj-r rri^k-:* >: .;;,:i;r':j.r. i •: I'Mre in 

'•^ . •'- - :- !• »i-. i:: • .* :'^'m::";:i:i r ■," •/.* jirr of 

\ - .-, N • . * ■ •■ i J .: i ; f- r- »■.•■- \f — ^s • , i ■ *: • ■ " " .i " ■ - - -^ " 

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• •■ ■■■• --.<-.- -', . -- T . .", . — 

* > ^ ■ ■• ••■ *-••■■ .1.- ^'•.^■■.- ■>■■**«« 


people, their oppositioD to the mode of government fastened upon 
th?m by England, and consequently upon their conduct thirty and 
forty years after. It proves the prevailing opinion entertained of 
Governour Cosby, his council, and his judjres; and it exhibits the 
character and talents of Andrew Hamilton, which is passed over 
aliehtlv bv William Smith, the son of one of the silenced lawyers.* 

I have given the brief and luminous note of Mr. Kent ; but as 
the trial, published at tlie time, by Zens:er, ami republished in Lan* 
caster by W. Dunlap, in 175G, is scarce, and the state trials rarely 
consulted, I will, for the above reasons, make extracts from it, and 
endeavour by comment, to elucidate it. 

The words charged to be a false, scandalous, malicious, and 
seditious libel, are these ; " Your appearance in print at last, srives 
a pleasure to manv, though most wisii vou had come fairlv into 
the open field, and not appeared behind retrenchments made of the 
supposed laws against libelling : these n. trenchments, ^rendemeOy 
mav soon be shewn to vou and all men to l>e ven- weak, and to 
have neither law nor reason for their foundation, so cannot long 
stand vou in stead : therefore, vou had much boiler as vet leave 
them, and come to what the people of this city and province think 
are the points in question. They think as matters now stand* that 
their liberties and properties are precarious, and that slavery is like 
to be entailed on them and their posterity, if some past things be 
not amended, and this they collect from many [>ast proceedifags." 
**One of our neighbours of New Jersey bein? in company, observ- 
ing the strangers of New York full of complaints, endeavoured to 
persuade them to remove into Jersey ; to which it was replied, 
that would be leaping out of the fning-pan into the ore ; for, says 
he, we both are under the same firovemour, and vour assemblv have 
shown with a witness, what is to be expected from them : one that 
WIS then moving from New York to Pennsyhiiiia. to which place 
it is reported several considerable men are removing, expressed in 
terms ver}' moving, much concern for the cianimstances of New 
York, and seemed to think them verv much owins: to the influence 
that some men had in the administration : said he was now going 
from them, and was not to be hurt bv anv measures thev should 

* This irend^man was the Andrew Hamilton, whose speech. Proud, the historian 
of Peniwylvania. girt* upon the occaMon of Ai» taking leave of the assembly, of 
which he had been the speaker, on account of a; e and infirmities. This was in 
1731K only five yean after his celebrated defence of Zenxer. He died in 1741. 
*• in the latter end of the summer." mr» Fraud. — ** He had fillod several considerabl« 
•cations both in the government ol* Pennsylvania and the lower counties, with 
honour, inteirritv. and abilitv. He was a bwyer nf creat note, and acquired much 
reputation, particukriy in ^enger** famous trial in New York.** Thw cdebnled 
barrister was an Engluhman. edacated awl in practice before coming to thiscoas- 

S, and must not be confounded with the Deputr-govemoiurof pptuuTlraBta. who 
d in 17«3 or 4.— Sec HHCorkil Reriew. pabfiihcd ia JLoadoB, ITA. 

tM nMn'i 

hm c ontfyi ea, and triMMld be gfaMl to hear datt ibe 
vouM exeit thenfldves m become them, bv shewing tfam ther 
iM ile rea t of their countnr more at heart, than the ^iiiiifii aiiaarf 
Mj private view of any of their member? ; or beinc at all 
hy Cbe amilea or frairiia of a goverxKMir ; both which oachc 
l» be deapiaedy wbea the imerear of their coomiy is at sake. Ta, 
aajs be, eoaqriaitt of the law jera, but I think the kw jaaelf kmm 
mL We aae Boen^a deeds deairojed, jodeea arfaitraxilT ifiapiani 
Mw eovrta eraeted without conaeat of the legialature, bj 
to me, triala bj juriea are takes away when a 
; men of kaowa eatatea denied their vaaea* 
aaeeired practke of the beat expoutor of aoY kw. Who it 
m thai province that can call anj thini^ hia owiu or enjov aaj 
loMpar than thoae in the admimatration will coDdeaeend to kt 
4o It, far which reason I left it, as I believe more wilL** 

We have aeeo, that the grand jarjr would not find a bSl ac 
iw^ rk l ti , and that his Mlveraaries proceeded bj the inkmoos 
of mfarmation. When the trial came on, Mr. Hamilton v 
iM prialittg and publiahing as being the troth. 

Even the namea of the ttmck jury possess interest at thk dsy : 
HaroMMs Kutgen, rkanlj Holmes', Edward 3IamL, John Bdi, 
Sanrael Weaver, Andries Marchalk, Egbert Van Borsoo, TheaH 
Himt'^lbreman, Benjamin Hildreth, Abraham Ketehas, Joai 
Goelet, Hercules Wendo^er- 

Hamilton confesfted the printing and publL^hing. BnttLej ab* 
aerved that ** the jury my ft find a verdict for the kinz-** ** Not so^ 
Mr. Autnutfjf* said Hamilton, '' there are two words to that bar- 
gain : I hope f w not our bare printing and publishing a paptf 
that will make U a libel : you will have somethincr more to da, 
before you make my client a libeller ; for the words tfaemsciva 
must be libellous, that iji, falM, icandalous and seditiotts, or ehe 
we are not guilty*** Bradley crave the usual definition of a iibei : 
he assened, *' that wrrther the person dekmed is a private man or 
magistrate, whether liv'air or dead, whether the libel k true or kbe, 
or if the party airainst whom it is made is of rood or evil knie« it ii 
nevrrthrlcss s IiIn^I : forn s Kttled fttate of government, the parrr 
grieved • oui:ht to complain for ever}' injur}* done him, in the ordi- 
nary roufM of the law And as to its publication, the kw had 
taken mi f^reat rare of men's reputttions, that if one malicioasly 
rapeals it, or ninfcs it, in the presence of another, or delivers ths 
libel or a ropy of it over, to scandalise the party, he k to be pan- 
ished as a publisher of a libel. He said, it was likewise evident, 
that libelling waa an offence against the kw of God : Acts Tiiii, & 
*rban said Paul, I wist not, brethren, that he waa the high prieat ; 
^ it k inteov thoQ abah em wfmk tvil of the rakr of tba p aopl e , 


3 Pet. X, 11.*— Despise government, presumptuous are they, self- 
^villed, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities, &c. He then 
insisted that it was clear, both by the law of God and roan : that it 
was a very great offence to speak evil of, or to revile those in 
authority over us ; and that Mr. Zenger had offended in a most noto- 
rious and gross manner, in scandalizing his excellency, durgover- 
nour, who is the king's immediate representative, and the supreme 
magistrate of this province. Mr. Chambers, who 'had been 
appointed by the court to defend Zenger, after Smith and Alexan- 
der were silenced, addressed the jury ; and then Hamilton followed. 
He insisted, that the just complaint of a number of men sudering 
under the bad admuiistration of a government, was no libel. He 
said, that Bradley, by reading and expounding the ivfounatum^ 
had shown that the prosecution had been directed by the gover- 
nour and council ; and by the appearance of the crowded court, 
it was apparent that people think there is s great deal more at stake 
than appears on the surface of this business ; and, therefore, he 
should be both plain and particular in what he had to say. He 
pointed out, that the authorities Bradley had cited, were from that 
terrible and long exploded court, the star-chamber. " Is it not 
surprising," he said, " to see a subject, upon his receiving a com- 
mission from the king to be a governour of a colony in America, 
immediately imagining himself to be invested with all the preroga- 
tives belonging to the sacred person of his prince ? And which is 
yet more astonishing, to see that a people can be so wild as to allow 
of and acknowledge those prerogatives and exemptions, even to 
their own destruction f Is it so hard a matter to distinguish between 
the majesty of our sovereign, and the power of a governour of the 
plantations ?" He showed the folly of such supposition. He in- 
sisted on the rights of a freeholder in New York being as great as 
those of a freeholder in England. 

Bradley, the attorney-general, interrupted the barrister, and 
insisted that the confessionof publication, was a confession that Zen- 
ger was guilty of what was charged in the information, as scanda- 
lous and leading to sedition. 

Hamilton observed, that Mr. Attorney now omitted the word 
fake. " We are charged," he said, "with printing and publishing 
a certain false, malicious, sediUous and scandalous libel. This 
Word fahe^ must have some meaning, or else how came it there } 
I hope Mr. Attorney will not say, he put it there by chance, and I 
am of opinion his information would not be good without it. But 
to show that it is the principal thing which, in my opinion, makes 
a libel, I put the case, if the information had been for printipg and 
publishmg a certain true libel, would that be the same thing i ' Qr 
could Mr. Attbrney support such an information by any prteedeot 
ID the English law ? No ; the falsehood makes tb^ wtadfl, tod 

VOL. I. 39 

sbnqbr's tual. SOT' 

ID the papers :" and the chief justice proceeded, *^ these are tht 
words of the book : * It is &r from being a justification of a libelf 
that tiie contents thereof are true, or that the person on whom it 
is made, had a bad reputation, since the greater appearance there 
is of truth in any malicious invective, so much the more provoking 
it is.' " 

These cases, Hamilton called star-chamber, and the court 
reproved him, but permitted him to address the jury. 

^' Then, gentlemen of the jury, it is to you we must appeal for 
witnesses of the facts." They being summoned out of the neigh- 
bourhood, were the best judges of the truth, and they are to take 
upon them to say, that the papers are false, scandalous and sedi* 

After some further contest with the attorney and court, Hamilton 
said, '^ I know the jury have a right to determine both the law and 
the fact, and they ought to do so." Leaving to the court to deter- 
mine *' whether the words are libellous or not, renders juries use- 
less, or worse." He afterwards said, " But when the ruler of t 
people brings his personal failings, but much more his vices, into 
his administration, and the people find themselves affected by themt 
either in their liberties or properties, that will alter the qfise mightilyt 
and all the high things that are said in favourof rulers and of digni* 
taries, and upon the side of power, will not be able to stop people's 
mouths, when they feel themselves oppressed — I mean in a free 
government. It is true, in times past, it was a crime to speak tAitb* 
and in that terrible court of stai^chamber, many worthy and brave 
men suffered for so doing ; and yet even in that court, and in those 
bad times, a great and good man durst say, what I hope will not be 
taken amiss of me to say in this place, to wit : The practice of in- 
formations for libels, is a sword in the hands of a wicked king, and 
an arrant coward, to cut down and destroy the innocent ; the one 
cannot, because of his high station, and the other dares not, becauio 
of his want of courage, revenge himself in another manner." 

*'Our constitution," said the barrister, "gives us an opportu- 
nity to prevent wrong, by appealing to the people*" ** And has it 
not often been seen (and I hope it will always be seen,) that when 
the representatives of a free people are by just representationv or 
remonstrances, made sensible of the suffenngs of their fellow sub* 
jects, by the abuse of power in the hand^ of a govemour, they havo 
declared (and loudly too) that they were not obliged by any law to 
support a govemour who goes about to destroy a provmce or colo* 
ny, or thei( privileges, which by his majesty he was appointed, sod 
by the law he is bound to protect and encourage. But I pray it 

ba ai ww Bit d i hi f i yoo aoi > l^ gi i hiui e ? HavejoaMia 

of iP|ii g JBiitnim > to wfaom joo lUT'ooBiplm r Am m 

I ao>wer» we htve : but wbat dmi ? b m ■modUj' Id bi 
trooided with eveiy mjoiy done by a gorernoiir ? Or are dKy ti 
hnrof Dochingbut what tbose in the adauniscmioD wiD pleHtti 
triltbem? Or wbalsoit of atrialmust tman bnre? And hovk 
ki 10 be remedied— emecialljr if tbe case were, aa I have knowa il 
to happen in America m my time — chat a g o f e ino m who haa pT 
fl wiU not say pensioosv tor I believe they seldom givetfastto 
ttSTf which they can take to themselves) to bestow, and 
keep the same assembly (afier be has niodelled them ao as to gtta 
amjiailj^nf the hoose in hb interest) for near twice a 
apgedier? I pray what redress is to be expected for 
mmOf who makes hu complaint against a govemom' to an 
iriio may pnq»eriy enoo^ be said to be made by the same gu s u 
soar, against whom tbe complaint is made f" 

Wehere see the light m which Cosby*s condnctwaa viewed If 
jast men, and the ofunion which the wise had ofgov eimwua , m iit 
j«rl78& Again: '* And when a house of assembly, compossi 
of honest fieemen, sees tbe generd bent of the people's inclinaiiaBi^ 
ihst is it which most and fnll (I am sore it ooght so) weigh wiiha 
Vgiilslmri, in spite of all the craft, caressing, and cajoling, nnds 
oseof by a govemour, to divert them from hearkening to the 
of their country. As we all very weU understand the true 
why gendemen take so much pains, and make such great interetf 
to be appointed govemours, so is tbe design of their appointmesi 
not less manifesu" 

He comes to tbe conclusion **that tbe man who was neither good 
nor wae before his being made a govemour, never mended upon 
Ua preferment, but has generally been obsen-ed to become wotk." 
He alluded to thooe who might wish well to tbe present prosecntioSf 
fiom attachment to the govemour, or *' from their own or their leb* 
tion's dependence on him." Tbe reader will remember that bodi 
De Lancey and Phillipse held their seats as judges, during the 
govemour's pleasure. As may be supposed, the veteran bamswr 
dwelt at great length on topics which are here scarcely notioed; 
and I consider his address to the jury not only eloquent, bm as 
coming fiom an old man who saw all tbe vices of colonial govern* 
flsent, and represented them pretty much as the people geoerallv 
felt them, forty years afterward. "Ithinkit willbeagr^tfaatevv 
since the time of the star-cbamler, where the most arbitrary and 
destructive judgments and opinions were given, that ever an'Eng^ 
lisbman heard of, at least in his own coantry — ^I say, prosecutkins 
for libels since the time of that arbitrary coun, and until the ^ofi- 
OQs revolotkm, have generaUy been set on foot at the insttnoe of 
tbe cniwn or its mhusten: and k is no small npraach lo Aa law. 

zbnobr's trial/ 909 

that these prosecutions were too often and too much countenanced 
by the judges, who held their places at pleasure, a disagreeable 
tenure to any officer, but a dangerous one in the case of a judge." 
He mentioned the "complaisance of court judges," in the case 
of Sir Edward Hales, who enjoyed the office of colonel in James 
tlie Second*s army, notwithstanding that he was an avowed Roman 
Catholic, (in despite of a statute to the contrary,) because the 
judges, hoi ling their seals at the king's pleasure, declared the 
king's dispensing power above an act of parliament. A portion of 
Mr. Hamilton's arjjument went to show that juries might with pro- 

Sriety differ from the court ; he instanced the case of Penn and 
fead, ** who being quakers, and having met in a peaceable manner, 
after being shut out of their meeting-house, preached in Grace- 
church street, in London, to the people of their own persuasion, 
and for this they were indicted ; and it was said, that they with 
other persons, to the number of 300, unlawfully and tumultuously 
assembled, to the disturbance of the peace, etc. : to which they 
pleaded not guilty ; and the petit jur}' were sworn to \xy the issue 
between the king and the prisoners, that is, whether they were 
guilty, according to the form of the indictment ? Here there was 
DO dispute, but they were assembled together to the number men- 
tioned in the indictment : but whether that meeting together was 
riotously, tumultuously, and to the disturbance of the peace i was 
the question ; and the court told the jury it was, and ordered the 
jury to find it so ; for, said the court, the meeting was the matter of 
fiict, and that is confessed, and we tell you it is unlawful, for it is 
against the statute; and the meeting being unlawful, it follows of 
course that it was tumultuous, and to the disturbance of the peace. 
But the jury did not think fit to take the court's word for it, for they 
could neitlier find riot, tumult, or any thing tending to the breach 
of the peace, committed at that meeting; and they acquitted Mr. 
Penn and Mead : in doing of which, tliey took upon them to judge 
both the law and the fact." 

The barrister showed, that by innuendo^ scripture might be made 
libellous, and with great humour, quoted a passage from Isaiah : 
" His watchmen are all blind, they are ignorant, &:c. Yea, they 
are greedy dogs, that can never have enough. But to make them 
a libel, there is, according to Mr. Attorney's doctrine, no more 
wanting but the aid of his skill in the right adapting his innuendoes. 
As, for instance : His watchmen innuendo, the governour's council 
and assembly are blind, they are ignorant, innuendo, will not see 
the dangerous designs of his excellency. Yea, they (the gover- 
nour and council, meaning) are greedy dogs, which can never have 
enough, innutndo, enough of riches and power." 

He concluded thus : "I am truly very unequal to such an un- 
dertaking, on many accounts ; and you see I labour under tbe weight 

Ko! h 

> Bfioih gwfcnuiigK oo tlw Mun of Ah^ 
liou h » the bt c i f i k » the cioie of libcuy m d I 
■o doobl bol yoor i^v^ht conduct thb d^, will aot ooljr 
yoo m the loto aad erteen of your fidhnr-dtiienct hot eveiy bmi 
wtopi oft gifceedooitoalifeofihnreiy,wiDMeweiid hoooarjnw 
who faefobifled the anompt of tynnnj, and lijui io^MtU 
MtiO i iM|it foidioi, hsfeUdaBoUe foondeii oo ibr eo cun n 
It outicl f ee » oorpuemiij, and oar neigfaboan, that, to .which aa- 
tovaaod the hwa of oar cooimy bare giren at a light t he Gbarty 

both of eMOWigaiid oppoaiog aifaitrary power, {m tbeaepam^ 
the world, at feait,) by speaJung and writiDg truth.'* 

It baa been already said, that the jury pfonounced the priaoov 
** aot ^riity/* The people applauded the rerdict, and the Coipo- 
ladoo of New York did themselves booour, by bonouriiig the de- 
fader of the rigbts of man: I have to record transactioos of the 
aaoM body, of a very dissimilar character. 



Colonial history of New York; why valuabl&-^City ; ducription 
of-^Mannert of the timtt^^Lord Augustus Fitzroy ; hit recepfianf 
and the consequences — Death o/Govemour Cosby ^ andpromulga- 
tion of the suspension of Van Dam — Struggle for power between 
Clarke and ran Dam, terminated by a mandate fivm England 
— Morris — Disfranchisement of the Jews^^Managem/ent ana ahii* 
lilies of Clarke. 

1732 Had it been possible to arrest the progress of New Yorki 
in its growth, from a few trading huts for buying peltry from 
savages, to its present state — a great republican empvre — to htva 
cut short its existence, before that great trial commenced, the issue 
of which proved the folly, and injustice, of depriving Englishmen 
of their rights, because they had removed to a distance from homCf 
for the purpose of enjoying those rights uninterruptedly — ^if our 
history reached no further than that state of dependence, which the 
government and people of England wished to perpetuate, when 
the colonists were prohibited, for the supposed benefit of the 
mother country, from using, for their own good, the nutteriala 
nature had given them, and the ingenuity they brought from homOf 
and, in the language of the great Pitt, Lord Chatham, ( a man so 
erroneously considered as the colonist's friend, when he advocated 
measures that were intended for England's enrichment, and the 
bond of the province,) in that expressive sentiment uttered by him, 
*^ that he would prohibit the colonies from manufacturing even t 
hob-nail," — if we rested in that state of childlike dependence, in- 
stead of manufacturing according to our wishes, those things 
which our state of manhood required — if, in short, the histdry of 
New York had ceased, after recording the disputes of Van Dam 
and Cosby, and the intrigues of their enemies or friends, though 
we might lament that the actions of good men, would be lost to 
posterity ; yet, as leading to no permanent political consequence^ 
the history of New York, would have been nearly worthless. But 
as a chain of events characterizing the progress to our present great- 
ness ; every fact that can be rescued from oblivion, and so placed 
on the record, as to show the advancement from the paloy pnmnce 
to a mighty sovereign state, becomes of immense impoftiMe. It 



is this consideration that has made me dwell with delicfat, on ibe 
character? of Peier Stuvve?ani, Jacob Leisler. Peter Scfaovkrv 
Andrew H^mihon, and other patriots, Dutch, American, and Eng- 
lish ; as well as on the virtues of the Hibemiac, Richard Cooie. 
Ear] of Bellamonu and the learned, wise, and beuerolent Britoo. 
William Burnet : and assures me, that by showing one contintied 
chain of events, however trivial in the commencement, which led 
ultimate) V and inevitabiv. to the rrea: results which we now vis- 
ness. I am doinz an essential service to mv fellow men. 

The origin of Rome, the boasted eternal citv, is sought amidst 
fables : and ever}- absurd lejrend Is cherished as a part of the edo* 
cation of the modem race : how much more important to the Aaie- 
ricans. is the true record, of the oririn of tnis empire : and tbe 
steps by which the crentness was a:tained. which he now witsesaes. 
With these views. I will here notice the state of the cit\- of Ne» 
York, about the period ur.Jer cnnsideraiion. 

The advertisements in the old newspapers rive one a more 
decided view of the manners of this time, thananv intentional essav 

m * 

could do. I likewise ciin some knowledge of the state of the c-ir 
at that period : for example, in Zenker's Weekly Journal, daud 
Mondav, Julv the 59th. 1734. I find. " to be sold. 6 lots of land. 
on the west side of the Swamp or Criplebush. three of them irosB 
the row that leads from Spring Garden to the Fresh Water. i!K 
other three, the srree: ne\t to ti.e Swamp : there is three rood 

the streets wore no: a: :i[\ :!t.vs Oa'.'.-:d bv :!:»? name : in thi« 
instance we have :i " s:.-«:e: a:^: a rowv." w;:::o-,:: ni:::es. It will be 
amusing to discover i::e sirLLV-l.-^n of :l:ese i.ivcr.isei lot.-, zrA mark 
their present state. Th^To '.vore, a> :i\?.\ bo S'.en by the rr.a? of 
17:?^). two swii:u'»s in i::.? o::v : Me s'.vir::> «>'.: iv-:T:er::ber^d bv -re, 
asrirA /-^rr '-.r/v ''■'■•■■/ V, is i:-. t::e r/.ap, cailtii Bee k man's Swar:?. 
lyins in Mon'con:erio's War.i. an! is*!-.-? "".'"'S! so^::::erivof the two: 
now it is occtiiiie.l bv Ferrv s:r^?v:, F rink tort siree:, water 
street, etc. To the ei-t o: :::is. is i r.^^r^ e\!er--:'.e s'varro and 
meaci».»w, which I s-'.ii|-.»<c t-'* b ^ •':: ■■- ci'.'.o.i in ::>? a.i\ e rise men: 
Crir-^' ? ': < 'i : no'.v o* * c u ; » io • i b v o; ; v-: r, ,1 iiv. e *, C ii:\€ ri r. o . I i .x»se ve!t. 
Oak, an.i other suve*-. '.rA [rrz :»r?:Ae:n Cht^rry ir.d Pearl su^ets* 
The Fr-A W.:' -. c; A' "-, i>: C •"-■•', is a :rirt of Centre sireeL 
the Hills of J'.:-:i''e. the Five PoLr/.5, etc. C: itr.irr. street wis 
at this time (1T:U^ tb.e hijr. roiJ to Bosro? : ard the part of p^^e- 
*cnt Pearl .Street, from C::orry si-vet to Cbarha-n. lor'the Boston 
road.) \va5 nan'.ele>.<. No*.^ we rv^s* Ir-ok for Mrs. Anna Ten 
Eyck's sLx lots, and tour houses, east of Pearl stncr. (before def- 
cendingto the S«-amp or Criplebash.) perhaps in the ceichbourhood 


of Madison street. Spring Garden, (probably a place of rural 
recreation for the citizens,) was between Beekman's Swamp, and 
the Criplebush ; or on Pearl street, as now occupied and called, 
between the junction of Cherry, Pearl, and Chatham streets. 

To return to our history. Colonel Cosby was one of those 
military gentlemen, who looked to their connexions with the nobi- 
lity at home, for preferment abroad. His brother. Major Cosby, 
was of the same class, and had been lieutenant-governour of Anna- 
polis, but finding the colonel had the power in New York, to give 
him preferment, (or for reasons unknown to me,) came hither, and 
thus the common council of our city speak on the occasion. " This 
corporation being very desirous upon all occasions, to demonstrate 
the great deference they have, and justly entertain for his excel- 
lency, William Cosby, captain general, etc., and for his noble 
family, order, that the honourable Major Alexander Cosby, bro- 
ther to his excellency, and lieutenant-goyernour of his majesty's 
garrison of Annapolis Royal, and Thomas Freeman, the governour's 
son-in-law, be presented with the freedom of the city, in silver 
boxes." In consequence of this resolve, three days after, the cor- 
poration waited on the above, and took occasion to compliment 
the governour most outrageously^ and likewise his lately married 
daughter. Miss Grace Cosby, and her wedded lord, Thomas Free- 
man. But to show the spirit of the times, and the provincial feel- 
ing of our city dignitaries, I must relate tlie manner in which a 
lord was received into the city and fort. The consequences were 
not worthy of the occasion. 

In October, of the year 1732, arrived a young man, the son of 
a duke, and himself entitled my lord. He was received as a visi- 
ter by the noble family in the fort, and I find it recorded, that on 
the 20th, *' the corporation being informed that the right honour- 
able lord Augustus Fitzroy, son of his grace the Duke of Grafton, 
lord chamberlain of his majesty's household, etc., arrived in this 
city to pay a visit to his lady and family," therefore the aforesaid 
corporation resolve, to wait upon his lordship in a full body, < 
and besides congratulating him upon bis safe arrival, to present him 
with the freedom of the city in a gold box. 

This important resolution was carried into effect on the 23d ; 
and the largest article of intelligence to be found in the journals of 
this year, is, that the mayor, recorder, aldermen, assistants, and 
other ofScers of the city, '^ being informed the Lord Augustus 
Fitzroy, son of his grace, Charles Duke of Grafton, was arrived 
at Fort George, on a visit to his excellency, our governour, waited 
upon the lord, in a full body, and the recorder addressed his lord- 
ship, in a speech of congratulation, returning him thanks for the 
honour of his presence, and presented the freedom of the city in 
a gold box." I find by another record, that the common council 

VOL. I. -40 


flttd 6r*0Mid bns. ^14 Sft.;adihii far 
te pdhic whntikmmr, tfaef nmd £UL 

A fav Eott mate, aad I vffl dbHM tU 
Jkagmftos Fittrof ntajoatli,aBdlIis.CoAgrhid 
tor (bendeiifait SGai Gnee, viio vai eemfjatmbttd bgr 
poi'lion oo her louiii^ vidi Mr* FmsHiBy) vkow 
were lo be adraooed bjr a laamage iiiA agr 
appear ai if done fridmiiiK ooaaeol of dv 
cJa^iuan vas unodiioed over die niipafti oi ttc 
cerenoBj p crf o n nod vidioai EcesK* 

If all dni appean lo be belcnr die dnitjr of Umhj« 
ke teoiead»ered« dtti it is ooly b^ sodi detailBp ikat ine e 
naiedK itale of aocieiT ia anjr given phee* aia givca t^K, 
faaa a tme aodoo of die perHios seal lij Trnf^mi to rdb 
praviDoe lo 1733. 

Wfaea Gute i iMH ir Coibjr fied io Nev Yoiiu bb wife 
lo Eogbodf ci parting lo eojoj die bu o uiu aeciii e J hgr die 
of ber daoffaierto a bud; boC it ia aaid, die ptatihmiij 
the intmsioa, and the hdr. Eke naaj other 
oolr reaped ifaaow and 4lin|i|Miii<Bif1 

1735 The triumph of the people over die 
adhereots, bv the rerak of Zeneer'a trial, 

the leaden of the demomcr. OlgectioM 
esercise of the office of chancelbir, br die 
sext» bj petition r e pr e sented the lone atxznz of the 
delled to iLe eoTenM>ur'< viewss, as a crie r a nee. 
the eiisxeofce of tbe covin of chanccffT. without the r t immm m ^ of the 

1736 ihi ibe lOifa of March. 1736. GoTcmotirCoebT fed. It 
mar haie bees obserred. that durinr tiie p er s e ca a u a d 

Z^arer. bj the cwemaur and coonciL Mr. Van Dam 
bimwlf from the mcednrs of the sccood member of the 
meiit. He w an oppotSDooist. and althooefa the oidest 
br^ look DO pan b the eorenioiir's measizres. Oa tbe deam of 
Codbj, the people looked to him aks the tetoporarr 

Tbe in t effae i i c e of CcAr m the zraflD br wfaich p cop er t y wat 

•eU — fatf project for a re-mrer of the old pmeofi — in ail * 

^ people ooir sxm descrv ix 

e^LiremeiT odiottK aad the aceeiEioa of Vaai Dam a9 the nikw 

bailKd viiji joy aod triximph. Boccfaisi exokaOBa vwcaedBed. 

^ « tepuct thac Vas Dam b^ bees auBp em i e J br die 
ett tbff za^Atk ait Bite • v^i»«.»t>— «irw»««k Lk . 

«ke :Mfib of the pceraw Xovei^cr, ahhoock Mch « bd 



sentations of Mr. Morris, (who was gone to England for the pur- 
pose of removing Cosby,) had been deemed insufficient. 

The council consisting of Clarke, Alexander, Van Home, Ken- 
nedy, De Lancey, Cortlandt, Lane, and Horsemanden, met, and 
recognising the suspension of Van Dam, administered the^ oaths to 
Mr. Clarke, and issued a proclamation accordingly. 

The proclamation was called the unanimous deed of the council, 
although Alexander protested against it. It is evident, that he must 
have been in the opposition during all the struggle, and in a very 
small minority — standing alone, as Van Dam had not appeared for 
some time. 

Posterity has been inclined to judge Cosby more favourably 
than did Smith, the historian of the time, whose extreme partiality 
to his father, may have misled him : yet, when we consider the 
secret suspension of Van Dam, ( whom as governour, he had a 
right to remove,) left to take effect at his death — after he had escaped 
from the effect of the suspension upon the people, which he knew 
would draw reproach and bitter enmity upon him ; it must appear, as 
it was, a dastardly deed of policy — the arrow, like that of the Par- 
thian, was sped while shunning the victim, and only intended to 
take effect when tlie archer had escaped from the dangers of the 

Van Dam, knowing his strength with the people, disputed the 
validity of this pDst mortem suspension ; and Clarke, supported by 
the creatures of the late governour, and the party united with them, 
immediately commenced to officiate as president of the council. 
Van Dam demanded the seals. Clarke appealed to the king. 
Van Dam claimed the government as oldest counsellor, and de- 
clared the suspension invalid, as being the act of an insane man, 
delirious at the time with the disease which caused his death. 
This contradicts the assertion of Smith, that the suspension had 
existed in private from November to March, and exhibits Cosby 
as gratifying his enmity on his death bed. 

The 14th of October, being the day for appointing officers, each 
rival exercised tliat extraordinary function of the presiding office. 
Parties raged, and violence was threatened ; but a mandate arrived 
from England in favour of the aristocracy. George Clarke was 
declared the legal occupant of the colonial throne, and shortly 
afterwards appointed lieutenant-govemour.* Previous to attaining 
this mark of ministerial favour, Clarke, on the 14th of October, met 
the assembly, and declared his first speech, in which he reminded 
them of their promises respecting the revenue made to Cosby, 

* The reader is referred to the abstract of the minutes, of the eomnioM eonnoO^ 
vBdcr the bead of misceUaneeiu matters, ibr tra^ of das diipafei. 

•9 i. m 

»A -A k - 

>.i^ r-;:--: ^Z3jv^s. :l 

^Ti'^ni-.ji" I :.:••. Lr^: ii..: .:*'. ::•:•: I'l^ if ■-it* l-riTiii'i*'- 17 --ezlx: 


«(***, "ii ?" "ill" '_".": . "■■•■" 

•• ■•. 


._. . . ,. 

-•-I.t':- i-l 1 111" •"LTerr""' 

.7 I r . 


11 r >■.".•."'■.■ I '. .- I ■ - iT-l L.~ Vtr" 

' i- *" 


• -'. . 

■ » 

— ' . . *- 



lor rou: : : >; :r : ^ 

• • ■ ■ '. . ■ - w 

L2 ITC "^ 

r - 

. " • • 'T * _ 

re cii; ::: "Jif fc:r. 1:.: u:.,.e v*v rtJ/.LV.c. r.e 
wnpiojed ibe liaie 10 tdruTue. Tne .t::rh of t..Tjr Mr. Clirice 

Clarke's admixistration. 317 

bid been in die province, and his acknowledged talenu, enabled 
him to manage the judges, (men thoroughly known to him, and 
who held their offices at bis pleasure,) the council — men within his 
power — and even the more unmanai]:eable house of assembly, 
for his purposes. Smith and Alexander were restored to the 

1737 The house met in the summer of 1737. James Alex- 
ander represented the City of New York. Lewis Morris, 
the son of the Governour of New Jersey, was chosen speaker. 
The democraiick or party of the people, prevailed in this braoch of 
the legislature. Their address, in reply to Clarke's very concilia- 
tory speech, was bold and uncompromising. They impute the 
deficiency of the revenue to prodiirality ; impeach their predeces- 
sors in graniinf: pennaneni funds, and tax the receivers with ingra- 
titude ; roundly assure him that they mean to discontinue that prac- 
tice ; **for," to use their own words, '*vou are not to expect that 
we either will raise sums unfit to be raised, or put wliat we shall 
raise into the power of a goVernour to misapply, if we can prevent 
it ; nor shall we make up any other deficiencies than what we con- 
ceive are fit and just to be paid, or continue what support or reve- 
nue we shall raise, for anv longer time than one vear; nor do we 
think it convenient to do even that, until such laws are passed as 
we conceive necessarv for the safetv of the inhabitants of this colo- 
ny, who have reposed a trust in us, for that only purpose, and which 
we are sure you will think it reasonable we should act agreeably 
to : and by die grace of God, we will endeavour not to deceive 

Notwithstanding this, the lieutenant-^vemour was able to pass 
through a long session, from Auirust to December, much to his 
mind. Many popular bills were passed : as to such as were rejected, 
tbe people placed the odium on the council, rather dian to the 
opposition of the lieutenant-ffovernour. The militia was remo- 
delled ; the practice of the law amended ; triennial elections or- 
dained ; the importation of base copper money restrained ; courts 
for the summar}* decision of petty suits established ; a mathemaucal 
and fljammar school encouraged; interest reduced from eieht to 
seven per cent ; the fort at Oswego supported ; the Indian trade 
promoted ; paper money emitted for paying the provincial debt ; a 
loan-office erected, and a precedent established of an annual pro- 
vision by the lepslature for the government.* 

Clarke is said to have destroyed the popularity of many leaden 
of the democratick party, by inducing them to accept ofiera of 
offices, which he never intended to bestow. 

8m G«rdoa't GuctlMC of N«fw YMk. 


1738 CliierJiMiee8Mlli,blBilikloi7, 
c Lbeuieul of die Jews fo fab faher's 
poses the otstor sincere. We hsire akcidj aolieed dat 
risDySn enuDem kvrrer indmes long sdhsiqutui to dbooe of 
«e tiestedf een sai e s bis firtber's coodjolor in 2«ciigci^s 
Alexander— (breotertainiog an ofMoion dnt 
jB a candidate for office. Tfae Chief Jostice of Canada 
die eootiarj doctrine, which was received and acted ■!«■ 
and afierward, and bj which a man hoMing |i i U|i e Hj i in 
was qualified to repreient Weslcheater, or anf other pottiaa of At 
pnmnoe, of which he knew nothing;. We find in the caae of At 
ditfiancidsement of the Jews, that the same Usioi' 
fiohei's eloquence, when bepersnaded the booseof 
10 reject the rotes of the Isrwiites, because their fittben, 
handred jean past, had demanded the death of one ooDdenned If 
dieirnilm. Whattmost we,at thisdaj, think ofeitberibe 
m Us andienee, who br their deciaoo, sanctioned sQcfa 
i^ ost ice ? In a conterted dectioo, Mr. Smith is p i aiseJ hw )m 
aoo, die historian, for asserting that die Jews of New York^dnih 
freeholders, were not entitled to vote for the candidate to whom fat 
wasopposed. Soch were the opinions of men long afier 17dS. 

I most not omit to mention, that Mr. Clarke Tialed AlMmT, aai 
eDdearoored to prerail upon the Iroquois to rcjectihe offetsof tfe 
French for the Valkj of Irondequoit, where a settlement was pro* 
jected by the Canadians, much to the injury of Oswego. He nst 
onlf wished to defeat the A^izm of the French, bv hi« nezotiarjooi 
whh the Indians, but to establish a colony at Irondequoit for tfae 
support of the gamson of Oswego : here b a bay formed by an UiJtx. 
of Lake Ontario, and the soil (now lying between the present Pen- 
field and Brighton,) is rich and fertile. The govemour was^ how- 
erer, unable to accomplish his purpose. Another of Lieutecam- 
govemour Clarke's schemes, was lo induce a body of Higfaianden 
to emigrate to New York, and setde ibem as a frontier guard 
ai^ainst the encroachments of the French, by the way of Lake 
Champlain; for they, by building a fort at Crown Point, com- 
manded that lake, and contemplated adrancing to what has since 
been called Skenesborough, and is now Wbitehail, and by tna: 
means to seize the entrance of Wood Creek. Clarke intirnded 
grantine to the Scotch emigrants, lands on Wood Creek, and this 
throwinz them as an aTant-guard to impede the French. But 
Chief Justice Smith asserts, that avarice induced the gOTemour to 
speculate in this as in other a&irs of goTemment. 

One of the most atrocious acts of the gOTemmeot of New York. 
under Mr. George Clarke^s administration, according to the state- 
ment of William Smith, the Ustorian, was the inducing LaogfaEn 
CampbeD to sell Us esiale in Scodand, and wwb the pr o du ce bring 

clarkb's administration. 319 

out eighty-three families of Highlanders, to settle upon the wild 
lands of the north, induced by a promise of Mr. Clarke to grant 
30,000 acres to Captain Campbell, for the purposes of cultivation, 
and as his own property, he becoming lord of this manor. The 
fact of Campbell being induced by the promise of the government 
to enter into this speculation, although asserted by Smith, and 
re-asserted by all who have followed him, is positively denied by 
Cadwallader Colden, then one of the council, and for many years 
subsequently, governour of the province. 

That Campbell came to this country, (and visited the lands 
about Wood Creek, so memorable in our history, and which falls 
into Lake Champlain) is certain; and that, pleased with the soil 
and the prospect of becoming a great proprietor, he returned home 
and brought out with him 423 adults with their children, in the 
hope to settle them on our frontier ; but Mr. Colden denies that he 
did this, upon a promise of Governour Clarke to grant him 30,000 
acres, or to make any agreement with him for more land than he 
could bring under cultivation ; and he says, positively, that Cap- 
tain Campbell's application to the government for 30,000 acres, 
was the first intimation the government had of his pretensions. Mr. 
Colden further says, that the greater number of the people who 
came out with Campbell, emigrated at their own expense, and with 
a view to becoming proprietors ; only a part, and that the lesser 
portion, being brought out by the Highland chiefbin, at his cost, 
and to become tenants to him.* 

* For the whole of Governour Colden's letter, I reftr the reader to the Appendix. 



Plot — H'jrhcift/ihr^^Tt — H*JLZfi^J^i OTui /f/jniiy^^Pi'srgr^t Cari, — KsBU 
cut wtt — IUvv2 rd '' r' \If2 T'j hftn 'jj. . 

1742 Nen^ =>eiTen'. Lhe cur^e of a porJon of lie Ul^jk: Soses 
of AiGehcfl. is a riib'^ec: li&i c-a'.r.o: r^e pis-sed over b. 
sSeoc«, by aLv r.Litoritii of Ne^ York: poT-c u-iriy wi>ez »e 
rcflfrciiria: r** aboL'JoL hji-s betri o:.e. jjiC r^o: "jj-r lets: eSci*::: c£ 
the caufes of :r;e p.'v>i rarity tr.d iTtitr.ei- of ir.t ekpile statx. 
The fir?: evict- ct of i"> til-rtr.*: e u-:;.:rj ::.e lerrltorlil »---ri. 
to wLJcii I ]l:tA\ rrijr^.f, 1.- or; U:e fu-r: :i£.re of i'je Dj:cl YiAr.ryrzs^ 
of 16-^i. a." iriL^.flicd bv AcriLD ^ ar.-er K-rrr.:*. ir^d c^z/Or'Jrl 
in the secTtUj".- of •:a:e*?' o::> t. bei.-r an Lrreen-erj! bera-rei Wl- 
liiJD KiefL dire': v>r-rv ri -^rc ! of N e~*" .N -j: ; . er. i :- •:: . a.- d J or.L D in*— 
ibr the jea>-r of r.*o J'V> of .iSid, •vrje .^rre-:" i: recijc* •• i::-^ i.". 

has bef- r. <: ^ . : ! -. ; : *- : r ;. r. . -, ' ri^ . ' * T :. ■ -j -_ : • c,: ::,> t:Tt^ ne - - J 


^iJ^ 1 .. '■. .•....• _ "' • 

I:: 1^:7. .-:^: :;.o K; .:v;^ .: '' :.^r.e* ^". ' -■r.'Lr- r": :>:* rrt:- 
tj ce of L*!.- f : f- . r.. r j A :r. c --j • i> <.\\-.^ y, A . . r r. - £. ^\' e ». 1 : li .^ 
1-S6i. .SL' Jo!.r. Hs- *.!:>. - !:.. \:.'r k. \ •: :^.r J.:>:.e'. I.»-:rr:"- ^-" 
Tnon^a? Lodre.i- ^ ^.: V/;. ;;•-::; V/. ;.:.::. f.xed ::.e v^r~ = -lo: 

ThL* iTcce !:. ::.e r.'-y-^. •!▼--. -.r.d ..vir.ies, of :.----:. :-r.-r?- 
wa* iber.. a:.d hsi -lisce >:-e:. •:?.' -•e'i. ir.d 6rerr.:»:ec :o ':«e ^-^nf-t^i. 

chaLied. coinr-ed ■:. r.-..aiir..- :r>: n-. ■f :h*- rr.^: !o&:-.f<i~T ce*- 
cripr". ori . n: j r : er*: - If re* l-ti:. .•.-/:■■-■: •- : : o c i-'i-L-e arj d d e* "j. . : : "o? 
cool n^ercLT-iiic ci.- ..L-.ion of :;.• :. -:..•••: jr-r :,.-..■:.--•: iri >e i:.r:-aT 
OTeny:*ird. arid lo er.i,e?-? i-::*^. .: c:. : -•-.'[ rie-. oi ::.•..' irr.-.L. .r 
Arrjerica- i-2>:r.j':. 2^? the - m.t!". or-, ^---r^ :.-ir;i:->r:ed :o ^ .ti: 
wr^ere ibev ^voi^id becone civixize-:. LT-d •^u.rai '*i* le«j-C'r-* >f 

Sjrh ajTu^Ti^r.i* re'-ir.'.l!ri prince^, c:. :: r.aiion*. t.o :>.:* — i*?: i::- 
hunian of aJi ir.e rrccrl'e?" 'ani^'b bc".*^ "i^rrsced 'i»..-rri —ir. 
>ucb wa« iTif* th^T;-. I.- r-ri'^tjce u>*^ r^eno "^s.* ir'^ited a* a bnne. 
and by law. prohibiied frorri beinc taujht ei*j>er in a «<:&<x>i. or the 


church. But tlii:^ practice is confined to those countries, where 
plantations are worked by ^angs of slaves. Among the Dutch of 
New >fetherland, and New York, slavery had generally a milder a»* 
pect. The number of slaves was comparatively small. The maa- 
ter and his children, if agriculturists, shared the labour of the fanny 
and in tlie towns domestick slavery was deprived of many of its 
odious features in the the early days of the colony of New Nether- 
land, and again at a later period ; but in 1741, the accumulation of 
slaves, and the fear from various causes, of their attempting to free 
themselves, had caused tlieir condition in New York, to be worse 
than at tlie earlier or later period. 

But these are general characteristicks attached to the practice 
of slave holding which have their influence, more or less, at all 
times. It has been observed, that in some languages, the same 
word expresses slave and thief. When die slave is not a thief, he 
or she, must be an exception to a general rule. Habituated to ex- 
perience injustice, debarred from instruction, deprived of the 
opportunity to accunuilate property and the right to possess it, 
there is a propensity to appropriate the goods of the master, which 
is only restrained by fear of punishment.* 

* Ten years before thi:» period, (in which we, on the subject of slavery, were 
involved in total darknrss,) in which, men hugging themselves in the notion of per- 
fect guiltlessnoiis, while accumulating property by buying and selling their fellow- 
men, or seizing and wrestting them from their homes ; in which, men fattening in 
idleneM upon the compelled labour of others, could think they were without am: 
even then, Anthony Benezet had settled in Philadelphia, and become a qoaker.*— 
This good man was bom in England, though of Fretlch protestant descent, in 1713; 
and we may probably date the enlightenment of his mind on the subject of slavery, 
from the day he was converted to quakerism. He published several books on the 
subject — the firstt of which, wa^ in 17(32, wherein he exposed the iniquity of the 
African slave trade. In 17r)7, he published his " Caution to Great Britam" respect- 
ing the slavery in her dominionx. He died somewhere about the termination of 
our revolutionary war ; and it is said that an American officer, on viewinpf his 
funeral, exclaimed, " I bad rather be Benezet in his iihroud, than Washington in his 
glory !" 

1 inust record, as a prominent feature in the picture of New York, an event only 
paralleled by the occasioned by panick in England, during 167^-60, when 
TitU5 Gates' was so prominent an actor in scenes, that on a smaller stage have, in 
many of the circumstances and features, a striking resemblance. In New York, the 
dread of popery, which had produced the eflforts of Leisler m 1691, was in 1741 
capable ot violent etfecUi, and was combined with the natural fear suggested by 
having in every house persons held as slaves, and suspected of b^ng enemies. 
The nei^ro ^av'e was supposed to be a fit instrument for tne Romish priest to wield, 
in the destruction of the protestant master; and the desire of the papist, especially 
the clergymen of the faith of Rome, to substitute his religion for the prot^itant, 
could not be doubted. The celibacy of the clergy of the Church of Rome, one of 
the bolde.ft as well as most efficacious devices, was conceived for the formation of 
a body distinct from society, was justly dreaded by even' thinking roan, and cansod 
a chimeriCfil dread at times in the unthinking, ^he fear of popery alone, drove 
England mad, in lb7D : but in New York, it was combined with the drood of vta» 

feance to be taken by the victims of the pernicious system of negro slaveiy. The 
Inglishmau imagined priests and Jesuits, but saw none : the inhabitant of Now 
York could not tnm his eyes in any direction, without seeing a black ftco, and 

every black was a slave. 

VOL I. 41 



That guilt which the state of slavery engenders, is chargeabk 
the master of the slave. To possess unlimitted power ov€ 
human being, makes the possessor a tyrant, he is corrupted by 
influence, while the subject of his power is debased. The tji 
may be merciful and kind, and the slave may be grateful. It 
been so in empires and in families : but when so, it is from cai 
adverse to tyranny and slavery ; their influence is ever the sam 

The slave only works from the fear of punishment, and negli 
his labour as much as possible. When he refrains from exert 
he only resumes a portion of that which has been forced f 
him. Every traveller who passes from a state where labour is i 
foAned by freemen, for their own profit, into a state where i 
performed by slaves, will at once be struck by the contrast on 
face of every thing produced by labour. Another evil is, that • 
ploying slaves to work, makes labour disreputable. The w 
man prides himself upon his idleness. The history of New Yi 
in 1741, elucidates all this. 

Panick in its most common form, is known to seize bodies of i 
littuy men, and even whole armies ; who, losing all self-possessk 
and dreading they know not what, fly from a supposed enemy, i 
rush upon certain destruction. But we have records, of Moi 
and consequently, the most atrocious acts of cruelty and inJustM 
suffered and inflicted by whole communities, and even natioi 
Such an event and its consequences, I have to recite ; and thai 
pish plot of 1679, in the reign of Charles II, when the whole of I 
people of England, were panick struck, is the best parallel I kn 
of the negro plot of New York, in 1741. 

" Each breath of rumour," says David Hume, •* made the p 

Ele start with anxiety : their enemies they thought, were in th 
osom. While in this timorous jealous disposition, the cry of i 
all on a sudden sU-uck their ears ; they were wakened from th 
slumber; and like men afllnghted, and in the dark, took ev 
figure for a spectre. The terror of each man became a source 
terror to another. And an universal panick, being difHised, rea 
and argument, and common sense, and common humanityt lost 
influence over them.^' 

Would not one think that the historian of England, was desc 
ing the state of the province of New York, at the time under c 
sidecation ? He continues " from tliis disposition of men's mix 
we are to account for the progress of the popish plot^ and the cr« 
given to it ; an event which would otherwise appear prodiiric 
and altogether inexplicable." For jpopwA read /Mgro plot, and 
description is that of New York, in 1741. 

But Hume says, the people of England thought their enen 
were in their bosom. The people of New York knew that ev 
house was filled with those who had been injured by being 

NE6^ SLAVERY. $£3 

prived of their liberty — by being prohibited the common rights of 
humanity. Every black was a slave, and slaves could not be wit- 
nesses against a free ipan ; they were incapable of buying any, the 
minutest necessayy of life ; they were punishable by master or mis- 
tress to any extent short of 'Mife or limb;" as often as three of 
them were found together, they were punishable with forty lashes 
on the bare back ; and the same legal liability attended the walking 
with a club out of the master's ground, without a permit; two jus- 
tices might inflict any punishment short of death or amputation, for 
a blow or the smallest assault upon a Christian or Jew. The mark 
which told that they were slaves, likewise denoted that they were 
without the pale of Christianity or Judaism — this mark was a black 
skin, and generally supposed to distinguish piem as ^^the seed of 
Cain." This injured race were seen in every dwelling; andwheii 
the cry of negro-plot was raised, conscience made cowards of all. 
And what deprives of reason so entirely, as year? 

Here we see the eflfects of that blind and wicked policy whicif 
induced England to pamper her merchants and increase her reve- 
nues, by positive instructions to the governours of her colonies« 
strictly enjoining them (for the good of the African company, an4 
for the emoluments expected from the assiento* contract,) to fisp 
upon America a vast negro population, torn from their homes an4 
brought hither by force. New York was at this time filled witl) 
negroes ; every householder who could afford to keep servantSi 
was surrounded by blacks, some pampered in indolence, all caret 
fully kept in ignorance, and considered, erroneously, as creatures 
whom the white could hot do without, yet lived in dread of. They 
were feared, from their numbers, and from a consciousness, how^ 
ever stifled, that they were injured and might seek revenge or a 
better condition.* 

The wiser colonists foresaw increasing evil, and witnessed d^ 
ploringly, present degradation, mingled with hateful injustice an4 
cruelty. .In vain they remonstrated with England, for casting that 
stain upon the colonies which the British writers, now that we aro 
a free country, reproach us with. 

Let ^® reader recur to the many instances in which slavery \yafl 
forced upon this country by England ; particularly the instruction3 
to Lord Combury ; and he will pity the fears, blindness, and j;uilt 

* Born bat twcflif '4lire« yean aAer the cessation of this niadness, the wiitW4frjp|| 
remembers the stale of negro slavery in the town of his residence, in 1775. Etmj 
person who had a aervaat, male or female, saw in that servant, a slave. There was 
one exception : one old man (blessed be his memory,) was served in his ■oUtaiy, 
though well fnpplM dwelling, by whites, free as himself. His name waa Tbomaa 
Barton. B«t ntrtfy iwd bjttua timai become ameliorated in tfaif region. 


Thai zuilt which the «ta:e of slavery enzendei?- i* cfaarrea*-!* x 
the ina.-:er of the slave. To pori€?s urilim-tted po^er v^*r t 
humaa beinr. makes i:>: po?5€*.«or a tvran:. he i« corrapcoi :j a 
influence, while the ? ibie'-t of hi* p'O^er i* debased. Ti-e rrrcc 
mav be merciiji and kin'i. ar.d the .-Uve mar be firaie:.:!. I: ai 
been so in emnire- an.i in fiii^.Ilie*: r/.i: when so- it i* zrr>zz caae* 
adverse :n tvnr.r.v ar.ii •!;;•:-.-.■ : :l".?:r inn'^ence L* ever the sa-TK. 

The slave or.!v '.v.,:^.- f.-.jn ihv :"vir of DunL«hn:enT. a::d z^z*?r:^ 
hi5 labour ai= m:c:: a* ; or-iijie. Wr.en he refrain? nr.rr! exeriic. 
he onlv re«; a portion of thi: ^h:ch has been forre-i tz<i 
him. Ever^' trp^v^ilir:.- wi.o -!=?:.->;:; frorr. a ?:£:e where labour a ?«?- 
formed bv free men. for their own r:-"*!:. a "-taie where :: s 
performed by i]a\e?, wi!! a: o.ce re ?:r;:k bj the cor.rrk^ c^r -^ 
face of ever\' ihinj pro iiic»'d hv :-.":•■• .;r. Ar. .:hrr evil [*. ir.s:f~- 
ploying ?lave? to work, njakc*- iir.rjr .il-ren ::ar.le. Tr.e v:.^ 
man pridf* hirn?c*]f -.ijion iii? ifi!^:.-:«-. Tr.r hLiior)' of New Ycrs. 
in 17 41, elufidat^.- nii t:ii.-. 

Panirk in it* niort corninon form. :.* kr.owr. :o r-riie r-^iies of ir.- 
litarv men, an^l even whoie arrnif:: : wno. *':Hiir.r Si. 5e.f-r->ises*:o- 
and dnradini' ihov kr.o-.v not whitr, flv !rom a ?-UDro*^d er.-rriv. sic 
rush upon certain d'-tru'^tion. Kiit we h?.vv rr-'or-i^. of par.ii 
and coii.-ofi'Jrrrjtlv. tii^; r::o.-T ?itro'^ioii* r:c:.s r.frr^ -:/.■.- ar.«i inijjitxf. 
suffered and Ir. 'iUiol*? roiiiniii:iit:ii>. iri»i even r.arivj^ 
Such an event ?:nd ir-; ''■on-frrnencei. f };'».ve to :--t:::r : ar.d ihe r^"^ 
pLfh pi'i" «'f I''T:». ::: ::.•• r'-ijT: of ('f.^jrl-r II. "!.::: "il.- :: ;■ i- ;* -*: 
people i'f K: v.«r'r y.:.\f)^ r'ni'^k. i- !:.»■ r»*: 'in.!*.! i •.t;** 
of txie T'.'.-r I {■; i\ *:\ N* ■■■. V. ■:!-;. ;:: K 11. 

" Ys\r\\ i^p-aiii '..f r.riio .r." s^v- I)^'. iil Hi.;:.*.?, " -T-:-r :..-: '- > 

Cle start wi'li i:i\i;'v: t .vir o-vrn:-*- tir-y :!:->:-:.:. tt-t't .: '-.: 
n^fini \\ ' " " • ■ ■ i * ' •■ • , -i'. ' » 1 ■-,'.« i' « ' .r,, ■ * . — •■.=.-—• ■ • • ,* 

• f.*J\ 11. •»... ..1. ...... ..'I. '4 ..'••! *•- i''4-..«. ....... ■ 

all on a * 1 1 • 1 : v n * t ^ ; '^ !\ ■ ■ . • ! r ♦■ i r- ; : : . • v v. *; rrr v -i a. ► r. •: i fr- ■ . -.: : . - ." 
slu'nher : .ni iikv : .?:: -rT: j":*- i. t'! i:i :h- li^rk. •■■•k •'', 
fii£ur»; t'»r 11 -["-'"trfr. TL-; toru-r '-f -i'!. i.nn hf:-- ::.;r \ *■■ .-•. f 
termr t(> :!rn'*r>.T. An>i \\\ :i:.!v-:-a! p::;:''-k. t'i-j ■iir^--.:. -^\--n 
ami ar.:i::v»=- •. wA '■■■•■::. .■■:i *» :>'\ '•::'i con^r:-:-:. :.■....■:;;■;.. !■ -.: :.l 
inrti"»^'!i-»' iiVf.T '[:•■'•:!." 

inj t;i'' -r^i'-^ «»[* :'.o [T >; :ni:i: nf \--:v \ ..:k. c: ::.- :!:.:•■ ::r:-r ■■:"- 
5ii|«-'nTii'-i r H? ''>•■•:■'->■.; ■• fr •**.'". •::> •iis-.-o-iirl-ir. f^^, n?>':*- : ..:■ :•. 
iro .ir-: rn i--. -..■]-•' !*•: '■.• ^-r.-^r' -* -"f !:.- j--; ■•'« ; " ■'. 7sA :..' -'• :.; 
^ivontoir: •? -\- ■■: \w ••'i wt.»::!i •!•::• Tw:-.r> \\.:w;zr vr'^-i.r.' '^- 

de;*^!^!!!^! i- :i: i: 'A y*:\\' Vo.-k. in 1741. 

But H'.'rTie *avi. rl>^ noonio n\ V.r.^\irA :!-.o';r".".t their er.eT.;-* 
wer»; in t!"v:r ^'>*».::i. T:>: p»?op!e of N-w York kr^^rw i[.\z -ve.-y 
bu'!*»? -.W' *^i'^.'. •.".:•:. t'lc-^-? 'vr.r. hid be*: 7. i-vijred bv bcmi: d^*- 


pmed of ifaeir liberty-— by beiu^ piohibiled the commoii ri^fats of 
humanini-. Everk* black was a slave, and slaves could do( be «ii- 
nesises acaiass a free man : tht\v were incapable of buying antf^ cbe 
minutest ueces<^ar^' of lite ; they were punishable by master or nii»- 
tress to any extent short of '* lite or Ilnib :** as often as three of 
them were found toother, they were punishable with forty lashes 
on the bare back : and the same lec*^ liability attended the walkiag 
with a club out of the master's ground, without a permit; two jus- 
tices rai^ht indict any puuLshment short of death or amputation, fiir 
a blow or the smallest as^ult u^>on a Christian or Jew. The mark 
which told that thev were slaves, likewise denoted that thev were 
without tlie pale of Ciiristianity or Jui.!aism — ciiis mark was abiaek 
skin, and generally sup^K>sed to distinguish iliem as "the seed of 
Cain." This injured race were seen in ever}' dwelling : and when 
the cry of ne^irvv-plot was raised, conscience nude cowards of ilL 
And what deprives of reason so entirely, as /ru*/.' 

Here we see the eiFects of that blind and wicked policy which 
induced England to pain^k^r her nierchanis and increase her reve* 
Ques, by [K>sitive instructions to liie «:overnours ol her coloniie% 
strictly enjoining them \for tl:e ^ikhI of the African cotnpany, and 
for the emoluments expected from the assieiiio contract,) to fix 
upon America a vast nc^ro ^>opuiadon, torn tK>ni tiieir homes aad 
brought hither bv force. Sew York was .it tliis lime filled with 

mm ■ _ 

ne^:Toes : every householder who could onord to keep sen^ants* 
was surrounded by blacks, some pa:n[>ered in indole nee, all care* 
fully kept in ignorance, and considered, erroneously, as creatures 
whoEU the white could not do wiiiioui, yet lived in dread of. Thejr 
were feared, from their number?, and frv>m a consciousness, how* 
ever siitled, that they were injured and nii^ht seek revenge or a 
better condition.* 

The wiser colonists foresaw increasing e\U, and wimessed de- 
ploriiuly, present dc^iradation, tuin;:led v idi hateful injustice and 
cruelty- In vain they remotistniied with England, for casting that 
stain u^Kjn the colonies which t:ie BriLish writers, now that we ara 
a free counir) , reproacii us witiu 

Let the reader recur to the many instances in which slaver}* was 
forced ujK»n this country by England : particularly the instructions 
to Lord Combur)- ; and he will pity the fears blindness, and g^nii 

* Born Sut r«r«Bty-thr«« T««n aiWr ih« cvtwanon oi* thu madatm. ^ viiitr 
r^m«?:aivr* in* ♦ctteot* n^pv *Liven m ihe :o»n ot' kiw rwiJenv*. In 177>. Evvty 
p*r»».'r. wao hjui a "wnint." auai* or tVuioie. <»« m that wnm:. a *Ia»e. Thenf vat 
one ev.**r-oa : oa« old m«n bi**ed S? hi* nufnion."^ wa* «en-ed m hit sofittij, 
ihou^ w«u iuppUeil dw«iluic^ bv wtutM. &v« i» hiniwif! H» name ww 
Barton Bnt diYwy bwi^^w'tuM. bargine uwkonii^ ui itervfiM. 

PAMCK. 35-5 

br i-e NVris River. ^r.e:>? r.errvV* resk^r:^: ?\ ;:V.-;\r>?iY y'^c^ hr^cf. 
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Cruger, junior, John Merritt, Adoniah Schuyler. Isaac De 
Abraham Kettcltas, David Provoost, Rene Hett, Henrv Beekman, 
junior, David Van Home. Geor^ Spencer, Thomas Duncan, 
and Winant Van Zandt : all described as merchants. Mr. Phillqiae, 
charges and tells them, that the people '* have been put into 
many frights and terrors." respecting burning ; and diat tbej- 
must inquire, and '* by all lawful means discover the perpe- 
trators, for there is much room to suspect," that these fires were 
not accidental. That there are many persons in jail suspected : 
that arson is felony at common law, even if the fire is put oat, or 
goes out of itself : that it is a shocking crime, and if any guilty of 
it escape, " who can say he is safe, or where ii will end ?" He 
then commands to find out all persons who sell stronc liquors t^* 
negroes, and descants on the unlawfulness of sellias: "penny 
without the consent or direction, of the master of the slave. 
general, they, the grand jury, are to present "all conspiracies, 
binations and other offences." 

Accordingly, the grand jur}' had Mar}* Burton before toexL. 
was the bought servant of Hughson,) and she refused to oe 
They asked her questions concerning the fires, and sne 
answer. They read the prochmation to her, 
tion, pardon, liberty from her master, and jClOO. ana 
to her examination, being very " glib-tongued." siie saia. 
tell what she knew about the stolen goods, bu; wouJr 
about the fires. This was interpreted, thai siK- conic 
not. They then told her that if she did not 
etc., she would answer for it at the day of jucig 
not fear any body, and her reward was surt. 
and ^100,) and she then made deposiuou, 
man's negro) and Caesar, (Vaarck's) brournt 
Hughson, his wife, and Peggy, received 
and Cuffee Phillipse, used frequently to 
and talk about burning the fort, and tnat 
Fly (the east end of the city) and bum 
her master and mistress said tne^ 
were three poor negroes, observe, tmn 
soned, and a town of many 
poor tavern and brothel keeper, 
to be put in the mouth of tae 
was done, Caesar should be 
king ; that Cuffee used Id 
much, and others too 
great deal of roooer, hm 
and Cuffee have more 
that when they aaf fire 


uiu I* :its v._flB :if:. r .Lri :r i^iirruish it. tbcy would kill and 

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neao.LL*:'. ■•: r- . :. :" '.i. - 1. J^sLTif'.he ihief: 2nd th&t COW 
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.r .1 .!" ". . ; > :.: .. . r "i-iri .. r r^.::::ir^ cut the ccn- 
!*4ii i.-.i--^ V. : . ,- :■. «• :'..«. s.r. :Lr..: C-o^emour Ci?sr, 

i««. •■ . ii:.N.:-.. ■ .- ...w. ^^ e ^\.z.\ see how she 

ii..... .1 -i^ ■: ■ .>..:-:..:--- ; .".Tror.?. We ir.usi likewise 

iwi.i.':- - '4 • ' . .- '. "-■- > - 1'." L-iTt to set fire to 


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if hoUEof HMD in thverjr. One poor Mgio m 

lint be Imnr he most be hanged, u the !«• odMB kad 

The B^jroes giTe tbemsehres op as loet, the 
eomnndedy onlw tbejr coold escape bjr 
■ukm^ wfaaa are called confesikww. 

Romme was apprehended at Bniiiswick« Nev' 
alands accused as a conspirator, by Peggr, and Bfaij 
wo tunom as to saj, Romnie was intimate at H ngha oa ^ i 

A siaaple negro boy of the neighbomfaood is 
town, and phoed before the grand jury. Hedcmesafl 
oflheoon^uracy; bat b told, that ifhewiD teD theCrMft. ha 
aotbefaanged. The n^^oesbjr this time knew, that by teSi 
troth, bmeant to tell of a plot lo burn the town. i\mwiliB|li_li 
aajrst Quack asked him lo set the lort on fire ; and Cofiee 
would set fire lo one bouse, and Curacoa Dick lo another, 
on. Being asked, *'what the negroes intended bj all 
eUef?" he answered, '^to kill allthe gentlemen and take 
whres ; that one of the fellows already hanged, was to be an 
in the Long Bridge Company, and the other, in the Fly " 

It appeara that on most occasions, the town was dirided ioH 
paits— one fiom the eastern extremity, the FredMvaier or 
Swarop^ now Ferry street, and called the Fly, and 
Smith's Fly, extending along the East Hirer to Wall 
die odier the Long Bridge, perhaps from the bridge 
sewer in Broad sj^t, near tlie Exchange ; and somedmes Ail 
difiaon was called Broadway, as including the upper part of Ae 

This negro boy is called Sawney, and said to be Hiblecfs: he 
took a good deal of urging and persuading before be could be 
to eonfide in the white people. He said, *•* the time before, 
die negroes told all they knew, the white people haneed 
This was traditionary among the slares, relative to 1712. 

Fortune is apprehended and examined ; who tells of Qiiack*i 
taking him lo the fort sometime before the fire there, and ginc 
him punch, and that Quack told him he would burn the ioit ; mi 
after it was done, the last fellow examined (Sawney) told him be 
one that did it : thus criminating him. On the 2-5ih. 
were committed, and next day Sawney being again 
ined, aqra, ** at a meeting of negroes he was called in and frighh 
~ to undertaking to born the Slip Market,** probably the oietf 
; and he saw some of the attempts to fire houses, and was 
atComlbit'slionse,tobe true toone another: hesaidhewai 
at Hughson's or Romme's houses, and accujRd a 
f^kn Ik had before aceosed of settmg fire to a house) of 
^ kar dnU, by kjrng it where it would fireen to death. JUam 
^"^ taken up and riaiwl u f w l, day afier day. Quack and C 



That the gibbet on which Cssar is to be hanged in chains, be fixed 
on the island, near the powder-house." The powder-house, within 
my remembrance, stood on a small island made by an arm of the 
Kolic, or Collect, embracing it, where now Centre street proceeds 
from Chatham and comes into Pearl street* It appears from the 
following paragraph, that the horrible torture of hanging alive in the 
chains, was not resorted to. 

"Monday, 11th of May. Caesar and Prince were executed this 
day at the gallows, according to sentence : they died very stubbornly, 
without confessing any thing about the contpiraaj : and denied thiit 
they knew any thing about it to the last. The body of Caesar was 
accordingly hung in chains." These negroes were thieves, with- 
out doubt ; and from the above statement of their denial of the con- 
spiracy, I infer that they confessed the thievery. 

Such was the panick to which the people of New York had 
wrought themselves, that the 13th of May, 1741, was by procla- 
mation of the Lieutenant-govemour, kept as a solemn fast, because 
" his most gracious majesty, for the vindicating the honour of his 
crown, had declared war against Spain, and because of the severity 
of the cold last winter, and because many houses and dv/ellings had 
been fired about our ears, without any discovery of the cause or 
occasion of them, which had put us into the utmost consternation." 

In the meantime, Hughson, his wife, and Peggy Carey, are 
indicted for conspiring, confederating, and combining with divers 
negroes, to burn, kill and destroy, &c. ; and the two first are 
arraigned — they pleading not guilty. 

Mary Burton, who is in possession of the sheriflF, and promised 
protection, liberty, and ^£100, deposes that Hughson, his wife, his 
daughter, and Peggy, conspired with certain negroes, naming them, 
to burn the town, and kill all the whites. The negroes are appre- 
hended. Whoever this poor ignorant wretch mentions, is imme- 
diately put in jail. Among other particulars, she swears that one of 
these negroes paid Hughson ^12, in Spanish pieces of eight, to buy 
guns, which Hughson did, and hid them away under the garret 
floor in his house ; but they could not be found, nor ever traced. 

Hughson, his wife, and daughter being in jail, the magistrates 
employ a wretch, (who had been committed for thieving,) Arthur 
Price, to go to the negroes in the jail and give them punch, to get 
out of them (what are called) confessions ; and Pric^ is likewise 
employed to go to Sarah Hughson, to endeavour to make her 
accuse her father and mother. Price accordingly tells of a conver- 
sation he says he had with this girl, who being examined and con- 
fronted with the informer, denies it to his face. 

The whole proceedings are a monument of absurdity, meanness, 
and cruel^, instigated by cowardice and an innate sense of the guilt 


di hMSog HMD in thverjr. One poor Mgio m 

lint he kmnr he most be haoged, as the two odMB lad 

The wucffoca give themselves op as lost, the 
c mwi i ined , unless thejr could escape by 
■ukiii^ whaa are called coofessioiis. 

Bomme was apfHehended at Bnmsirickt Nev' Ji 
stands accused as a conspirator, by Pe^j, and Bfaij 
M> frr noip as to sav, Roninie was mtimate at Hnghsoo**. 

A simple negro boy of the neighbourhood is 
town, and placed beiore the grand jury. He dcmes aD knowli^ 
oflheoon^utacy; butis told, that if he will teOfheCrMft. he 
■othehanged. Tbenegroesby this time knew, that by teSi 
tnrihy is meant to tell of a plot to bum the town* AeoQrdin|jk«la 
aajrst Quack asked him to set the fort on fire ; and CuSee 
would set fire to one house, and Curacoa Dick io amnher, 
on. Being askedy ''what the negroes intended by aD 
eUefr' he answered, "to kill all the gentlemen and 
wives ; that one of the fellows already hanged, was to be an 
in the Long Bridge Company, and the other, in the Fly 

It appears that on mo?t occasions, the town was diraU 
parts— one from the eastern extremity, the FredMvaier 
Swamp, now Ferry street, and called the Fly, and 
Smith's Fly, extending along the East River to Wall 
die odier the Long Bridge, perhaps from the bridge co rc i in g At 
sewer in Broad street, near tlie Exchange ; and someuzaa tm 
division was called Broadway, a* iDcludiDg the upper part of ds 

This negro boy is called Sawoey, and said to be Hibleti's : ht 
took a good deal of urging and pei^uading before he could be 
to confide in the white people. He said, ** the time before, 
die negroes told all they knew, the white people handed tfaem.'^ 
This was traditionary amon? the slaves, relative to 1712. 

Fortune is apprehended and examined ; who tells of Quack'f 
taking him to the fort sometime before the fire there* and gi 
him pimch, and that Quack told him he would bum the fort : 
after it was done, the last fellow examined (Sawnev) told him be 
was one that did it : thus criminating him. Go the 2-5:h. 
negroes were committed, and next dav Sawnev he'insr aeain 
ined, says, *^ at a meeting of negroes he was called in and fiighh 
ened to undertaking to bum the Slip Market," probably the 
market ; and he saw some of the attempts to fire bouses, and 
sworn at Comfort^s bouse, to be tme to one another : he said he 
nerer at Hughson^s or Romme's bouses, and accu^ a 
(whom he had before accused of setting fire to a house) of raunkr- 
ing her child, by laying it where it wrald freeze to d^th. Mosa 
are taken up and exanuned, day after day. Qock and Coibe aiv 


tried for wickedly and maliciously conspiring with others to burn 
the town and murder the inhabitants ; and the attorney general 
makes a speech, telling the jury that this was the mystery of 
iniquity, that these negroes were monsters, devils, &c., and they 
will find Quack and CufTee guilty. The principal witnesses for 
the king, are Mary Burton and Price, who tell the same story 
as before ; the others tell the most frivolous circumstances ; negro 
evidence being good against each other. Fortune and Sawney 
are accordingly witnesses, and say that Quack and Cufiee said so 
and so— that they wanted to set fire to the fort, &c. Rosevelt, 
master of Quack, deposed tliat he was at home when the fire took 
place at the fort; and Phillipse, Cuff's master, testified much the 
same of him. A soldier swears that Quack did come to the fort, 
(he being sentry,) and would go in, (his wife living there,) the 
sentry knocked him down, but the officer of the guard admitted 
him on the day of the fire. The prisoners protest their innocence. 
Mr. Smith, who had disfranchised the Jews by his eloquence, 
summed up. He is aware of the folly of the plot, still he insists 
on the proofs of it. He observes, that the negroes had been in- 
dulged with the same kind of trial as is due to freemen ; though 
they might have been proceeded against in a more summary and 
less favourable way. Of the negro witnesses, he observes, " the 
law requires no oath to be administered to them ; and indeed it 
would be a profanation of it to administer it to a heathen in a legal 
form." He says, " the monstrous ingratitude of this black tribe 
is what exceedingly aggravates their guilt." He then represents 
their happy situation, very much as is still done. " They live 
without care ; are commonly better fed and clothed than the poor 
of most Christian countries ; they are indeed slaves, but under 
the protection of the law : none can hurt them with impunity ; 
but notwithstanding all the kindness and tenderness with which 
they have been treated among us, yet this is the second attempt 
of this same kind that this brutish and bloody species of man- 
kind have made within one age." The court charged, the 
jury found them guilty, they protest their innocence, and the 
judge sentences them to be chained to a stake and burnt to 
death — '' and the Lord have mercy upon your poor wretched 
souls." He tells them they ought to be very thankful that 
their feet are caught in the net, and the mischief fallen upon their 
pates. He calls them abject wretches, the outcasts of the nations 
of the earth ; and tells them of the tenderness and humanity with 
which they have been treated. He advises them to take care of 
their souls, but as to their bodies, they must be burnt ; and, accord- 
ingly, on Saturday^ tl^e 3d of May, about three o'clock, they were 
brought to the stiJce, surrounded with piles of wood. The speo- 

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hanged respecting the robbery, they were tried for conspiracy, 
on the 4th of June, 1741. There were three indictment: 1st, that 
Hughson, his wife, his daughter, and Peggy Kerry, or Carey, with 
three negroes, Caesar, Prince, and Cuffee, conspired in March last, 
to set fire to the house in the fort : 2d, that Quack (already burnt,) 
did set fire to and burn the house, and that the prisoners, Hughson, 
his wife, daughter Sarah, and Peggy, encouraged him so to do : dd, 
that Cuffee (already burnt,) did set fire to Phillipse's house, and 
burnt it ; and they, the prisoners, procured and encouraged him so 
to do. The prisoners pleaded not guilty The attorney-generars 
address to the jury is full of invectives the most outrageous: Hugh- 
son is infamous, inhuman, an arch-rebel against God, his king, and 
his country ; he is a devil incarnate, &c. Besides this eloquent 
attorney-general, there were counsel for the king, Jos. Murray, 
James Alexander, William Smith, and Jno. Chambers. The 
witnesses, Moore and Roosevelt, testify to the confession of Quack 
and Cuffee, at the stake, in hope to save themselves from the 

North and Lynch, constables, testify that they saw negroes eal* 
ing and drinking at Hughson's, and dispersed them ; and that 
Peggy was waiting on them with a tumbler ; and they had knives 
and forks. 

Mary Burton swears, that negroes came to Hughson's at night, 
eating and drinking, and bought provisions. She swears to all 
stated by others, viz. Hughson's swearing the negroes, procuring 
arms, that she had seen seven or eight guns and swords, a bag of 
shot, and a barrel of gunpowder at Hughson's ; that he said he 
would kill her if she told, and wanted her to swear, and offered her 
silk gowns and gold rings ; but she would not 

Arthur Price, the fellow employed by the magistrates to go into 
the jail and drink with the negroes, to make them confess to him, 
and who is praised for his cleverness in convicting them, confinM 
his former stories. 

Five men testify, that they heard Quack, Cuffee, &c. say, when 
in jail, to Hughson, '' this is what you have brought us to." 

Of the witnesses for the prisoners, one stated that he lived in 
Hughson's house three or four months the last winter, and never 
saw any entertainments there for negroes. Two others stated, that 
they never saw harm in him or his house. 

None but the wretches, Burton and Price, pretend to speak oft 
conspiracy ; and the prisoners protest their innocence, but have M 

Mr. Smith then addressed the jury, and told them that it ii • 
horrid thing to bum the town and kill them all — it is '^ bteok gad 
hellish" — ^Uiat John Hughson's crimes have mide bim Mioter 
than a negro-Hbat the cralit of tbo witoeiaea is good' '■ad itfk^ 

VOL. I. 43 

ill WttM» ai cnMbf to tlwir coiiiiti]r* 

nijttds0 telb the jniy, that tbeendenee agiiiMt die 
ll^ulitfiiUt clear* and atis&cioiy. And the Juiy fiad then gii|r 
in VaEort t^oe— merely gobg out and letunnng. Od tbe ^ af 
JwatHogiitOD and frinily are brought up, and tSt judge telb ' 
dat thej are guihjr of an unheard of crime, m not oolj 
mtgro ahvea their equals, but er en their auperioon^-bj 
■poot keeping compaoj widi, entertaining them widi meet* driak, 
asd lodging ; and, what is much more amazing, to plot* eooapinb 
OTBanh, abel, and encouiage these black Meed qf Com to ban lUi 
drr, and to kill and destroy us alL He further tells them, d« 
anoogh ^ with uncommon assiuance thej deny the &ct, and cal 
eo God, as a witness of their innocence. He, out of his goodnoi 
SDd mercjt has confounded them, and proved their guik, lo tba 
aatisftction of the court and jury/* This may senreas a spednca 
of judicial eloquence at that day, although he beratet ihem sdl 
snore, before be sentences them all **to be hanged by the neck t3l 
dead,*' on Friday, the 12th of June, four da>-s after, and Joka 
Hugheoo to be bung in chains. On the t2th, Hugfason, his wiM^ 
SDd P9ggj% are accordingly hanged, protesting their innoccaceef 
die eonspiracy^Hughson acknowledging his guilt in r c cai i i a g 
Q goods. P^ggy* who had accused Romme, declared lo die 
that she had m chat forsworn herself. In the meantime, the cooit 
go on I and on the 5Kh of June, Sarah, the negro weocb* is examined 
again, and names twenty ne^Toe» who were present at Comibn s» 
whetting their knives and saying, ^* they would kill white peopled 
Accordingly, <>th of June, Jack, Cook, Itobbt Ca»ar, Cunee, 
another CuA^e* end Januica* are put at the bar, and plead doc 
guilty t and on the Sth, they are uied. The eridence against these 
poor cifalures« i;» lh« iiwr^«»k'/i of Quack and Cufee at thi voju. 
and the sKvrm ^M S^wu^^ • Marr Burton, and black Sarah. Ther, 
of cour*^^ ar« KHin\i (udtv, denvinc the chances. It wasoniered« 
that Jai^k> 0^4^ li^^bin, Cesar, and Cuifee, be executed the 
ant datk a«Ni JaitMica three days after. But Jack promisesv if 
Us life i» spared., he would discover more ; and they ** respite his 
•nQtMSMk uU 'twas found bow well he would deserve turtfaer 
fcvour/* The othcn were executed. Jack is pardoned : and by 
bis sanmiony> fourteen more are implicated, one of whom, for the 
same reward* t^Nua^ as it is called, and acctises more siilL Jack*s 
dialect was perfiecdy unintelligible: but two white interpreters were 
found ; and as Jack mentioned negroes who bad eat and drank at 
Hngfaaoo*av they were taken op : ^* when they were eadng. he said 
dvy bcgpm to talk abouLaetting the bouacs on fire/' and atserwards 
soch and swi^Aacks who said thcT wo«id sec their 
oafiro»aDd then go out io%ht; five or 

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mH bjr name. Hagbson^s iatber and tliree bradm, .lie 
aaies ; and an old woman, a ibitune teller, Hoghno^s 
is-hvr, all sworn to bum and kilU etc He sajrs, U17 
some of the negroes, and wanted to seduce him, Kaae, to 
a Roman Catholic ! ! Asked him, if he could read Latin ? 
said. No ; then asked him, whether he could read English ? 
said. No. Then Coffin read and told him what a fine thing ii wai 
10 be a Roman ; that they could forgive him, and be abraU Mt 
go to hell. And if he had not gone away, they might bare sednoei 
bim to be a Catbolick. That Conolly, on Governor's Island, unaaJ 
that be was " bred up a priest," etc. Hok, m dancing master, il 
accused by Kane,, but he had gone off. Kane thus describes At 
ceremony of swearing the negroes : — 

** There was a black ring made on the floor, about a foot and a 
half in diameter; and Hugtison bid every one put off the left 
and put their toes within the ring ; and Mrs. Hugbson held a 
of punch over their beads, as the negroes stood round the 
and Hugbson pronounced the oath above mentioned, (1 
like a freemason's oath and penalties.) and every negro several^ 
repeated the oath after him, and then Hughson's wife fed them with 
a draught out of the bowl.*' Nothing like this is told by any of tke 
former confessors. He says, they intended burning the EngU 
Church ; tliey advised to do it when tlie roof wfi dry, and a fidi 
congregation. To all this, Kane sets his mark. Coffin, the ped- 
ler, is taken up and examined. He protests he never saw Hufb- 
son until he was hanircd. nor Kane, only as he once drank beer with 
him at Eleanor Waller's. Coffin is committed. Doctor Harrv b 
committed, and two negroes dischar«:ed. 

On the 17th of July, seven negroes pleaded ^ilty — and Sanb 
was ordered to be hung next day. 

Adam, accused Doctor Harr\', sayinir he came to the plotters 
in a litde canoe from Long Island. The Doctor stoutly denied 
ever having been at Hu<rhson's. 

Kane, and Mar}- Burton, accused Edward Murphy — and Kane, 
accused David Johnson, a hatter. Accusations a!*ainst whites now 
thicken. Mary Burton is the irrand universal accuser, and An- 
drew Ryase, little Holt the dancing mister, John Earl, and seven- 
teen soldiers, are all mingled with the necjoes, and with John 
Coffin, Ur}', the priest, and Crocher, (a kind of half priest.) ' 

On the 16th of July, Sarah, the neirress, is respited till the ISth, 
and nine negroes being arrai^ed, four pleaded cuiky. Quack 
and Othello, sentenced to be burnt, and Bravebov hansred. 

The deposition of John Schultz is material to understanding the 
negro confessions. He swore that a neero man slave, called Cam- 
bridge, belonging to Christopher Codwise, Esq., did, on the 9tfa of 
June lastf confess to this deponent, in the presence of said Mr. 


themselves ; though they knew, as they afterwards confessed, 
that those they accused were innocent. Victims were required, 
and those who brought them to the altar of Moloch, purchased their 
own safety, or, at least, their lives. 

On the 2d July, before Chief Justice JaYnes De Lancey — Will 
18 arraigned, and pleading guilty, is sentenced to be burnt on the 
4th July. By some of the examinations at this time, the plot 
s^pears better established. Scipio attributes his agreeing to be 
sworn, to his desire for drams, especially after having taken one ; 
and says, Hughson so enticed him. Three negroes are discharged, 
nothing being found sufficient against them. On the 6th July, 
eleven plead guilty. Dundee implicates Doctor Hamilton with 
Hughson, in giving rum and swearing him and others to the plot. 
William Nuill, a white, is sworn by the court, (negroes not sworn, 
as before stated, because heathen) and deposes, that London, a 
negro belonging to Edward Kelly, butcher, said and swore by God 
that if he, the said London, should be taken up on account of the 
plot, he would hang or burn all the negroes in York, w hether they 
were concerned or not. This day, five negroes were hanged ; one of 
them upon the same gibbet with Hughson, who, it seems, was hung 
in chains : and the historian says that *' the town was amused," by 
a report that Hughson had turned black, and a negro white ; and 
he gives a disgusting picture of the bodies, which ** numbers of all 
ranks" ran from curiosity to see. It was said, Harry, a negro 
doctor, had given poison to those who were to be executed, and 
certain changes were produced on their bodies by it. These ap- 
'pearances caused much controversy. On the 4th July, forty 
negroes, to get rid of them, were recommended for transportation ; 
and Ward's " Will" was executed, being burnt. At the stake, he 
accuses William Kane, a soldier belonging to the fort, and Kelly, 
another soldier. He said, that Morris's Cato advised him and 
Pedro to bring in many negroes, telling Pedro that he would cer- 
tainly be hanged, or burnt, if he did rot confess; but if he brought 
in a good many, it would save his life. 

The pile being kindled, this wretch set his back to the stake, and 
raising up one of his legs, laid it upon the fire, and lifting up his 
hands and eyes, cried aloud, and several times repeated the names^ 
Quack, Goelet and Will Tiebout, who, he said, had brought hihi 
into this plot Other negroes were taken up, with Kane, the sol- 
dier, who is, on the 5th July, examined. He said, he never was 
at John Romme's house, at the Battery ; acknowledges that he 
received a stolen silver spoon, given td his wife, and sold it to Van 
Dype, a silversmith ; denies any knowledge of Ury. Mary Burtoa 
is brought forward, and accuses Kane, who after denial, finally coiK 
fesses that he was at Hughson's, '' about the plot,'-' twice ; induced 
so to do by Corker, CofiSn, and Fagan. He criniinates Uiy, though 



c^ the iecond vm granted him. Tbe use of pen, ink, and papfff 

wti rnr^e'l rsim. 

A-« iTse trial and fate of thli* man are indicative of the periodf I 
§3nJ( lollo-:^' the rour^e of hii> s!on\ and after return to tbe otheiSi 
whfKe triaii< are L'oini'' on at the same time. 

A journal kept by him was seized, and an extract taken by tbe 
crand iun\ viz: arrived at Philadelphia, the 17ih of February, 1738. 
At Ludinum, -nh March — To Philadelphia, 29th April— Beean 
school at Biirlinirton, ISth June — Omiha Jacobus Atherthwaiie, 
27th July — Came to .fohool at Burlington. 23d January, 174(^ 

Saw , 7!h May — At five went to Burlington, to Piercy, the 

madman — Went to Phihidelphin, lOili May — Went to BiU'linstoo, 
ISth June — Ai six in llie cvuninir to Penefack, to Joseph Ashton 
— Be;(an Mrliooj jit Dublin, under Charles Hastie, at eiffht pouods 
a year, Ji I St July — , loili October, — , 27th ditto- 
Came to Jolni (TokrT, (at the Fi-ihting Cocks,) New York, ^ 
Novemhrr — 1 hoanird ^rpaiis with him, 7th November — ^Natun 
JohanntH INiol, iiM\ Dect-niher — I bejian to teach with John Camp- 
b«*ll, r»ih April, 17 H — iiaptiz<*d Timothy Ryan, bom ISthApnL 
J74(), MOM of .John Kyan, and Mary Ryan, ISih May — Paler Con- 
ff!f4««or HutliM'. t\v(i Aniii, no sacrauientutn non confessio. On tbe 
2lHt .Inly, IrvVx fiisil wan nut ofV to next term, and next day he was 
arraif^ned on a new in<lir*tuirut, to rorrcrl some legral errour in the first 

Hnrah Ilu^h-tr^n hr'wyr a:;ain (*xau)ined, says, that she had often 
«een 1 ry, th^ priest, at hrr fiithcrs iiouse — that she had seen him 
make a rinir wiili rjmlk on I In- lloor, and make all the negroes then 
pre-?ent stand round it, and lie usrd to stand in the middle of the 
rinj^ wiih a ito-^s in his IkuhI, and swear the negroes. Here we 
have Kaue'ft rin^r, with tlif priest, for mother Hughson, and the cross 
for the punch howl. There was nothinsj of the kind in the first 
confi'»*Hi«uis. 'I'liat she saw Cry baptize some of the negroes, and 
forj^ivn thnni thrir sin-*, and preach to them. That I'ry wanted 
her to ronfcMH lo hiui — and Peinr^' confessed to him in French, etc. 

On ihi* M\\\\ .Inly, Klias Desbrosses, confectioner, deposes, that 
Ury c'ume to hi'* slnip, with one Webb, a carpenter, and wanted 
su^nr hit'i, or ualrrs, and asked him, '* whether a minister had not 
bin waf«'r«4 of him f" or, whether that paste, which the deponent 
showed luiu, was not made of the same in2:redients as the Lutheran 
miniMerVr" or, something: to that purpose. And told Ln*, if be 
watited such tlun(;s, a joiner would make him a mould : and asked 
him if he had a congregation ? but Ury, '* waived giving him an 

On llie 27th of July, Webb, the carpenter, is brought up and 
deposes : 

That at John Croker^s, at the Fighting Cocks, he became ac- 
quainted with Ury. He heard him read Latin and Eagliab, and 


Codwise, and Richard Baker, that, the confession he had made 
before Messrs. Lodge and Nichols, was entirely fake, viz : that 
he had owned himself guilty of the conspiracy, and had accused 
the negro of Richard Baker, called Cajoe, through fear : and said, 
that he heard some negroes in the jail talking together, that if they 
did not confess they should be hanged ; and that was the reason of 
his making that false confession : and what he said relating to 
Horsefield Caesar, was a lie. That he did not know in what part 
of the town Hughson lived ; nor did he remember to have heard 
of the man, till it was a common talk over the town and country 
that Hughson was concerned In a plot with the negroes. 

Quack and Othello, under sentence to be burnt, made confes- 
sion of all the particulars of the story, and Bastean, a negro, tells 
much the same. Kane, Mary Burton, and two of the negroes, 
give testimony against several negroes, and Burton says, that Earl, 
who lived in Broadway, used to come to Hughson's, with ten sol- 
diers at a time. That the white men were to have companies of 
negroes under them. Ury used to be with them. A man, by the 
Mayor's market, who lived at a shop, where she, Mary, used to fetch 
rum from, is brought in ; and a doctor, a Scotchman, tliat lived by 
the Slip, and another dancing master. This dancing master, she 
is prompted to call Corry, who being examined, says, that he never 
was at Hughson's house in his life. 

Burton and Kane persist in accusing Corry, and he is com- 
mitted. On the 14th of July, John Ury, schoolmaster, Is examined, 
and denies ever having been at Hughson's, or knowing anything of 
a conspiracy : never saw the Hughson's or Peggy Kerry. Notwith- 
standing Kane persists in charging Ury, with being at Hughson's 
with Corry, and a young gentleman with a pig-tailed wig — Old 
Hughson, (the father of John Hughson,) and three of his sons, 
were sworn in, in their presence. 

On the 15th of July, fourteen nergoes are pardoned — and eight 
tried upon the same charges, and the same witnesses produced, 
Kane, Mary Burton, etc., and they are found guilty. 

Now comes on regularly the case of Kane against John Ury, alias 
Jury. He is charged with having counselled, procured, etc., anegro 
slave, Quack, to set 6re to the king's house b the fort, and pleaded not 
guilty : a second indictment, is, that being a priest, made by the 
authority of the pretended see of Rome, he did come into this province 
and city of New York, after the time limited by a law against 
Jesuits and popish priests, passed in the eleventh year of William 
in ; and did there remain for the space of seven months, and did 
profess himself to be an ecclesiastical person, made and ordainecl by 
authority from the see of Rome, and did appear so to be, by cele- 
bi^ting masses and granting absolution, etc. To thi» Uiy pleaded 
not gmlty, ^d prayed a copy of the indictments, but only a copy 

Mi OBf** 

OttliQVi BstknuBy JoIib ShiinMBt oUMy 

B n Mi6 it JoIm w— ■>■■», Janm I 

ikovo: it was a cliaige ofldoiif, n ponaorlling' Q— ek 
to tho govcfnoiii^s homo. Tbo oooooel amjed ogHMC 
iodividial are Richard Bndlejr, attoncy geaani, Mr* Ifamff 
Mn AlcMBder, Mr. SmiAt and Mr.Ch a mhoi B . Mr.Bndlqr 
jmj fho efidcpc e to be p tod o cod, and gooa ofvr the 
abovo ^vvn of Kaiif^ Sarah Haghaoot cic^ and findic 
CVbL OglethoqiOt goverDoar oTGooigia, aajringt thai 
had employed emiflaariea to bom an the foifaBy and 
a Mytoy ediiiidcrcharacteraofplyakaana,daiicingowaieratgte. Th» 
Bttwnfj general saya, that thia, and moch more^ wiU be prored. Hit 
diaoonne it lo ahow the wickedneaa of popery. The fat 
I the wretch, 3lary Barton. She goea orer the chaigci: 
fire vai 10 be begun at Crokei^s, (near the c oftc -ho ia c, br 
bag bridge Bmy time, 1775 lo 1783, called the Cofllu hoaw 
^ , a aeirer pamed onder it from Wall atreet) Sheoovtdb 
Iheaiory of the ring chalked on the floor, and talkaof aeeingthiagi 
in it that looked like rata, (which the commentator aaja* were ihi 
negroea bhck toes.) And anodier time abe peeped in and ana 
a bhck thing like a child, and Ury with a book in hia hand, aal 
aha let a apoon drop that she had in her hand, and Ury came oai 
and chased her down stairs, but she falling into a butt of water, ihr 
eacaped from him ! When they were doing anything extraonfinary 
at night, they would send ber to bed. 

Primmer — ^You say you have seen me sereral times at Hn^hson't* 
irtiat clothes did I usuallv wear ? 

AMMwer — She could not tell. 

Primmer — ^Tbaf s strange, and know me so well f 

She then says, sereral kinds, but particularly, or chiefly, a ridiBi; 
coat, and often a brown coat, trimmed with black. 

Primmer — ^I nerer wore such a coat. What time a day did I 
wae lo come to Hnghson's ? 

Anmnfr Chirflf in the night, and when I have been going to 
bod : I have seen you undresaing in Peggy's room, as if you were 
to lie there: butlconnotsay thatyou did, for you were alwayagOBe 
before I was up in the morning. 

Pnaoaer — What room was I in, vshen 1 called Mary, and yoa 
came up, as you said f 

jtuwtr — In the great room, up stairs. 

Primmer — What answer did the negroes make, when I officred lo 
fargire them their sina, as 3rou said? 

jinnoer — ^I don't remember. 

Kanot the aoMier, next called, 

uby's trial. M6 

tdoiired him so much, that he employed him to teach his child* 
as he found that he was a schoolmaster, and invited him to boards 
gratis, at his house. That he understood fix>m him, that he was a 
non-juring minister, and had written a book which was censured 
and called treason, which was what he did not mean ; — that he was 
taken into custody, but a great man got him away ; and by leaving 
England he lost fifty pounds a year. That on religious subjectSf 
the carpenter could not always understand him. As to negroes* 
Ury thought they were only fit for slaves : put them above the con- 
dition of slaves, and, in return, they will cut your throats* Thn 
historian recorder, in a note, says, that he was well acquainted 
with the disposition of them. 

Webb proceeds to say, that after Campbell removed to Hugh- 
son's, Ury went thither, and this deponent went thither three times 
and heard him read prayers in the manner of the church of Eng- 
land, but in the prayer for the king, he only mentioned our sove- 
reign lord the king, and not King George. He pleaded against 
drunkenness, debauchery, and Deists : admonishing every one to 
keep to his own minister. He said he only gave a word of admo- 
nition at the request of the family where he was. That in his 
third sermon, Mr. Hildreth was present, and Ury found fault with 
certain doctrines, and insisted that good works, as well as faith, were 
necessary to salvation. And he gave out, where, on a certain 
evening, he should preach from, '' upon this rock I will build my 
church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and who- 
soever sins ye remit, they are remitted, and whosoever sins ye 
retain, they are retained.'' This is to the best of deponent's remem- 
brance : but deponent has not heard that he preached according to 
that warning. And he has heard him say, that such and such a 
day was his sacrament day; and thinks he has heard him say, that 
he must administer the sacrament, but cannot be positive. The 
judges think, that if Sarah Hughson would be afi!ected by a sense 
of gratitude, for saving her life, and kept to her history, concerning 
John Ury, she would be a material witness against him. So they 
recommend her for mercy. That is, she is to be pardoned, if she 
will say what is put in her mouth agabst the poor sehoolmaster. 
On the 28th of July, another grand jury is sworn, composed of 
merchants ; the names point to ancestors of some remoteness : 
Joseph Robinson, James Livingston, Hermanns Rutgers, jtuuer« 
Charles LeRoux, Abraham Boclen, Peter Rutgers, Jacobus Roee- 
velt, John Auboyman, Stephen Van Cortlandt, junior, Abraham 
Lynsen, Gerardus Duykinck, John Provoost, Henry Lanefjiuuart 
Henry Cuyler, John Rosevelt, Abraham De Peyster* EdMrd 
Hicks, Joseph Ryall, Peter Schuyler, and Pttcr Jay* 

Sarah Hughson being pardoned, Uij it hvooght to the bar, 
the prisoner dwllenging aome of the jury. Wiffiam HamgienJey, 

VOL. I. ' 44 

Oraitai B60kiim9 J ohn SluuuiiBt cidBBy Jmbsm^ 

AmwI IMmmi^is Kf^MMiff^ PifltMv Vmn^nfe TIw^^^bk ^VilkA_ .I^^M 

Bneee, Joim Httdm Janwt FklMr, and Bmdi Sdnrjrlav » 
ffpom to trj hiiii* Tbo ipdMiinieiiit except lbnnfaiMi» ii P^* 
ikova : it was a cliaige of felony, in coiinadKng Qmck to oel iw 
to ikfB govefoour^s houe. Tbe counsel anajred againil 
infindual are Ricfaaid Bradley, attonwy geactai, Mr. 
llr.AlezaBder,Mr.Saiidi,and]SArXbaniben. Mr.Bndky 
jaiy die evideiioe to be pfodoeedf and goes orer tlie 
above ffwtsk of Kane, Sarah Hngfason, etc^ and fbitber, a 
Oe'sL Oglethoqie, gorerooor oif Georgh, saying, that the S 
had employed emissaries to burn all tbe towiM, and inaiiy 
employed under characters of phyricians, dancing mas t ers , eie> Tie 
anomey general sajrs, that this, and much more, will be prored. Hit 
Bsain discooTK is to show the wickedness of popery. The 
w hness is the wretch, 3lary Burton, She goes over the 
Ae fire was to be begun at Croker's, (near the oofiee-bome, br 
*e long bridge m my time, 1775 to 1783, called the C 
Briilge, a sewer passed under it from Wall street.) She 
Ae story of the ring chalked on the floor, and talks of seeing 
in it that looked like rats, (which tbe commentator says^ 
negroes black toes.) And another time she peeped in and 
a Uack thing like a child, and Ury with a book m his hand, 
aha let a spoon drop that she had in her hand, and Ury caare urn 
and chased her down stairs, but she falling into a butt of water, ihr 
escaped from him ! When they were doing anything extraonfiBvy 
atuigfat, they would send her to bed. 

Primmer — ^Vou say you have seen me sereral times at Hnefason't* 
what clothes did I usuallr wear ? 

Amswtr — She could not tell. 

Prutmar — ^That's strange, aod know me so well r 

She then says, sereral kinds, but particulariy, or chiefly, a riifac 
eoat, and often a brown coat, trimmed with black. 

Priwamer — ^I nerer wore such a coat. What time a dar chd I 
wse to come to Hnghson^s i 

AMMwer — Chiefly in the night, and when I have been gomx ts 
bed : I have seen you undrening m Pegg}''s room, as if you wciv 
to lie there: but I connot saj that vou did. for vou were ahnrvcoae 
before I was up in the mombg. 

Primmer — What room was I in, when I called Mary, and yoa 
came up, as you said i 

Ammuxt — In the great room, up stairs. 

Primmer — What answer did the negroes make, when I offered ta 
fargire them their sins, as you said i 

AmMwer — I don't remember. 

Kane, the soldier, next called, and tells his stoiy, and 

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m tint Cmrbot 
flkrad M fte nrr* to DicMfits 
•■ dw 9idi «r AafMt, 1741, 

•f fht MfseeotioDf n to os of tfaii ibf, miBonackaMgneoriif 
y y oi«ii 08mdgl>rii^iDp w u gg t cousiuuiDiied biiuiihs ibq hok 

f will bo M eonene mp e ciui g the aegnieo ao poMbbb bcag 
httfftiljr fined of cfao ikgatning lobjcct. 

Qnoek and Otbelb were oeiiteDCod to be boml ; bat 
of tiro of tbo great men of the town, one the chief jiatico, ■ 
waa nnade to aare them, which &iled ; hot dieir a cnt e nce wai 
ebangad to banging* Those two, with four othm, were haagad 
on me 18th Juljr* In the afternoon of the aame day, Hanj, tbi 
Mgro doctor, was executed. He had been ae n tenced on the neit 
trivial and improbable testimony ; and his ** heart was so hardened," 
aajrs our historian, that he confessed nothing. On the contraij, 
ba aaid that he had been told that he would be hanged or borM, 
and persbted in declaring, that if he knew of any pkrt, he woold 
confess it, to save his soul. . 

On the 8dd July, a number of whites were fined for keepbgdir 
orderly houses, and entertaining negroes ; and nine negroea dir 
eharted from jail, for want of evidence to convict them. How 
could that be f 

On the dOth July, four negroes pleaded guilty, and ten are par- 
doned ; but four more are apprehended. 

August 4th : on this day, a Spanish negro ordered to be hanged, 
which was executed the 15th. 

The 31st of August, Corry, Ryan, Kelly, and Coffin, whites, 
were discharged— no one appearing to prosecute. The testimony 

Sainst ihose men, from the wretches Kane, Burton, and Sarah 
ughson, was as strong as that against Ury, or any of those 

The 94th of September ^'as set apart for a thanksgiving for the 
iaeape of the ciliaens from destruction. The father and four bro- 
of Hughson petition to be released from jail, where they had 
confined for months on the improbable testimony of one of the 
ihandoned informenu The court consents to pardon them! but 
oohr tin condition of leaving the province. 

AU these executions and banishments could not quiet the Ceara 
of ibo good people of New York. Some negroes, at the Christmas 
hoiklay»ft had aroused themseh-es hy playing siddiers : this 
Iho litiileMusl-govenMHur, and the attorney-general sent to the 
li it W iHa of Qneen^s tounty , where this hapfmed ; and die 


w«re chastised for diis dtring piece of insolence, L e. whi{qped it 

the whippins^post, on the 26th January, 1742. 
1742 On the 15th February, all the apprehensions of the ma- 
gistrates are realized ; live coals of fire are seen in the gutter 
of a house. The mayor summoned all the magistrates together, 
mnd they determine to ^o in a boily to ^* inquire what negroes were 
in the neighbourhood.'* They find that a poor widow, who keeps 
• bakehouse, has a neirro — a sort of a simple, half-witted boy — and 
he was without ceremonv committed. 

This fool is called Tom : and he confesses that he pat the fire 
on the gutter ; that Jack told him to do so ; that he got up early, 
Ih a candle, made a fire in the bakehouse, heated water to melt the 
sugar to make cookers, and threw a lighted coal of fire upon the 
shed. It is confessed by die writer, that they could not give entire 
credit to his story ; and on a fourth examination he stated, what he 
said about Jack, and others, was false — he did it of himself; and 
being asked, *' why he did so :*' he said, *' he could not help il" 
Tom is brought to the bar, and charged with conspiring to bum, 
&c &c. Tom pleads guilty to putting the fire ; and all the stories 
he has told, are repeated to him ; and the assembled magistrates 
asd freeholders (no jur}*,) having condemned him to be hanged, be 
is told, he will be damned in the bargain. Tom then returns to 
his charges against his companions : but they cannot ** be brought 
to confession.*^ 

They, the magistrates, get hold of another black boy, Philip, and 
he says he was with Tom, called Monkey, and Jack, &c., on Stm- 
day, playing pennies, and lost two pennies ; but he heard nothing 
of what Tom says about burning. 

Tom is brought to the gallows. They hang him, and apprehend 
the others ; ^^ but nothing could be got out of them.** 

The whole of this Js revolting, as stated by one who believes 
there was this second conspiracy. 

On the loth of March, a tanner*s barkhouse, in the Swamp, was 
found to be on fire : set on fire, of course. The tanners hold 
their ground on this spot, to this day, in Ferry street. The people 
were put in great consternation ; but as there was no building near, 
except some of the tanner*s sheds, it only burnt them. It was 
proved that some of the tanner*$ boys had made a fire to warm 
themselves, and left it with negro Sam to put out, and they went to 
dinner. It was concluded, that the shed was burnt on purpose. 
But notwithstanding tuck proofe of a *^ diabolical conspiracy,^ 
many people did not beUeve in it ; and the believers could not mkm 
out a charge against Sam. Still, the diabolical conspirators kept at 
work ; and on the 20th of April some rags were found burnt Is 
tinder ; and, as they could not indict Sam for arson, they indiflsJ 
him for a felony, committed some time before. No d is cotety 

br tbc ncoracr id mjucM 
kcm^ for oocwitiBiaMfaBg ^ui 
(■» k dKmU seem) had bceatakmtolirnf iIk aaiMMafaplai: 
he teOs them be ias no doubc bat dot 
m vork^ like moics in tbedafk,iDiliedBpeaf i 
•choolinMCf»v pfajackiB* and socfa like, to 
oftbederiL HetbefeftwedBrecstfaenytfaMiftbeTfiBd 
lih icui e pcrsoDSt tbej sfaall present them to the 
headed and examiocd accoffdins: io fanr. ScAim^ Salkamn mmim 
temhiecfaaize. And on Thandar. 2d Septemberp Mht Bsiob, 
Ae vidcfani boocfai fcirant vbo had detected the ooH^HrMOBfLe* 
had been the witiiea» asainst Uir and all the tiikefSv m reraM 
aeenfdine lo p rom i se, vith £SU which is the hahrr of Xl%^^ 
ahe haiinc alieadr been paid ^19. Tin* vretched wnomam wm 
an indented ferrant, as it wa§ then called, to Hoefaaon ; and aaa 
part of her levard wa§ to be Uberaied* fifbehadsvamaatfiBttilkit 
no other vhiie penoos hot HosfaKMi, his wife, and Pe^gr CaRc, 
had been seen br her, as conspiraiors, bm as the 
ahe aees Urr and as manr others as ciicum tta nce s 

John Urr fell asacrifice to the panick which the ails 
of the Jesuits had insdUed into the minds of men. 

To aocoont fer the blind LDJiutioe ezeirised tonards Uir, we 
most remember the eril« which poperr had inffned on inmi jmm 
of Europe, and paitlcularlr on Enziaiid. A vast dread wis 
fell of iLe return of UjO*e fr\il^. br i::e restorailoD of ibe raoe 
of the Scuans — the tool* of France aini Itome. Unr had coniessed 
himself a con-juror: and the r::is<if of his jodzes were doi it t 
tfate to appreciate or allow freeoorc of op::2ion, ia zdj casse : lo ift 
an oppooent to ibat revoiutioo. on whicii iTfer supposed ibeir reli- 
gion and civij iihenie? to depend, wa:^ a de«dijr criiDe : and a iac;:i> 
ite, suspected of Je^u::!?::-. or the Korean Catixiiick reiirioa. 
especiaiir a prie^u '.va*. ia i:-eii miad?- already coovjcted- 

In cooclufion. xht hi*:orl3n jiver li.ln^n cJo*e prinird cuino 
pacest in recaphulatioa of all the ^torie? «nom to : and. civinr taea 
as undoubted tkct^ proved, he ^uppon* hi* piot br the hu^i-n <e 
popery and all the plots ai^d preifrrided plots of Enrlasd and 

Two features appear in the summiDr up of the writer : firsu z*xgL 
there was an of roaoy anin«: Mary Bimoo and her tesd- 
OQOor : second, that she threatened to impeach people of coaw^ 
qoeoce in tne city. Tcis, however, s-he was air&id to do, or vx 
mapstrates were airaid to permit. When tjje people of coose- 
qnence were likely to be implicated, tiie proceedioes stopped ; as in 
the caae of the prosecntioosibr witcfacrait in Masachusetzs^ 

^*he whiles executed, were fear. Nearoes, eleven bona. 


eighteen hanged, 6fty transported and sold, in the West Indies 
principally — a few to Madeira and Newfoundland. 

While New York was in this deplorable state, Franklin, the 
benefactor of mankind, was laying the foundations of the PhUadel- 
phia Library.* 

The year 1742 is memorable in medical annals, by the preva- 
lence of a malignant epidemic fever in the City of New -York. 
The disorder was similar to that more recently called the yellow 
fever, and is described by Golden. Out of a population of seven 
or eight thousand, two hundred and seventeen persons died.t 

• In connection with the negro plot of 1741. I will here remark, that Clarke, in 
his speech on occasion of the tire in the fort, aiicribed it to accident; but when the 
panick was rife, it appeared plain thut it \va<« a thing designed. The govemmeiit 
party, the oHicerii ofjustice, the judges, all joined in the cry of" plot," and perhaps 
oelieved in it. 

William Smith, the historian of New York, says of Mary Burton, that she ''was 
the bought servant to John llughson, a shoemaker and keeper of a low tavern, in 
the west quarter of the town." Pegpy Carey he calls another maid t>ervant in the 
house of Hughson: but she was a lodger or boarder. The historian says, "the 
jails were crowded." Uy jails, is meant the apartments so called, in the city hall, 
which building was council chamber, court house, jails, and dungeon. I have since 
ascertained, by studying the records in the clerk's onice, that it was common to speak 
of the apartments in the above building, as so many jails. The same records 
furnish me with the testimony ftiat tlio indentures of Mary Burton were par- 
chased by the corporation, and kept hy them until March the 6th, 1742, when thej 
were delivered to her, and she was discharged from the further term of her service : 
so that she was the bought servant of the magistracy, all the time she was giving 
her testimony. In September, 1742. Joseph Moore, appointed guardian to this 
girl by the court of chancery, applies for and receives the balance of the reward, £81. 

t See Hosack's and Francis's American Medical and Phiiosophical Register, vol. 
\, in which work may be found Colden'f account of this fever. 


hmag bcctt ■iiIp, 4>n the 3d of Anguit Ac gwd jmf 
and char;^ bf die lecordcr io aouch itfto iH 
lippliiig-hoosesv ftc, fix* notiriilwuindiBg grot 
(as it siwald seem) had been taken lobru^ die nodoBol'aploc 
oootempi, he tells them he has no doidit but that popish 
areat work, like moles in the dark, in the shape of 
achoolmasters, physicians, and such like, to accompliih the 
ofthederiL He therefore charges them, that if thajfiad 
obscore persons, thej shall present them to the comt, to be 
beaded and examined accordins: to lav. Nottnng feOon «■ liai 
tenible charge. And on Thursday, 2d September, Maij Pbiim, 
the wretched bought servantwho had detected the oooqwraeoaibLe. 
bad bcca the witness against Urv and all the others, is irmwiti 
according to p ro mi se, with j£Sl. which is the bahace of J:iM-* 
■be haiini^ alreadr been paid J; 19. This wretched 
an indented servant, as it was then called, to Hnghsoo ; 
part of her reward was tobe liberated. She had sworn at fiett, 
ao other white persons but Hnghson, his wife, and PeggJ CaRft 
had been seen bj her, as conspirators, hot as the basiDeas g 
abe sees Urr and as many others as circumstances reqoiie. 

John Urr fell asacrifice to the panick which the arts and 
of the Jesuits had instilled into the minds of men. 

To accoimt for the blind injustice exercised t ow a nb Urr, 
must remember the erils which poperv had inflicted on maar 
of Europe, and particularly on England. A just dread 
felt of the reium of tiio«e evib. bv the restoration of toe race 
of the Stuarts — the tools of France and Rome. L rr had coniesseti 
himself a non-juror; and the minds of his jud^ were doc z i 
state to appreciate or allow freedom of opinion, in anv : to :e 
an opponent to that revolution, on which they supposed tiseir reli- 
gion and civil liberties to depend, was a deadly crime : and a iaccb- 
ite, suspected of Jesuitism, or the Roman Caiholick rei:jiXL 
especially a priest, \Tas, in their minds, already convicted. 

In conclusion, the historian s:ive< tiiirteea close printed cuara 
pages, in recapitulation of all the stories sT;\om to : and. ^vic^ rzea 
as undoubted facts proved, he supports his plot by the /njt'jn :t 
popf-ry and all the plots and pretended plots of Enziasd and 

Two features appear in the summinz up of the writer : first, uat 
there was an outers' of manv against Marv Burton and her tests- 
mony : second, that she threatened to impeach people of conse- 
quence in the city. This, however, she was atraid to dow or ce 
magistrates were afraid to permiu When the people of coc&ie- 
^nence were likely to be implicated, the proceedings stopped ; » m 
tbe case of the prosecutions for witchcraft in Massachusetts. 

The whites executed, were four. Neeroes, eleren kant* 


rbteen han^vs!. fifty tnnspoited and sold* in the West Indies 
pnncir^slS- — a tow to Madeira a::^d NewibiindUnd. 

Wr::> Neir York was in ihi> deplorable state* Franklin, tbe 
bei:e;ix*:or of n;ankir:d, wa* laving the foundations of the Philadel- 
pr^i L.bnn.* 

T."v yeiT IT 4:? i> nieTnorabV in medical anoaUs bv the pren- 
lerhre of a nuli^nar: er^ideTiio lever in the Citt of New York. 
T:je iilsor.ier w^s simijar to that more re^ceailv called the vellow 
fcveT, ar..: is desk^nbed by Co!dtn. Out of a population of seren 
or eir^.: Thousand, nro hundred and serenteen persons died.* 

ike w*s: c~^^*r ."^f :ix ww:» " r^rr« Carrv Se r*.*»»sK»AfT ma-s: ^rrui: a tW 
Wanf cr' H:;£t»t>r : ^'d: r4»e wv & ^vijcvr <Nr S(^&rd(Y. Tbe lfet«conui Mrs;, "the 
jh*» ^trt .ro« /MM ' Bt -A.X. » uaejk.:;: i^ tpiutsaeats «o cA^^ec. a Sie c:tT luL 

«vcv or^.^Mvc Tk^ itef. &zic «>f « a« .isar.MTXv^ itmb iI» inrttter irna of ! 

krr rf^: 3:v>r;i tr. Sf r:? nSc :. ITii J.^w^Tvh M.nvy. *rj^>.s:<^i <uui£ab t# 

-^ >r *? 


ArriudcfAJMindCliMUm,aM Gowermmri 

^ LmMerg—Ditina cf the fromiiar^—Daineiim ^ 

wni SanUom — Sir Ftter Warren — Gacawamr CKmUm m Jir 

hiMj f irifinr ^ E^^amd io meomd At fnfteiei cam^fmM tf 

Qrtfi^^ — Gmaermtmr iMMiam'* immjlaU lamgma^ to Ac Hmm §f 

AmeMf^OMd their tpirUedr^y^-'DimdBraiMa 

m tkotfrcm a wku t < f -wa r mm the hariomr of Xem Tc 

Damoen (hbarme — Omgreu at Albamy. 

1748 Whatbtse mj ha¥e been the aits bj wUch 

gofcmoor Clarke managed the lords of trade and 
at die Cooit of Great Britain, who were interested in the j 
Beat of the Coloniea, at length it was determined (for the 
of his finances) to send oat Admiral C|ptoo, as 
of this iM Of in ce* He was the younger son of an earl, and 
an eaiL He was eonnscted* by marriage, with other linWrs. 
this oppoftunity wss taken to mend his foitnnes from the pUKS if 
the colonists, though be knew nothing of the art of governing 
tfaer than directing the movements of a ship of war. 

On the 22Dd of September, 174-3, Admiral Clinton arrired, 
his wife and family, and his commbsioo wzs published the 
day. The people showed their pleasure at a cbanc:e by the 
diouts ; and he was instructed that it would please them still 
if he dissolved the present assembly and convened another. 

The new govemour fell into the hands of James De Lancer, dK 
Chief Justice ; who, though he cuts but a poor figure daring dK 
panick of 1741-2, had acquired sufficient knowledge of cokxiial 
a&irs to guide Clintoo, and had, unquestionably, sufficient 
to direct him in the course that was popular. The new 
sat from November Sih to December 17th. They gave the gover- 
nour a salary of fifteen hundred and sixty pounds, one hundred 
pounds for his house-rent, four hundred pounds for fuel and candle 
light to himself and the garrison of the independent companies, 
hundred and fifty pounds to enable him to visit the Indians, 
hundred pounds to make presents to those tribes, and one tbooaaod 
more for the unsuccessful solicitations of the king's aid, at their 
instance, towards reboilding the fort, and obtaining a supply of am- 
nmnitioo. Thej continiied the salary of three handled pooiia to 


the Chief Justice ; and now, without opposition, voted one hundred 
pounds a year to Mr. Justice Phiiiipse ; half that sum to Mr. Hora- 
manden, the third judge ; and, on motion of Mr. Morris, began the 
practice of enabling the governour and council to draw upon their 
treasurer for contingent services, now limited to sixty pounds, but 
afterwards increased to one hundred pounds per annum. The 
gOvemour, in return, assented to all the bills that were offered him, 
without any objection to those limiting the support to a year. 

1744 The enmity (formerly called natural) between France 
and England had been displayed by doing each other as much 

injury as possible for some time past ; and the reader will recollect 
the endeavours of "Onas," or Pennsylvania, to enlist the Iroquois 
on the side of the English colonies ; but, in 1744, formal declara- 
tions of war were made by the great powers of Europe, and the 
northern frontiers of New York were exposed to all the horrours 
which had formerly attended the inroads of the French and their 
Indians from Canada. The traders fled from Oswego, and, indeed* 
the province was left to the guardianship of the Five Nations. 

Doctor Abeel, speaking from his own knowledge of this time^ 
says : — "On the hill, near the run of the fresh water to the East 
River, w^ a wind mill. Some years before this, there was a wind 
mill between what is now called Liberty and Courdandt streets. 
Here it was that, less than forty years ago, the Indians, still resid- 
ing in the lower parts of the state, at particular seasons of the 
year, came to the city and took up their residence until they 
had disposed of their peltry, their brooms and shovels, trays 
and baskets. I have seen wheat growing, in 1746, where St 
Paul's Church now stands. Then there were not twenty houses 
from Division street to Fresh Water. I have seen, in 1744, and 
afterwards, several Indian canoes come down the East and North 
Rivers, and land their cargoes in the basin, near the long bridge, 
[at the foot of Broad street.] They took up their residence in 
the yard and store-house of Adolph Phillips ; there they generally 
made up their baskets and brooms, as they could better bring the 
rough material with them than the ready made articles. When the 
Indians came from Long Island, they brought with them a quantity 
of dried clams, strung on sea-grass, or straw, which tliey sold— -or 
kept for their own use — besides the flesh of animals, &c. Clams 
and oysters, and other fish, must have formed the principal food, 
together with squashes and pumpkins, of the natives of the lower 
part of the state.*' 

1745 The English provinces were again impressed with the 
just conviction th^ their only safety lay in the conquest of 

Canada ; and Govemour Shirley, of Massachusetts^ made knowB t 
project for capturing Louisburg, which was the French strongiiold^ 
▼OL I. ^ 

t^ tl that dm^ the key to all ihdr poaaaaiioM TIm 
BWBt of New T<»k.wB8 wiae ewHigfa to join in tUa pl^ 
and aant fidd pieces, and other nilitaiy eqmpmeataf to Gi 
Biiriej. They likewise deiyatehod'ofleoourB to Qati iJfcO i i 
oned the frontier forts, took meaaolos to engage tholiomaiialoil 
war, and to combine the forces of the other provinoeaiatlieivr ' 

On the 13th of May, 1745, the goveraour d ia ao k ed 
assemUy which had met him, who were neither ao 
compfyng as the fint They parted, beariQ|finwiB to each 
and the people, taking part with thw repFeaentadvee» r e ta rne d ik 
aame men to the subse^ent house. The assembly, howetart ia 
June, saw the necessity of forwarding the views of the g^l f a ^naa ^ 
or his directors, and aided in the preparationa for defenee at hoM 

and conquest abroad. 
1746 Lottisburg, situated on the island of Cape Breton, aai 
justly considered theGibraltar of America, yet it waa beaiMl 
and taken by provincials, from New England, by a plan contrifedia 
the mmd of a lawyer, and an army commanded by a maiefaall 
Pepperel, the commanding oflker, was seconded by VaitthaD liii 
Wolcot The vessels, the officers, and men, were all lanheaa; 
but were joined, unexpectedly, by four ships of war, oonmanM 
by Captara Warren, from New York — unexpectedly, finr he hal 
lefiised his aid, but received orders from England to assist the {MO* 
vinoials. After a two month's siege, this ibrmidable foitreia sa^ 
rendered. Warren claimed the victory, and England awarded it 
to him. He was dubbed Sir Peter Warren ; but Pepperel wai 
likewise complimented with a title. 

The French flag was kept flying to decoy their ships in, and 
many thus were made prizes. The prizes altogether were valued 
at a million sterling, which was appropriated to Warren and hb 
fleet ; and the claim of the men who took the town was disallowed 
by the British government. This was the only conquest made under 
the flag of England during the war : it was made by AmericaaSi 
It was of great importance to their future security ; but England 
^ve it up to purchase a peace. 

New York contributed in money to this expedidon, but had nooe 
of the honour of reducing Cape Breton. 

Great Britain and her government magnified the servicea af 
Warren, and the naval heroes of England, while they deprecialad 
the just claims of the colonists to the conquest of Louisburg. The 
official accounts, published by the ministry, suppressed the truth 
in respect to the American project, energy, and success ; and the 
eoloaiata, with surprise and disgust, saw their expense, labour, and 
btoodahed, represented as nothing by the government of Great 
Britain. This Captain Peter Warren, a provincial, and Lady 
Warren, took rank among the aristocracy of Great Britain, in con- 


Sequence of the reducdon of Cape Brtttfo. While at New Y<^ 
thiB Captain Warren commanded several vessels of war, audi oJF 
course, was called commodore. He issued his notice, by wajr of 
proclamation, that the boatmen and market men should not be im- 
pressed for his majesty's service ; but says, he will impress *^such 
as belong to inward bound vessels from sea." Now Commodore, 
or Admiral, Waxren was as ignorant as Admiral, or Govemoor, 
Clinton that an act of parliament had been passed in the sixth year 
of the reign of Queen Anne, (1707,) by which, for the encourage- 
ment of trade in America, it was enacted that '^ no person serving 
as a mariner on board any privateer, or trading vessel, should be» 
impressed, unless such person shall have deserted from a ship of 
War ;" and, doubtless, thought he was very kind in permitting boats 
to supply New York with provisions. But what shall we say of 
the judges and learned lawyers of the time, who were ignorant of 
tbe existence of the statute f 

On tbe subject of Cape Breton, we have the testimony of Tiii- 
dal, the continuator of Rapin, that 3850 volunteers, new to military 
••rvice, '* embarked at Boston, and proceeded to the reduction of 
the strongest fortifications in the new world with regularity and un- 
conquerable spirit ; with the assistance of some officers, lent them 
by Sir Peter Warren, who commanded a ngval force, they mounted 
a Urge train of artillery, and compelled the garrison to surrender 
on the 13th of June, thus gaining a fortress which secured the com- 
mand of this country and relieved their frontiers ; but which Ei^ 
land, for her own purposes, gave up to the French, in exchange for 
fortresses in Europe." Smollett calls this the most important 
achievement of the war ; and the authors of the Universal History 
state that New England gave peace to Europe by conquering thu 
fortress, which,|at die peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, proved an 
equivalent for all the French successes. But notwithstanding all 
this. Sir Peter Warren (after whom we of New York call one of 
our streets) did, on the :29th of September, 1747, depose **on 
oath," in the High Court of Admiralty, in England, that, with the 
assistance of his majesty's ships, he, the deponent, *' did subdue 
the whole island of Cape Breton."* 

Meanwhile the country, north of Albany, was^ kept in perpetual 
ahrm by parties of French and Indians, who perpetrated, as usual^ 
all the horrours of savage warfare. The French garrison at Crown 
Point, under M. Vandrueil, sent out a force sufficient to attack and 
destroy the Fort at Hoosick, where Col. Hawks, the commandanti 
after a spirited defence, surrendered. In November, the setdement 
at Saratoga was surprised : a brother of Schuyler, with many othersy 

Set-Robert WtWe EnfhadaBd Anwrida» and otiien on tUi takjeet. 


of KnrToA 

IWUvS few ffe0 

IJhd ID fiadf tint dodhlefhe 
ptm fatu weatf^ 

cmisd 00 W the Fi 

of ronl 
of Mdoshiml mdnttyt win the 
Ian. the ffviakiiBf of the hiMd oT 
blniH ndntoTAeir peaeefbl 
limmMftad prapond bjr tew 

Mftednracv ilUn- 

Thirtjr fcwniifff^ vidi fbe ibiiiu^ 

Qi nw fvfjr 01 ccoraeaHiT, a loonf, smi 
Qi WjromBfp SMI CTmiijt « wBtfWm 

I off OMVoTcnoi osnnci aHBBBinm me fQUHBoioei^ 
I\nbc» vnciu bjr cffUDiDu iKgugcBoCv the FfeBco of Oi 
Mm MDfffd to wfftiljy m pmMUce of die {Ril echene of 
Conit of V«ffmlle9y far eccompGdibis « 
•MO to c«c&^ die Eazt»iK bemicks to tbe 
Iboir npabMTO fron Annica. or sobjocvtioo: far sadi • jyy* 
kivo btrn tbe t««« phia formed br the Court of Fnare. Br 
mdertof Ope Brvtoo to Loois, Ensiuid subeeqmtadr 
Vb e w e (c^^^^nil vi^nr? ; ««! tf. v w^s arced br tbe 
Cwftdk tbe Cicr «u>d Port of Nev York bad bees 
Uwboo Vfd tbe oortbem lakes ttr^ aa oppomminr of < 
t9 hn$ m b e for e cooqoerui^ tbem. 

Tbe woae vtvesce imzpcioa wbicb pvecd orar S iMoga md hA 
itabeepofnaois vvepcvitJbeqQaidceofcKioQtbenlliceofHftaBdk^ 
einrdnrtivma: (be fcet exisfCioc ta dHi quanrr. 

br Atucwt and Septrmber^ 174<v Govcmoar Cfinaott Mi « 
eoMMril afe Albwrr mb tbe Iroqoook far tbe ^wapo ee of 
ibMO m ailimce vitb New Yoriu wd lo 
Ibo FlMocb of Caottda, earned eo dboofb tbeir Ji 
vbo faflnrnftrd tbe diecoftfieooi of the IndjeDo orbkh 
iboioKi'fcir oi tbe nd«r» ceiic ainoof tbem br the Ei^fiih ; aadL m 
CoUoo aejni, ^ tbe niecooduct ef ihoae who 
lyef ewM ft of New York with the 
ibo Imtbut Mtmt wee Mr. Jobosoo* 

A% tnitfmd ami Fteoce were then at vir» aad 

cuiiUA s iinn^niiiLiiuii* SB7 

«w Iio^poB to HR put M diis ciiiupm^; im1 Im 
jH O Ccgding 10 AHk&DT wkh C<»ldea and L h kgM O n ^ oi fe nHjestr's 
eMMtU (the oiheis decliniiir) and with Cipoii RudKiftvd* M- 
imed at AIbanT« Ukevise oif the coanctl, a sufficteot number far 
bonness was coDreaed. The InMjuob were inrited to meet tha 
leoTemour at Albanr* in Jalr : aod on the 21st. be anired there. 
Wi femd the smaU-pox prerailiiu: in the to«n« and never baring 
hnd iu he continued on bciard the doop till next dar, and dien deter* 
■iaed id take up hb re si deoee in the ibrt. On landiw% he was 
mtciied bv the corporation, the r^piUr troops in the place^ aod 
the milkia. That same daj, three InM]u<H$ came into Alhaar, aod 
p a jemtd die goTefooor with two Fiench scalps^ which tber aaid 
dnnr had tak«i at noon-dav, withb sicht of the French fert at 
Crown Poinu These Indians bid alreadr leceived the lewanl 
gtren br tbe act of as&s^mbhr, but tise foreroour jraTc, in addition* 
bss thanks, four Spamsh collars each, acd to the leader, i fine laced 
coat and hit, and i silver bieast-plize : to the ocbers. each a stroud 
bbnkei and bced hiu 

These Indians had been in the bushes several days« watching 
the fert cite : aad when two Frenchmen caioe out uninned« shot 
than, tocnahawked and scalped them* bekve assistance anived froo 
die JbtL Fm- this, tbev are honouied and rewarded hv chnsdaitt, 
Soch is war. 

Other scoots came in« and infaiined that there was a cieat ibroa 
of French and Indians at Crown Point. The French ludiasa 
were the Abonkins* and Caupiawahpts, or christian or praving 
Indians* cocfcsidered bv the Freivch as converts— most of them 
ORCtnalhr Mohawks. Sixteen Mobiwks. who bad been sent bj 
Mr. Johnmn. afterwards Sir Williim* aci tike pri»oners and sain 
inieUicence near Crown Point, arrived at Albanv. Clinton enden* 
itMued m prevail on thnn to return to Crown Point, and odJeted 
fer every pris<Mier or scalp tbev michi take, a piece of snood and a 
suit of heed ciothess. besides tbe boontv : but tbev cho» to co 
home. Tbe Mohawks were mpfe b ciw i ve of an attack from tba 
French, and the Govemour of New York sent a captain of miliiia 
and thirtv men to reidorce their lower castle, and wrote to Mr« 
Johs<c«, that the Fiench exai^ireraied their farce, to prevent tba 
Iroquois cominr to the treair. There were appearaixes of soma 
seoet understanding b er a f cn tbe Mohawks and the French Indim 
(Cancntwabras) residing near MontreaL 

Wilbam JohHon cxcvied hixi»eif to rouse tbe Mobawks to war 
against tbe French, bv dmsinc himself hke them, and ieastingr 
them — br acttinc them 10 dance tiieir war^dances* and other aiiii- 
aU wfaicb. the C!onremoiir promi»d mparUm. Slil» 
of the theim nHM on rmaaiHng nnaaraihe warha^ 
tha i«o Earopaan BttiOM. Tina snmEqr vai what tba 

356 DEST-.",v i.w.^ -f • ill iKoavoi^ 

was slam — ■. .^ . w- i.}*" uul m- iiooe- : ^ujiciuc 

neisrhbourlir- '. n:i.. A' leust:-. . .irj^ aunr 

struck wifh j. ... . inr liv iut?i» auio..^ :.:-;:i>*t.Mvet 

Indians. , rrdi^i mm ijj« i>iii£r: ::ii!-':uuc 

ofierev; ■ ; ;ii. mwi n; -ilimn^. r. l-i* ■*[] li. 

P'''^'* * .:i! ir in* ii*-at. »: III' >ii:,«iv;ji, 

?*'•■'*- • -iiiiiiii. vii' *..iijiiiiii.. Til*, iini..!*:- lu- 

- ' .: .— :ii-^ ;iit--*fc- UK inn. iir^- rdun-fL 

^-^ . ." ::■.♦' *'-:i'iU' i;ij^v "ri:t: ir. f.-aniim. Tut 

^'' ■■•!'••:: :i i!i» i'lr isi.!.. ant: ir«.aLr^i. t« i"ii»-,. iimii'.^v.'wjrii]- \M.:. ;:i* iiiiiivitiua >a":ir?ne- 
MJiiL*. ::i*':i o*" ii.:-* i »! v ar v ni i nin* 

■ ■ ■- • i'-'"^' I' :»''.-^*:; -..lii' . M'. '..imi-i v-is* 
. ... iiu: ■•• :j^ j >:• y /. i.^n-:. m* iii-j-t !-ii;:i- 

.>.iinij7.-rj:i*-- (■■' N-.'u i ..r-t.. v- ::: ::i* 'iiiiinii.-iiiti- 

. -•:-. •.-i'r". "^*: j-.-i'ii:;-: \:.i-^ M«. <; viki"i i-l-r :iiT 

..ii.»i -^ Tc'ii^. ■.:l^ *'w. "i:- i' -.I* V L* : :!iy: :n* i -eii'i 

• . -*'. ..■.. •. -.1. ^ . ' . . 1. ... .l.-«lA.*t.. ^t ..i^. 1. IIT 

• ■•• .. .1. .. .. ■-..._f. . ''....l_ 
• . ;,, ■«.-... : I . . • • ! • ■ -..•-. 

' • • ■ • " ■ . ».. . L 1 . 


. ■ : :■' • "■ '.'■ ' • .. ■ - i ■ j ^ . '.•. "■ "" . . - 

..... '■ : . " . J ' : ' ' I 1- ''■"•;-'■. J ■-;."■.,: :.r 
I ..■•■■.■■■:'■ :•. <\ "^'i '-.''.:■.'■:.'■.! .\ • . ■ . ■_- * ' _— 

, , . • • . • ; •.■-.- I f. ■■■.-,.•;. ■ ■ . - • - ■ ^ . . , . ^ 

.^, ' ■"-•■.** 'y' '.'; ''.r '•..<■ \. ;'■." ; . ■ ■■.•..-- 

* ■ ^ - • 

:^.'.r'..t'i ^I•.:.•r'■ :;. ^ r':%v:;j':'.\:..' :i :!•: !•:..- S..';r:i t:.»: f":-.:.- :...i-;c 
.- .v,..'.^ hir J' ••.>.! ;.«ir !»»r„'»'. •;.'!. H«: i.'.'. .;• - t.';» r;i to v/;i. la ti;e tirt- 
..•iion. .'»ri«l ii:<.-<iov».riioijr fjl N*:-* ^ 'jrik '.^'.iuil lurii.j-ri .irih-. i::..L :- 
uiiioDv proviiion, cioUtiuz^ Ace, ^sini fjrotect ihcif wi^ii-a ar.ii 02.;- 
■ the absence of die uarriour». I>urin£ thU. belti^ are ^ven 


and received with the Indian Yo-ha, The Iroquois took to tlie 23d 
of the month for deliberation, and then answered — the govemour 
being present. They agreed to join in the war generally •gainal 
the French ; and add, that they take in the Messesagues as a seventh 
nation. — These, I call the ^Iackinaws, from their situation : they 
are represented as having five castles or villages, containing eight 
hundred men, all ready to fight the French. The orator declared 
war, by throwing down a war-belt, with gestures of indignation* 
The orator says, if the French priests come among the Iroquois» 
they will roast them. 

The Govemour of New York, the commissioners of Massachu* 
setts, and those of Virginia, make their presents to the Iroquois, and 
next day Clinton speaks to them, and the Onondaga orator answers: 
the Indians divide the presents, giving a due proportion to the 
Mackinaws. The next day was spent in dancing the war-dance 
and singing the song with solemnity, all the Iroquois being painted 
as for battle. The govemour had private interviews with the chiefs^ 
and gave them presents. One of the Mackinaw deputies died of 
small-pox, and his dying request to the govemour was, that the first 
French scalp that was taken, should be sent to his mother. This, 
the christian chief magistrate promises, and tlie savage dies con- 

The Indians, commonly called Esopus, Minisink, Mehecandies 
and River Indians, perhaps the Mohicans, were now sent for, and 
the govemour went thmugh shorter and slighter ceremonies with 
them ; receiving from them assurance, of joining in the war with 
him and the Iroquois. Then they had their war-belts, war-dance, 
and presents. 

The Indians being sick and expensive, Clinton dismissed them, 
ordering Johnson to send out parties from Schenectady, and from 
his own settlement, near the lower Mohawk castle, to harrass the 
French of Canada : arms were delivered for that purpose. 

On the 6th of September, Captains Skaats and Vromen, brought 
the Indians of the Susquehanna to Albany. They came march- 
ing in single file, and saluted by firing as they passed the fort : a 
salute was returned of cannon. Meeting them on the 8th, the 
govemour repeated his speech to them in form. They in reply, 
hint, that they have jealousy of the Iroquois , but promise, in the 
usual form, to join in the war. — The govemour threw down a 
banger, which the orator took up, and began the war-dance : othexs 
joined, and the usual ceremonies, promises, and presents, were 


A sergeant of Captain Livingstones company, was mirprised 
•bout this time, and killed by the French Indians, near Albaoj, 
ud parties were sent out to scour the woods ; the Susquehanim, 
aaoDg the foremoat, but no enemy was found. Tbeee Indians hmi 


•built utf 

and cfafldnB^ Sfaif H 

at tfadr with. A 

thsy^ raachad 

JofaoaoD prcsKd hii Slofaavb id go 

mmmendHmr **Timwtanm 

DO acnac of die loaaof 

haicat vo ind ni oar m i iu o : joo 


Thef , ho oef q, did aeod ooi _ ^ 

^ loia locjciiod a meaaago noni Ciuaru Poiaap hf oo 

^feacfa had lakeo, and diwniwfd for ihia |iiO|wii 
He aaid that the gorenioar of Canada had ralril 
Cangnawahgaa, and compkined tbat ibe Iroqoob hod kill 
Fmchmen ; ibe Cangnawahgaa were told to go to thena, 
if diejr continued hostile, he wonU punish thena, bi 
an Ifoqaoisv ** without eating his flesh,** to ahov 1 
peoide. Hefurtherdireda the Cangnawahgaa, Dot t 
qoois, but to attack the NewEngfamd men. To d 
wal^ias are said to hare answered, that the Iroqoois woold do 
to be threatened, and if he had such a meaaage to aendv he 
canj it himselH To this they added, a mesaage to the Iioqaai^ 
begging them totell, if any plot u in agitation by New York apiitf 
them; and, likewise, that Canada had 1,800 men at Crown Fo^ 
ready to fight New York. They concluded with desiring die bo- 
quois not to be angry with them for destropng Saratoga last Ui, 
'* Colonel Schayler dared us to it,^' and we gratified him. The 
Iroquois immediately communicated this message to the g or c r n o u r 
of New York. 

In the autumn, a party of Iroquois of thirty, with ten wiflM, 
fell upon a French settlement about ten leagues above Montred^ 
and brought off eight Frenchmen and four scalps. Another paitr 
Tisiting the Caugnawahgas, under pretence of making peace, woe 
introduced to the govemoiu- of Montreal, took letters from him to 
persons at Crown Point, and in returning hon>e, surprised a sraaD 
French fort, killed five, and brought away one prisoner, and one 
acalp. The prisoner and letters they brought to the commandiig 
officer at Altnny. 

In the foregoing transactions, Mr. William JidmaoD la a promi- 
nent personage ; and the reader will find him still more ao, in ^ 
aobeequent pages. 

Govemour Clinton had quarreled with his friend and adviser. 
Chief Justice De Lancey, among whose intimates waa ColoDd 
FUGp Schnyler,tbe aon d" the celebrated Peter. Philip 
eaedsd liia friber, as agent ibr the Iroqnoia. Froa 
GSolOD iWDO iad him ; and gave it to Mr. WiDiam Ji 

wnwLMmm axd bmot at Bon^fti JKl 

Ind eiaigiitfid Iran Eagluid, puichised a 6^ 
kiirks« and widi some property biou^tto the wUdetneas, «» im- 
fMoruur his bmd* He was a nephew of Coounodoie Wairen 
mm! the fOTeraour, to dncrin De Lancer, and perfaafs Schuyler, 
pave this importani agency to Mr. Johnson. He appears to hare 
fnined the <pod will of the Indians, by minj^ting wuh them in a 
very intimate manner; for, besides his feasting the men, he achnow- 
kdied some of the half breed as his children. 

Cadwallader Colden*s History of the Five Nations^ was pub- 
hhed in London — he beinc at that time one of his majesty^s 
otNHicil for the Prorince of New York, and surreyor-genenl of the 
This« and his other publications* hare made him known 
honoured more than the ctirumstance of beinj^ Lieutenant- 
goi'eraour of New York. Mr. Colden says of the Iroquois : 

** All the nations round them, (the Iroquois) are and hate long 
been tribuury, paying them in wampums* or strings of beidb 
vionght mMn conch-shells, the white wampum, or muscle-fihells, 
(ibe purple,) and perforated so as lo be strung on leather. Several 
of these strings united, form abelt, such as they ude at their treaties. 
Ererr bead is ol* a known value. Two <dd men are sent everr 
fear to the tributanr Indians to receive this tax and en^dem of in- 

1747* The discontent of the Americaits was heightened by an 
outrage committed on the people of Boston, during Shiriey *s 
administntion, under the orders of an English captain of a man-of- 
war, named Knowles. 

The statute of Anne, above mentioned, seems not to haxY been 
known or thought of. With that insolence which chancteriaes the 
officers of the Enciisb annv and naw in their intercourse with the 
proviodals, Knowles, who was stationed at Nantasket, having lost 
men by desertion, aent his boats to Boston with a preiss-gang, which, 
landing eirly in the morning, swept the streets and wharves, as wall 
IS the docks of the ressels in harbour, carrying off landsmen as 

* In this T«v»r, RcSeti R. Ijrnaf9i««m. »ft»Twmidf CKwe^nor ofihe ?i»t» of Xcw 
rork. wTtf Soni m tb* Citr of New Yortu whew be |EiWMie«i at Kist « C«Otf«. 

■ CMBPMT Willi b2» c«asiB» WJtiaa LfTincsioa. U» reyfau— a rr GoTeraomy of 
Sew Jen*V, &»d W^uteliMd Hick*. Ae Mavot of Xyw Yoit in 1^ Robett E. 

bro*^ «jbt I>«cteiM of laJ^n«fc^ri. Tbbfe^ fg^« adjpySMt4 

poopk. DtciA Uow. a Mble af God's 
fiMU *- Ei^U Cut w< ft KwflN af t^ 

46 5^"^ 

Bi ibe flkicks, dKjr 
iM tfcor Uio9F ciiinriw 
redonUea lonr. lot 

tut popuBcc 
BUidiiir thtt the Eoefeh 
■K Hii^iresBra mm- S^Ih 
Mvcd prolnbh' fron nish or TiofeucC) WiIk 
file riflCcn ifaat die bnve oi oae oi ine shipv of 
ihe lo<ra. TbcT rushed to meet her ^ aod oa 
wfanf^ she wis Ufied like i feither from the vmc, 
front of the sorernour s house, where the bbze ud 

The next monmir the miliia of the 
hot thej refused to obej. The peofJe. meamime, had 

o&ers who nere in lows, aisd rfrJrjey look reAiee in the csdeiE 
en island in tbe huhocr. iiroin whence be wrole to Knowles. nd 
urzed tbe neceautr of returning tbe impressed men. Kjoamki 
refused, unless bis oficers were released, and thieaiened to banihni 
the town. Tbe asfemb] v. after some debate* eoochided to vapfan 
tbe laws, and ordered tbe ciiil and miliianr farce to put dovB or 
riot. Tbe miliiia tamed out and es^roned the eoTenioar from iv 
place of refuse to bis own bouse. A resnlar town ■ ■>■■ ■ ' ■ ■ ^ g w 
held, which, whije hy'iis resoiutionf ii expressed tbeutnxiEt indicni- 
tion at the coDdLc: of Knowle^. condemned tbe lawless rJoleDoefiC 
tbe rioter?- The next dav. the quiei of tbe town 
Tbe naral omcer:r nere liberaied. and tbe impressed 
to tbeir ships and homes. Know k» departed viib 
from the coast, after barin£: impressed upon tbe odoniits 
lesson, subsequenuv to be remembered, it^^r^ngr the 
bilit}- of a foreign rovemment wiib tbe nsbis of the people 

The capture of Cape Breton gtimnlat^ France to exenkuw acnBt 
tbe Colonies of America, and a Aeet was destined to GaBOM ** 
York and ravage all tbe sea-coa&l. Great Britain, mmmbi le 
iplaied the red iftocion of Canada and Nova SoDcia. Ber. 
rert to rendezvous at Louisbure. and, with the eomhind frn»«f 
£ng;land, proceed up the St. LawreDoe ; while the Mopt of 


New York and New Jersey penetrated to Crown Point and Mon- 
treal. The colonies raised an array of 8,500 men, thus propor- 
tioned : New Hampshire, 500 ; Massachusetts, 3,500 ; Rhode 
Idand, 300 ; Connecticut, 1,000 ; New York, 1,600 ; New Jersey, 
600 ; Virginia, 100 ; Mar}'land, 300 ; and Pennsylvania, 400. 
But all the hopes of the colonists were disappointed. Great Britain 
sent no fleet or army. The summer passed, and the colonial 

B^vemours determined to act without aid. Govemour Clinton, of 
ew York, with aid from New England, was to attack Crown 
Point, with the aid of the Iroquois. The New England men were 
to reduce Nova Scotia. But, tidings arrived of the arpval from 
Fnmce of a fleet and army, at Chebuild Bay, of 11 ships of tlie line, 
30 transports, and 3,000 disciplined soldiers. To this force, were 
added 1,700 men from Canada, and more were anticipated to be 
raiaed in Nova Scotia. 

The New England men armed by thousands, and raised forts to 
repel the enemy. They still hoped for succour from England ; but 
they hoped in vain. But the wind and waves protected them ; the 
French fleet, after various disasters, returned shattered and dimin- 
tthed to France. The government of England made no effort to 
{HTOtect the colonies ; but sent a force to guard Louisburg, leaving those 
who had added it to the dominion of Britain to guard themselves. 

Colonel Philip Schuyler, who se brother had been killed at the 
attack and destruction of Saratoga, demanded of tlie legislature 
tint fiMTces should be sent, and the fort rebuilt, for the safeguard of 
that part of the country ; and with difficulty provision was made for 
the defence of Oswego, the building of block-houses and other mea- 
sures fior the protection of the frontiers, until the promises of aid 
from Great Britain produced the effect, mentioned above, of stren- 
uous exertions, with the aid of New England, for the subjugation of 

About this time, tlie inhabitants of New York, were aroused 
to make some exertion for the cause of literature. It was re- 
solved to raise £2^250 by lottery, for the foundation of a college. 
New Haven commenced Yale College within six years of the time, 
when the purchase of the soil, on which the town stands, (then called 
Qninipiack) was made from the Indians. To England, or to Yale, 
such persons as had education above the grammar school, were 
sent. James De Lancey graduated at Cambridge, England ; Philip 
Livingston, the second proprietor of the manor, was educated at 
Tale* Now, 120 years from Hudson's time, the first law was 
.passed, for founding a college. Smith says,* he does not recollect 

* TV perMiif aDaded to, were : M eim. Peter Van Brash Livinstton, John Li- 
-'- — ^-- Phitip Lnriofiton» William LaTingston, William mchol, Benjamin Nidioly 


•btfVB ^*f**— tl ihii Iiiii6» in fk prafiwo oi N0V sdfcf vw nl 
ff B o e i f e d the benefit of m college mwaAimL 

Shiriqr, fHx> had origbaied tbe jpbn fiv tdd^ 
wbe prompted the tttempt epoB Cundi. A ■qneoRM kmm E» 
Ind was to have united with the New Enj^bad fans m Ln» 
harg, and thence proceed to Qnebee; while the anajr naad ly 
New York and the soutbem ooloniea, peneuifed hjlim oU 
10 Montreal The piovinciala waited unpaiieMlf fer &• 
ahipBy troopBy and generali fixNn home " none 
ezpenee, labour, and lota of life, ■ostained faj the 
ibr nothing, in the European account. 

Afker the govemour'a quarrel with die Chief Jvatioe^ 
De Lancey, Dr. CadwaUader Golden seems to have 

Clinton's mam support De Lancejr now was on the P^piv 
part : and his coadjutors were Clarkson, Jones, Van HsnSy 
itichards, Cruger, Pbillipse, Morris, and Nichols— ndie 
oes were, crimination and re-crimination, between the 
pmd the house of assemblj. 

The expedition against Canada being frustnted by Enclaad, iht 
New England proirinces wisely proposed, that New Yok sIimU 
combine with them, in the reduction of Crown 
sioneis appointed by New York, Connecticut, end 
agreed on a plan ; but the province of Massacbuaetts mised ohjee- 

tions, and nothing was done. New York retained 800 hmb 
1748 for the defence of her frontiers. In the month of October, 

definitive articles of peace were signed at Aix-la-Ch^icUe 
— Cape Breton, won by Americans, was given op by England, aad 
this country left to help herself as she could. Great Britain, boBF> 
ever, assumed to herself the expense of keeping the Iroquob ia 
good humour, by presents, and the govemour of New York had 
the pleasure of strengthening the hands, and increasing the fortune 
of his friend, Mr. Johnson, the agent. The assembly appointed 
Robert Charles, as their agent in England, and he held the appoint 
ment until 1770. 

Hendriek Htiaoii, WUliam Peaitree SmiUi, Ctleb Smitli, Beojanuii Woolwf , Wi- 
liam Smitli, juiL, John McEven, and John Van Horne. 

Tbete being then in the morning of life, there was no academick but Mr. Dt 
Lancey on the bench, or in either of the three branchea of the legialatinre ; and Mr. 
8mith waa the only one at the bar. Commerce engmoaed the attentmi of thi 
princj^ familiea, and their tons were oaaally tent irom the writing ichool to thi 
eoonting-houae, and thence to the West India island*— a prmctiee introd u fed by 
the peraecnied reAigees fVom France, who brooght money, arte, uad mammn, 
and figured as the chief men in it — abnost the only merchants in it, from the com- 
mencement of this centur}', until the distinction between them and others, was 
lost by death, and the inter-commonion of their posterity, by marriage, wiih the 
children of the first Dutch stock, and the new emigrania from GreatlinlMB and 
Irekad. The French church of New York contaiMd, btftre ihiii iiiMiM, in 
1794. nearly all the French merchum of the captel— South'a Hirt. of K. T. 


1749 The tobjed of a permanent support bill was renewed 
hj Clinton, backed by the power of the lords of trade, the 
English ministry, and the crown. The govemour told the bouse 
of assembly, that he had the king's instructions to demand appro* 
priitions for the support of government for five years ; i. e. to ren- 
der him independent of the people, or the representatives, for 
Alt time at least The delegates replied, that they would 
never recede from the method of annual support. The govemour 
denied their authority to act, except by royal commissions and in- 
sCmctions; alterable at the king's pleasure, and subject to his 
Kmitadons* He threatened them with punishment if they mis- 
behaved. He told them, that the giver of authority, by which 
they acted, had, or could put bounds or limitations, upon their rights 
and privileges, and alter them at pleasure. The assembly declared 
die govemour's conduct to be arbitrary, illegal, and a violation of 
dieir privileges.* 

Here was a spirit to resist illegal power ! Here was a sense of 
right and courage, to resist power, equal to any thing on record. Yet 
these people might be said to depend for protection, from the French 
end Indians, upon that power which they defied. Still they shrunk 
not; they repelled the aggressions of both secret and open usurpation 
widi valour and wisdom : they sustained injuries from both, but they 
never swerved from determined opposition to the hostilities of 
France, and the encroachments of England. They knew that the 
frontiers of the colony depended for defence on the Iroquois, now 
become the vicious and degraded dependants upon England, who 
ptawd through Clinton's hands their payment, in the shape of pre* 
aents, which he transmitted to Johnson, each retaining a share. 
Clinton likewise commanded the independent companies, and 
threatened to withdraw those from Albany, which were placed 
there to secure the place. The assembly were firm, denied his 
aasumed power, and refhonstrated. The insolent tool of kingly 
authority, forbade Parker, the printer, to publish the remonstrances* 
I faar that it will be found, that New York, in 1775, did not act 
with as proper a spirit as die men of 1749. In 1712, Govemour 
Hunter set up the same pretensions, and was similarly resisted. 

From these subjects, I turn with pleasure to one of a very dif- 
character. David Brainard, a man of feeble constitution, 
hat undaunted perseverance in well doing, had seen with pity the 
helpless condition of some of the aborigines, and the ferocious vices 
of odiers: all oppressed by the whites, whether feeble and destitute! 
la OB the searboard, or rum-fed and stimulated to violence, as in the in* 
teriour. Brainard died in the arms of Jonathan Edwards, at North- 
ampton, on the 9th of October, 1747, aged thirty years. Mr. Edwards, 

* See Kent, Smith, Colony Joanudi. 

.v^^ PAl'IDBliimi ^ '^ W. i- : .«r 

V. J^ uHKS (NibluilMd 10 accountof the life 
V i3H^ )HMriicuon of tueh at would liileD lo IniB, 
4^>I^M>^i (M DMtor of a church of cfarbtiaii Indianaf m 
n }>iwti«Mi ol' New Netheiiand. He appean to hn 

l^fMM ami Hincere christain from his youth, and to 

vety dr in making chriaiians of the surormg people a0 
devoiad himnolf. Certainly lie made many of them 
happier than thry were. At Croasweekanog, in New Jcn^v hBfjk^ 
tbtred aliout him an attentiTe congregation— lived 
a houae, buUt by himnelf— and acquired great mfloenoe, to the 
imnfovomont and happineu nf many* If theiv are 
mama of tliiii improvement, at least I rejoice that the j 
were made bouor. It ia aaid, that besides his influence 
Raritana, lie persuaded some of the haughty and blood 
Irequoia lo renounce their idol— -rum. But in many (indeed 
inatanrcs, even his wishes could not deceive hun, and he aai 
wlm listenml to himi departing to their feasts and dancea, which he 
ealls idolatrous, and devil worshipping. 

The principal success of this good nwn, appean to 
Crosswicks and (^ranbury. In one of hia jounieya to the 
hannah, he took six of the christian Indiana with him, but he coali 
only make the Indians listen, was anno3red by ungodly whiM^ 
and on a viitit to a sick trader, found him ** as ignonnt as aay 

At (Vnnhnry* ho hml a ftrhool for his flock, but his health con* 
tiniinl wnnin^ — \\v diod — nnd no traces of improvement from iai 
lsb<>urn, {or vwn of thrir rxistonco) can be found among ludian. 
Mr. Kd\vHn|}«V iMMik was published by subscripti(Mi, in 1749, and 
sold At ronihill, Uo5ton.* 

Antony \\\v innny I'nnscs wliich produced that resistance, in 1775, 
to whioli \\o owo 9iO many hlossinirs, was one which periiaps hat 
not h^'n jtiifViciontly noticed l\v our vnitcN. But when the cup it 
full, a drop more caiiyin^ o\ ertlowinir* 

A»l'olonrl lti^krt^, of Klizal>ethto\vn, New Jenev, was return- 
ing (um\ Ncu \ ork, in his own boat, with his wife and femily, and 
Nome friends, i)u\v unfortunately, (says the newspaper,) left the little 
Aa^ rtyin^ at their mast-head ; and on coming abreast his majesty^s 
ship, the t«iv\ hound, then lying in the Nortli Ri%'er,agun wasfired 
from her ; but the company, not supposing they were concerned, 
look no muiee ; on which a second directly followed, and the shot 
pawling throui^h the mainsail, struck a young woman, nuiae to Mr. 
Kieket3«, uho had a child in her arms, in the head, and instantly 

* 1i II rftimirktblf Uiat ftlth<iii|li Mr. Rimiiiard was m N«w Yoik, « 
1Y4I, nia. 9kM 1745. Imi jMuM h»t ao Mrt» of Ibe N«fro plot 


kiUed ber. The boat pui back, ibe pam landed, a coroner^s 
inqu^tsi w»s called, who bw.iirhi in a \ crdici of •• \^ iiiu": murder.'' 
Captain Koddam. who com. "landed ihe Circyhoand. wa* noi on 
board ai the lime- The irritaiion of ihe i»»\^:-ije, ai leolin; iha: ihev 
not onlv subieciei to iho numiilaiion of makinc a <ii:nai of 
iRide whenever one of iDc\r boai* passoil an Kniilish ship of 
in iheir own harbour, in sichi of uioir our. ho.-:se*: bnl xhau if 
by accident ihe signal of suhmis^ion s:K>ulri bo omiited for a mo* 
mencarv space of ii::")e. the iiiv.i:> :o br iauced of bv a liauchn* 
fareixm officer, or, perchance, a bni;a'; or drunken >aiior, iJicv were 
obnoxious lo a vioioni deain. Tncir irriraLon under ihe feeling* 
excited by this pncwf of their seniio s u:\iivilon ro>c for a lime to 
madness. Bui there was no redress. 1: \rr.s oniv ;o sav. ••! 
obeved orders ; his majesTv's fla; rn;isi l»c rc-spcciLHi — liie death 
was accidental.** and a':l must be silent. 

T he cov emo ur. i n conseq :: en c o o f this m ;: rd c r. iss ; * ed a procla- 
maiion. with an cMraci from his commission, con;,-i!n:n;; a proviso 
disab i ini: him fro ni all i .: risd ; c i : or. o \ i r r. n \ a c :i o :*. co m rn i :i ed on ihe 
hiffh seas, or in any haven, rivor. crirk.\c. b; .iny jx-^rson in actual 
•errice and pav on board iiis majesu's snips of uar : h;;:. mat anv 
one n d e r shall ^c p ro.'cod •:■ r. a c -i • • *> t b ^ c o : ;i :-.": i >> : o •.-. . u n d c r liie creat 
seial of Great Britain, as dinvied bv sri;ti::e of Hcr.r\- VIU. 

This eite.-:uaily screened any o.Tendcr. if pro:e^":od by a captain 
of a man-of-war, fro::i punishment, if tiic oiunc;- was committed od 
the w:ater. 

If the aholishinc this badjv oi sen iiudc. was the onl\ cood 
acnieiTed bv the revolution, it was .1 cain won:i ai. il\c b.ixvl shed in 
accomplishin£ ii. Tl^e exaction o: liiis si^Ti."i": iVom Vic :K>ats in the 
baiboux^ of our ciiies, was a memento oi ir.forioriiy — a of 
constant irritaiion — and aided with other c.'iu>is 10 produce that 
feellni: which burst forth in a feu vcaps from ::".is ::mi, 

Tne lor^is of trade, as mav hi» supposed. s.iiV>oned the cat»e 
of the covemour, who cu'::i\iteti t:>e fri; ."idsinp of KoPir Uuater 
Morris, who, shonlv ai'ier. went lo Kn^ and. in oppa*iiion to 
the \-iews of both Coiden and De Laneev. soliciied, \\ixl\ I lintoa's 


support, the omce of iieutenant-co\cr:.our of the prownce. This 
Itist Mr. Clinton the sv.ppor: of C'.ii n : ;.nd Mr. Altxander took 

his place as the adviser of :ne Adm.rrtl. 
ITtMl The House oi Assembly, of Seotembtr. 17 -SO, ainved 

better with the avowed ^ ie\\s oi iiox erno;:r I'l.nion- Maay 
acts were passe^i saluiar}' to :he pr^^'vinee, Fiu^ oincers 01 the co- 
iiemmenl wvre provideii for in liie en>u:n^ \e?.r. and a di^ressi of 

the laws of the ci">iony ar.tiwrised. 
ITo'J Mr. Smith was raised to Uie council, and under hi* eui- 

dance, an*i that of Mr. Aiexaniier. tix* cox emoiif and coun- 
cil nn^x ed in unison. Mr. Johnstw was also rai^ 10 be a menber of 

At kng's couiiciIt ind appoiHted to 
IroqiKMS and to dtttnimte [wcjcn t i ■moag 

giTe hiiii additioDil influeiiee villi tlHK 
1763 Clinton, having amaned a ii ii luii e, 

Tenuneoi of New York to dat of 
; and, at his recommendatioii, oir 
to supply the Yacancr. James Do 
lieiiienant-govenioar, and Morris tfansfaed to die 
chair of PennsrlTania. 

Mr. Clinton had not left die cooiitiy whca Sr 
anived on the 7tfa of September, 1753, hot hew 
in Floshine- As the aoi-emoiir was not at the 
fat. Sir Danrera went to Mr. Mottar^s house, who 
eommL Nest day Mr. Clinton came from F iuah in g, 
made Mr. De Lancer lieutenam-eorenioiir, he 
vemment to Sir Danrers Oshome. But wlule all the 
lejoicine, the new govemonr was mebncbolF. He 
ohac rv e d t on the 7t6, and in the morning of the 12ili» 
dead, su spended by a handkerchief to the fieaoe of Mr. Mmmf^ 
garden. It was afterward known that he had been 
he left England. 

This nnfeitiuiate gentleman had lost Us wife, and fand 
Attime of her death, Terr much depressed in spirit. Hia 
had hoped that by sending him to New York, the 
and employ roe nt« vvould have cured him of the erident 
ease under which he laboured : but, on his aniTal, he found thit if 
he obered the instructions of the English ministrr, he showid br 
SB odious to the people as his predecessor : the nature of fab 
ady made the difficulties of his situation appear insurmo 
madness ensued, and be became a sctf-murderer. 3fr. De 
who had been chief justice, bein; now lieuteoant-coTcmour. wm 
the head of the sovemroeni until England sent out another nucr. 
in Sir Charles Hardy, who was by profesnon a sailor, knev 
notbine of the country he was sent to eovem, and was cuidad hy 
Mr. De Lancer during his stav in the colonr. which was 

• . « • 

years, when he hoisted his da; as admiral, and left the 
entirelT to De Lancer. 

Sir Danvers could not but obsenre that amidst the afaooii and 
hurras of the people who welcomed him. were mincled ex< 
and insults thrown upon his predecessor : and he 
came charged bv the court of Great Britain 
more tyrannical than the conduct which called ferth thoee 
tioQs upon Clinton. He learned from the coorersaiioa of those 
vbo received and feasted him. that be was ordered to punoe 
sures eminently displeasinr to the colony, and Usmofhiilly 
Buad aaw nothing befeie him hot 

HIS nrsTRUCTioNflu 389 

The d9th article of the instructions to the govArnour recited thtt 
great disputes had subsisted between the several branches of the 
legislature, the peace of the province had been disturbed, governmetit 
subverted, justice obstructed, and the prerogative trampled upon ; 
that the assembly Irad refused to comply with the commission and 
instructions respecting money raised for the supply and support of 
government, had assumed the disposal of publick money, the no« 
mination of officers, and the direction of the militia and other troops; 
tliat sonle of the council, contrary to their duty, allegiance, and 
trustf had concurred with them in these unwarrantable measures ; 
and, therefore, it enjoined the commander-in-chief to endeavour to 
quiet the minds of the people, to call the council and assembly 
together, and in the strongest and most solemn manner to declare 
the king's high displeasure at their neglect and contempt, to exact dua 
obedience, to recede from all encroachments, to demean themsevea • 
peaceably, to consider without delay of a proper law for a perma- 
nent revenue, solid, indefinite, and without limitation, giving sala* 
riesto all governours, judges, justices, and other necessary officers 
and ministers of government, for erecting and repairing fortifici^ 
tions, annual presents to the Indians, and the expenses attending 
them; and, in general, for all such other charges of govenimeD% 
as may be fixed, or ascertained. It then permits temporary laws 
for temporary services, expiring when these shall cease; but such 
laws, also, are to be consistent with the prerogative royal, the com- 
mission, and instructions. It also directs, that all money raised 
for the supply and support of the goveniment, or for temporary, 
emergencies, be applied to the services for which it was raised, no 
otherwise than by the governour's warrant, with the advice and 
consent of the council, not allowing the assembly to examine any 
accounts : and afterwards it commands, that if any counsellor, or 
other crown officer in place of trust or profit,shall assent, advise, or con- 
cur, with the assembly, for lessening the prerogative, or raising or dis* 
posing money in any other method, the govemour shall suspend 
the offender and report it to the board of trade. By the 47th, the 
govemour was prohibited from assenting to a law whereby any gift 
was made to him by the assembly, in any other manner than above 
mentioned ; the 48th allowed him to take a salary of twelve hundred 
pounds sterlmg per annum; the 49th, to receive a further sum, pro- 
vided it be settled on himself and his successors, or during the 
whole of his administration, and that within a year after bis arrival ; 
the 60th required the three Inst to be communicated to the assembly 
at the first meeting of the assembly, after Sir Danvers Osborne V 

* Thm drenmitaiiees attending th« nnhappr fate of this unfortnnate gentltaas^ 
wil bt ibnad, at given by Chief Justice Smitfa, in the Appendix to tbiavobuae. 

toIh !• 47 

munlt and to be mned m dw iqpiiBn bodi of dto 

ISTM Nonridisteiidiiig dw traatjrof Ais4a-Chapdl%dto Fnadi 

fldll ooodnnad dmr^ aggreatioos tnd mMomammmm mi 

d» Americao Colooiea. That treagr waa link beoor 

lov trooe. Uosdlidaa had been, luid waie noir, 

oobjrbodi Great Britain and France, ahboi^b then 

de da i ati oq of war notQ two yean afierward. 

dfea 14tb Jnne, 1764^ a co ogi e as of deputiea bom eeiiua «f Aa 

jMO f a a cea waa held at Albany, to denie a onion fard efc o co . llB 

aaid diat the Iroqooia were diaaadsfied, in cooaeqoeBco of ** oMlatt 
lalriyoiperianeed from the agents of the Province of New ToiL"* 
OfeM great object of the congress was to gab tbdr fiieDdah^ar 
aeeore it— they b«ng the bamer of defisnoe between the £^^bb 
and French colonies. 

The inatmctions giren to the conuniaBiooers of two out ef Aa 
five colooies tliat sent deputies to this coogreas, vis. 
and Maryland, were lo enter into aoides of union and 
tiaa with the other govemnenta for the general interest, ea wal ia 
peace as war. One hundred and fifty of the Iroqoob attended, ani 
tbair attachment was atrengthened by presents and q i foclics . k 
waa determined to build forts and veaaeb on tlie lakes. It ma 
acreed, that all purchases of hods made of the Iroquois, 
wmn aaeembled in their publick councils, or when made by 
governments within whose jiuisdictioo the lands lie, should be 
void ; and that patentees of large unsealed territories should be 
obliged to setde thera in a reasonable time* Redress was to be 
affimled to the Iroquois for all fraudulent conveyances of their 
lands. It waa agreed, that the bounds oftho$c colonies vkUh extaM 
to the mMk sea should be contracted to the Alleghany and Aped^ 
ddan mowUains ; and that there should be an union of the cok>> 
nies, so that their strength might be exerted in due propordoas 
against the common enemy. Application was to be made for an 
act of parliament, to sanction one general government, includinc 
Maasachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Viipnia, North Caro- 
lina, and South Carolina— each to retain its present constitution, 
except as directed in the second article, which was to be as follows: 
That this general government be administered by a Presides^ 
general and CoimcU, to be appointed by the crown ; and a grand 
council, or house of representatives, elected by the people of the 
colonies, met m their assemblies. The proportion of membeis 
for this grand council, was to be : Massachusetts, 7 ; New Hamp- 

C3cicn or ramtaummM. 9H 

sine, d ; CoQDecticau 5 : Rhode Uand, S; New Toik, 4; Nt« 
Jester, 3 ; Peoasx Innii. 6 : MtrrUxid, 4 : Vircmi^* 7 ; Noith 
C<ro;Lai« 4 : South Cmnolina, 4 : to meeu at firsts in Philaddphii. 
Oeber netultiioas specified the ineetiat to be once i rear; but to be 
oUed tO£iether on emefgeiicie^ etc« The pr oT isenibers fras 
ID be lOsT sienini:, per day. and trareUin^ expenses* Rules wera 
adopted for Indiaa punrhises. New sectlemeuts were to be 
MrenMsl br hws iiside by this general goi^eniiiieDt* till fkt crwmm 
ibrsMd them into separate goremments. Ther were to laise 
loidiers* buiid torts« niake laws, hy dudes ; and other objects were 
provided for. 

We cerabhr see bete the gena of the pieseat coostiioMo of 
die United States^ Great Britab. or i& mimsiCfSs feared ibia 
wnioo : they pieiefred advancinr money to seciue their Ameriean 
domiaioiis. which was to be repaid by the colonies. Ef^tasd 
ie«ected tbe plan : and the colonial corenimenQ ako rejected i^ 
far fear ot* too |:mt power be:n|: p^ea to the crown. 

The znemheis for thb cteat council neie to be in the proportMNi 
befere enumerated. How the relaxire stien^ and consequenoe 
of these districts bave changed! 

The plan of union was the prodtsction of Franklin ; hot was sol^ 
Bitted to. and apnrovedof. by a committee, composed of — Hntdua* 

• of Massachusetts : Atkinson, of New Hampshire ; Hopkinab 
of Rhode Ishnd: Piikin. of Connecdcut: Smiih. of New Voik; 
Tasker. of Man land: and the orii::inai contrirer. Frankfin, of 
Pennsyliraaia. It is remarkable, that this pkn of confedeiatioQ was 
awied OB the 4th of July, and diat. on the same day, Washiiq;m 
aaneadered lo the French and Indians. 



Xk Cmgrm ff 1754 — Fw^^nm rf fk 

tfiaen—Afnn mi Omt^g^ mad atkar vmnM ^ Lmht 
— ExmJiii'¥m tf Gamal WHlkm Mmmm i 
Pmm$ — Hadntk—Gtmmd Lgmmm—Fmn Eii 
mnimm mi Lake Gtom — Ijgmam^ tmoMg a ganitom mi Fm$ 
EJmmH, joim kim—Banm Drnkm—Drftmi ff WUBma^^ 

At Provimcials — Jokmmm wmmiei^Lymmm m^ 

wcmmdedy mmd Um froom d*fiaui — Agar tf 

igm rf 1755— Lofrf Lomdum—U. MomieJm 

FiOt WiUiawk Baay, 

At tbe great congress of 1754, Lieateom f - govd iniar J« 
Do Lanoey presided, and vas the only person who opposed the 
pha Ibr tbe uoiod of tbe colonies viucb Benjamin FnakSa 
denied. Tboogb adopted, tbe acbeme was never carried itfi 

It has been justlj remarked, that this great plan of gorernmcai 
lor tbe colonies was rejected by England, as favouring tbe peoph 
loo mucb; and bj tbe co!onla] legislatures, as grring too mm, 

Ciwer to the crown. Americans bare thought that Franklin wooid 
▼e been banded down to posterity as an enemv to tbe liberties of 
his country, instead of an a'^tive friend, if this project bad sno- 
oeeded; but it is more probable that he saw in this union of 
American power and interests, the germ of future independence. 
James De Lancey might have seen it in the same light, and tbere- 
tbre opposed it. It must not be forgouen, that Franklin^s scheme 
was adopted by this congress of 1754, on the 4ib of July. 

During tbe two years that Mr. De Laocev had tbe sole goren> 
anoe of New York, be bad the confidence of the assembly, and 
preserved barmnny in the province. Many and heavy were tbe 
charge made against the late Govemour Clinton ; but they were dis- 
regarded by the board of trade. The assembly accused him of being 
interested in privateers— of hai'ing hired out tbe royal caoDoo— of 
Withdrawing troops from the frontiers for his private emolumen 
of embezzling tbe money raised for tbe Iroquois, and thereby 
tng their disaffection— of demanding money for troops which did 
Boi ezis^— of granting tracts of land for l^ own emolomeBlt sad 


securing lai^e districts for himself, under feigned names — and of 

selling offices, both civil and military. 
1755 In the meantime, the French carried on their plans of 
subjecting the western country to their goTernment, by a 
line of fortifications from the Mississippi to Canada. They erected 
forts on the Ohio, explored the country, and buried metal plates, 
with inscriptions declaraiory of their claims. That they gained 
the affections of the natives of the west, by flatteries and presents, 
we know; and their power over these Indians was as complete 
as their habits would allow. Even the Onondagas, Senecas, 
and Cayugas, were, in a great measure, detached from tlie 

Govemonr Spotteswode having ' penetrated the Apalachiao 
mountains, and Virginia having pushed her settlements to the Ohio, 
while France persisted in the erection of a chain of forts from 
Canada to Louisiana, the collision called forth the military talents of 
Washington. The hostilities of 1753, in this quarter, are well 
known. They produced the convention at Albany, iri 1754, and 
finally, the war between Enirland and France, in 1755. 

** The ministry," says Belknap, ** were determined to employ 
their own troops to fight their battles in America, rather than let 
the colonists feel their own strength, and be direct ^d by their own 
councils. Some aid was to be exacted from them ; but the weight 
of the enterprize, and honour of the victory, were to belong to 
British troops, commanded by British officers." These officers 
treated the provincials with undisguised insolence and contempt; 
and the provincials retrieved their errours, and, as much as possiblSi 
saved them from disasters. 

In the Gates Papers, in the librar}' of tlie N. Y. Hist. Society, is a 
letter from Jas. Abercrombie, to Horatio Gates, both officers in the 
king's troops or regular soldiers, wherein Abercrombie says, the pro- 
vincials are averse to " a junction with the king's troops," and adds, 
" since they are unw*illing to take our assistance, I would even let 
them try it themselves ; but have regulars at hand, to secure the fools 
in case they should be repulsed." In the same precious collection 
of sentiments and facts, is a letter from another brother officer, to 
Gates, in which are these words, " I send you a copy of Mr. 
Hughes's impudent letter, by which you may judge to what degree 
of insolence the rabble of this country will raise, if they are not 
brought down from home. This fellow was a baker lately, then 
a waggoner, and now, as an assemblyman, he thinks himself entitled 
to write to me in this style. Such letters should be answered 
with a stick, if the necessity of the service did not tie our hands." 

General Braddock was sent from Ireland, and arrived for the 
protection of Virginia. He called a convention of Provincial 
govemours at Annapolis, in Maryland. Here it was dettnmiied 


dM fbe Britisb genenl should nnreh ■gaiaii Fort 

GoTernoar SUrier , with the Amerieaa troops, ii^riif fS 

and die miliik of the DOfftbeni oolodies, agiiiiit Crown P< 

if 10 increase die disgim which die instdence of die rnj^Mrfi 

occssJoned and kept alive in die breasts of die 

Briush paiiianieDt passed an act, dedaring dnt all troopa 

die colonial ^veromeots, whenever acung in oooji 

BrUsh soldiers, should be fo%emed bj Enelidi martiai 

k bad ahead J beeo detemuoed, diat all officers 

his mafesrjTy or bis commander-in-cbief, should take 

those commissioned bj the provinces ; and chat die 

field officers of the provincial troops should have no rankt 

serving with the generals and field officers coaunissioiied If ike 

While preparations were maluns to carry into e&ct the pfassf 
die eonventMin of Annapolis, Nova Scotia w» reduced brtheSsv 
Endand ibrces, commanded by Win3low,snd some English iroapik 
wmder Monckton, then a colonel, but as a British officer. asHUUH 
the command of the expedition. Of the unmerited suffisiogs ii 
the French inbabiunts, in consequence of this conquest, I 
from speaking ; neither is it in my province to detad the 
mislbrtnnes, and defeat of Braddock. While Winslov 
morincials conquered Nova Scotia, Braddock and hij 
£nglish veterans failed at Pittsburz ; and the remnant of this 
army owed their safety to the d espied Wa^iiinartoa and hJ& M^ 
ginians. Franklin say?, - thi^i whole tran miction :iave b«, J! 
cans, the first suspicion that our expired ideas of the prowi 
British rezular iroop* had no: been we'.l founded/* The deata 
Braddock placed Shirley at the head of the British forces in 
rica ; for be had received a major-srencrai's commiisioD froca 
king. The troops destined against Niagara and Crown Point 
assembled at Albany. Shirley marched, wi'Ji the forces of \i 
England, New York, and New Jersey, toretiier with some Iroqnoii: 
and, on his way to Oswego, received the tiding? of Braddock*s 
defeat, which produced such an eSect, that his Indians, his 
men, and manv of his soldiers, deserted. 

Previous to this, the French had made preparations for 
ing tbe garrison of Oswezo, by passing their troops in batseaia wf 
die lake, on which the Enjlish had no vessels tk force. On tht 
7th of June, however, 320 ship carpenters arrived at Ofveeo, 
00 the 2Sth, the first armed schooner was launched 00 Lake 
lio. This vessel was forty fee: keel, had fourteen oars, and 
tardve swivels. The French force was on the opposite side of 
Onmidsga river, but bad no means of throwing sheUs into theEng- 
Ui §on of Oswego, or even cannon which coold annoj 
or bis garrison. 



It was on the 9th of July, Braddock fell; and on theSOth, Colo- 
nel Schuyler'3 New Jersey regiment arrived at Oswego. Shirley 
arrived on the 17tli of August. The French having retired, tlie 
Englisli took possession of both sides of the river Onondaga : andf 
in September, had a fleet on the lake of four schooners and sloopS} 
mounting sixteen cannon of four pounds, and forty-eight swivels* 
But the French at Fort Frontignac, below, had a squadron of supe- 
rioiir force, and it was supposed the defeat of Baron Dieskau, at 
Lake Sacrement, or George, alone saved Oswego, and prevented 
many other evils. Shirley proceeded no further than Oswego. 

Sickness assisted to weaken and disperse his troops ; heavy rains 
set in ; and the general, leavins; a garrison of seven hundred men 
at Oswego, with orders to build two more forts, returned discom- 
fitted, without seeing an enemy, to Albany. 

Mr. William Johnson, who, as we have seen, had emigrated to 
America, and settled in the vicinity of the Indians of New York, 
had, by his appointment as Indian agent, risen to wealth and influ* 
ence, so great as to be one of the king's council for the province. 
This gentleman was appointed by Shirley to command the expedi* 
tion against Crown Point. The army consisted of 6,000 men, 
supplied by New England and New York, Johnson is described as a 
man of great bodily strength, coarse, but vigorous mind, and enter- 
prizing temper. I3y long residence near the Mohawk River, and 
adapting himself to Indian manners, he had acquired great ascen- 
dancy over the Iroquois ; and Hendrick, the famous chief, now^ 
accompanied him, with 300 warriours. 

Gen. Lyman, second in command, had advanced to the carrying 
place, between the Hudson River and Lake George, and there had 
thrown up fortifications, known afterward as Fort Edward. He 
had left two hundred and fifty New England troops and five com- 
panies from New York at this place, and then joined Gen. Johnson* 
The remains of this stronghold are still visible. Johnson learning 
that the French were erecting a fort at Ticonderoga, on the isth- 
mus between the north end of Lake George and Lake Champlain, 
determined to attack them while their fortifications were incomplete* 
This intention was suddenly dismissed, by learning that Baron 
Dieskau, who had recently arrived in Canada with reinforcements, 
was advancing with an invading army upon New York. Johnson 
despatched messengers with this intelligence to the pronncial rulers, 
with requests for aid : but tlie affair was over before the reinforce- 
ments arrived. 

Johnson was reduced to act on the defensive at Lake George; 
Dieskau, finding the inferiority of his enemy at the carrying place, 
advanced with the hope of seizing Fort Fdward, and falling upon 
Albany ; but his Canadians and Indians turned bis course. The 
camp at the south end of Lake George having been fortified, in 

Inltoi bf Johuoo, he nshlf padied fimrndt 
CqL Ephraim Willkau, aooompanied bj Uendiifllu 

Tlw Heodrkk was an Indnii aacbeiii, of tbe Mohnrk 
vdl fcoown, previoQs to the time at which we haiw amviBil« m Ai 
gmti Uendrick. He was finn io his attachmem lo the Emffit^ 
and excelled amonff the Iroquoii any other chieC both in the( 
cil and the 6eU. He had the appearance of a man bon to 
amndf and hU eloquence and coiurage were oooqiiciMMS am 
diier of a people fiuned for theae qualities. Col. William 
the biographer of Joseph Brant, mjs, that his ~ 
Hendnck io this espedhioo. 

Baron Dieskaa had a force of two thousand men, of whom en|f 
eight hundred were diaciplined grenadiers, the rest Canadians ssA 
Indiani. Haviov proceeded up Lake Champlain to Su utl i b ay, is 
the present town^ip of Whitehall, he there landed, with a viewsf 
anackiDg the unfinished works of Fort Edn-ard; but his modf 
auxiUaries, tenifieJ at the idea of fortifications and cannon, refiusd 
to advance ; at the same time, professing their willingness to msich 
afiainst Johnson, at tbe bead of Lake George, who, as thej bad ia- 
tuUgence, was destitute of artillery. 

The French commander was obliged to give up his first pIsBb 
and turned his whole force towards Johnson ; who, in tbe dsik 
respecting tbe movements of tbe enemy, detached twelve bun d i Bd 
men to the carrying place, as above mentioned, or Fort Edward 
This body u-as cummanded by Col. Epliraim Williams, a native of 
Newtowo, Massachusetts.* 

* He commaiided • line of forts, in 1740, on tbe western s'de of Cuiuntticif 
r. and resided at Hoo#irk. near the rrrer of that name. In 17c5. be comamad&i 
% resiment ; a!>d in paMing thronch Albany, on hii way to Lake Geofffc. he (•• 
tha iiml of July ) oude his wiU ; wherein, a'ler ceitiin lenc':e«. be direc:cd b« c»> 
tate to t>e •old witbin 6ve year< from the e^iabtisibu eat o fa peace, and the is* 
of the proceed* applied lo' tbe e^rabli^hment of a fiee icbool. After an 
Loa of tbir:y year** mtcrert. from tbe time of hitdeatb.a freeacbool waai 
and incorporated, and tbe place called Williauirtown. Bv tbe patr otick Bi__ 
other ||ood men. this free whool tbri% ed an-l frew to be \V'illianM> Coitefe. a : 
Hbing ii»titDtion. Miiroanded hy a town likew^e commenioraava of Ike bum af 
ibit liberal minded man. who. marching at the bead of a regiment of his cooirf* 
men. lor tbe pro:ection of a pre'>ent population. Iroked forward to tbe prospcrilf 
of fotore generation*, by the increase nf tbe meaD« of edacation and propofatiMi 
of initb. He, and manv of bis neicbboon who !oUowed him, wara icnScid hf 
the btanden> of a man. wbo bluoderrd into fame and tbe title of Sir William, wnk 
any portion of that elevated character which belongs To the foonder of WtSi 
town and William*'* College. But CoL WiUtanu has leA a namo wkiek, m 
toontij, will be imperishable, and a monnment more glorioos than was cvoracal^ 
tared for a conqueror of nations : and eren his remiiuit— his bones bava boca Mr 
• abort timo redeemed from the obvnrity and nneartaimv wfaicb mac 
of in terment of onny of our patriots; and tbe skull, periorated bj a 
vilb soma other corroborating circa m ^ ances identinod, io ibo 
all tbat rwaaiM of tba bod J of Epbraia WiKna. 


Col. Williams, with this detachment, met the whole of Dieskau's 
army in a defile, about four miles from Johnson's fortified camp* 
This defile is formed by the barrier mountains of Lake George, 
continuing to the south, and extends several miles — ^a rugged, nar- 
row pass, filled with forest trees. Through this Dieskau was ad- 
vancing, to attack Johnson by surprise. The Indians accompany- 
ing Dieskau gave, from the sides of the defile, their deadly fire — 
themselves concealed by the thickets — ^and while Williams gallantly 
led his men to the charo:e, he fell bv a ball, which entered his 
brain. The remainder of the detachment, after resisting until most 
were slain, gained their security by a rapid flight to Johnson's 
camp, and gave warning of the approaching foe. 

The report of musketry had given the alarm in the encampment 
at Lake Gcorn^e, which was increa.^ed by ihe fusjitives ; and while 
the confusion existed, Dieskau's French forces appeared, marching 
in reijular order, with all the indication of resistless slrenjrth, which 
the uniformly com!)ined movements of disciplined troops always 
impress upon the beholder. The French commajider, instead of 
taking advantage of any panick his flying enemies might have created, 
concluded that a surprise being no longer possible, a regular ap- 
proach was to be made, and halted his men at about one hundred 
and fifty yards distance from the encampment. Time was given 
to the provincials to recover fnmi confusion, and to bring up heavy 
cannon, in aid of the field artillery, upon the French columns, 
who commenced a systematick firing, by platoons, which did no 
injury to men covered by a breastwork. With renovated spirits, 
the provincials poured a deadly fire upon their assailants, who were 
immediately deserted by their Canadians and Indians. Baron 
Dieskau being left by his auxiliaries, and finding that he could make 
no impression upon the centre of the encampment, moved first to 
the right, and then to the left ; but was repulsed by a deadly fire 
from the Americans, sheltered by their breastwork. The French 
obstinately continued their nnavailins: auacks until the severe loss 
and fatiojue created despondency and confusion among the troops, 
and an irregular retreat commenced. This was no sooner perceived 
by the provincials, than, without waiting for orders, they leaped 
from their covering and attacked their adversaries with fur}\ The 
French army was annihilated. Numbers were killed in their flight, 
and some surrendered as prisoners. A force, consisting of two 
thousand men, lost, in killed, about eight hundred. The remainder 
were dispersed in the woods, or made captives, wi h the exception of 
one body which retreated towards the Hudson. Baron Dieskau, mor 
tally wounded, was among the prisoners. He had received a ball 
in the leg ; and, unable to follow in the retreat, was found leaning 
against a tree, by a single soldier. The Baron seeing bis apDrotob* 
put bis hand to his watch, thinking to indicate his eurrenqer and 

VOL . I. 48 



gun Che fiiTOur of his enemy ; bm the soldier mistook die 
m an attempt to draw forth a pi8tol»aiiddt8cbargedhisnii»kel,is 
ball of which entered the unfortonate generars UpL He was es^ 
vejred to the encampment and every aid given him ; but lie eipini 
vpon the bed of his victorious adveisaij, the commander of As 

Two battles had been fought this day, hot still another aeew d 
abughter occurred. The body of the French, who kept 

passed over the ground on which they had in tlie morning 

CSoL Williams ; and when about four miles nearer Fort Edwmi 
finding' themselves unpursued, halted for rest and rel 
They threw aside their arms, opened their knapsacks, and 
•eated on the ground, among the trees, when Captain McGa 
and Captain Folsom, with two hundred men, sent from Fort Ed- 
ward, feu upon them ; and although the French attempted a d^ 
fanoe, by seizing their muskets and fighting without order, tky 
were routed, killed, or taken captives. McGinnes fell in tUs a^ 
tmn, say our historians : but Johnson only says, he was hrooghl is 
the camp wounded.* 

Nothing could more elucidate the fortune of war than Dieskaa's 
defeat and Johnson's triumph. The Frenchman was an experienced 
soldier, of hi^ reputation ; and his object was an attack npon aa 
entrenched camp, at Fort Edward, that must have fidlen ; but when 
within a few miles of the place, he was informed that JohnscMi wit 
at Lake George, unprovided with artillery, and that several cannoo 
were mounted at Fort Edward. A prisoner had informed him that 
Johnson bad neither breastwork or cannon to defend his encamp- 
ment — ^which was true, when the man left it ; but the guns arrived 
next day, and Americans require but little time to throw up earth Car 
defence, as Breed's Hill and New Orleans have since testified. 
Thus an experienced soldier was led to sacrifice his army and hb 
life, when, if he had proceeded as was first intended, it is not im- 
pr<rf>able that both the forces at Fort Edward and Lake George 
would have fallen before him. 

It does not appear that Johnson, whose fortune was made by the 
discomfiture of Dieskau, gave any orders for the pursuit of the 
French, when they were repulsed ; and the body which kept to- 
gether in retreat, would have gone oflf unmolested, but for the en- 
counter with Captains Folsom and McGinnes, an afihir of pure 
accident, or, at least, not influenced by Johnson. 

Baron Dieskau, though so severely wounded, lived to be con- 

Gen. Morgan Lewii infonm me, tint McGinnet lott an ann, and bocIm ile 
« Qiat in 1770-9-3. be rememben him well, attended br two bofl don « iki 
••■^Mfc^ in the Bewery. ^^ 

IN'jrSTICE TOWaRX>S general LYMAN. 379 

%•? vi»d iv-^ Albanv. and thcnri* to Now York and Endand, where h« 
c.-s^.i. Hon.-irijk, i:}0 Mohawk, fell in com-.'^anv w-iii WHliam*, 
o.::v rr^t ::!;';: ir.Ai :he hall whlci": iie>^a;ched him. en:en>d from 
bt :-,ir..i : for n a:"»> i.^ai iho drrar'nrnoni a^a? neailv «unvunded, 
hcu-^'c- I'^c VTCAC.-i \:i,\,.\A> o:>or.i\i ::H-ir Je^iruciive fire. 

Tr.t' -.":.■»>: rt .:v.-\.::".o i\r.'.: ^-j-i-inrt' in :he hisTon' of the event 
i>, mi: Jr-;r.-iso:i. in his ofr.riri". [oTTtT of Ser^iomher 9:h. l7ot>, to the 
Co\ir/.^..r? of ;>ro*iico> w:io :Tad f^mi^ned iroop? ior this espedi- 
xior: a-alr.s: CrowLi Pc*;;::. do?? no: on^^e mention General Lyman, 
ihe <»tvon.: in i?o whom.:*: •.a'ivoidar^V have continued the 
Cr:epce of tn:^ reno.:M. afier Jon:"i>on re.-* five J t:ie wo and in his 
thi^n. Trei-.-ie:': Di» ;^: :. r.:*.x"^n ::.e a:-.:hohrv of Mr, Bun. of 
W e -: rn o "v '. :■>. :: i . \ .* «v Y o r k . w :*; o ^a * on : n e > i>o: : and a re i" ie w , 
aiirir- .:::'•,: :o \\ .i...-.,'n l-A!.:^i:on. ::".e re vo".j:I"»nar\ Governour of 
Nc'V Jcrsr;.) ^:.y^. ::-.:> ■.vo.::*..'. w.:s rivtired a: the commenee- 
n^-n: of ::r h.-.::'.e. .-.r.i ;r.i: Ly:v;.ir: :o.'»k ;ne command, stationed 
iiini-r.f in f:on:. :tnn i^?.:o,i ::;> o.v.or? a? Os^'oasion denianded- 

1 : 15 1 . j; CA . .^ r a? >e r:o n . : . . a : 1 - "^ :"n a n r. r ~ed .\ ce n»^ra] iMirsuit of 
ihe e ."^ e :i: v . "i^ . ". . ." n \va> o » f rr .. . e n : ■ v J s> :: n >o n . L \ m an i? reppe- 
5en:ed by Pa :/;•::. ji* a :-.■.. rn vi.>:::'ir.'i>nfd for learning-, ho'iding t 
h,s:'^ rank a> a !.;.»\e-. ^i.^-.f.;^,: in .v-rson and manner*, and i>eloveid 
bv r..> >oi.; ;"r>. J.-a^i-i.-fv :> a:::\h.::ed :o ine coni man. 5 inc oSoer, 
wno om.::rn e^in :: t n.:n"!C oi l.\n":an. in :..> o.nci?.i de^patrhes.* 

1 n : . . i r :".*>. • :. :". . .". 1 1 .: : :" : : i" , i^- f Sf ;•: i- n- :»f : 1 > : :■• , 1 7 oo. a -.^ivared 
a ".ei:c:. fr.^v, :::i ;..o o:'.K'/.n>on. a.i.i.n: in a -oo^u^rrio:. ••General 
Lvrn.m. .^r.. i.i : x o:r. ."•::>. i-oi-.arcd w :n di?':ini:i:i>hed conduct 
a r »; i*l • . . "■- c-." . ^ «' t , .1 o "; n so n \\-..5 c re i : e .i a i »a ro n c : . w i : h a prwent 
o: j:'v'.'.\' srtT...-:^; r^in l-;»rnan. v:r.knoun in England, or onlr 
ra ;".■:■.: :.'^ Si i..4fii\:. :ian -.isLj-e op'lv d^-^ne him. bv ihe praise* and 
c;nf..:c. :i .«: :.,> ^ o.::::^ :v.t n. >o wriicr. nn:.. Presivic ni Dwighi, 
rt" :■.-:>«: n:eii :o iii ;"':::■:!.' :ne iri:e n-iri:> of th;s aiiair. or ^rave due 
crcn.: :o li;.v:ra. L\ nan. Tne >o."ond -.lar: of Chief J iisnce 
S:;-:.:..*s :..s:o:v -.^.is no: pjbiisried uniii 1SI\», bv the New Yoik 
li.s:o::ri. So. i: :_^ . 

lns:;.\n ^ f r.K.n-: ^dvanrare of :h:s vi.^iorw General Johnson 
c o n ; .:■..: c d : o fo r: . f >» l\ is ci :n p : an d . a : :ho u i: ^. i oi n ed by the troops 
ra:>;a a: n.s recies:. bv Massac ?!.:>t:Ls>. he made no aiiemnt oq 
C .": «v 11 i"* o . n: : an d :he Fre n: h , ;:n d is: ;* rt»od . raised T iconderoci, 
\t: :"..r::i';r wp,^:'. L*>e urriic^ry o: Ni-^* York, to that point of s^ren^th, 
u :-...- n soon ii'it: defu'd i.^je poae: o:' Abercrombie. 

* Sn>:-:=r: .r. ti:* r!*T.:.T.;it,:u--z, nf Humr. «:.y4^. xhi: or. J.Atiios'* k^&nuap dux dM 

t*: n&: uuL. 7ii\: aks uiz tttfu. Bd-ptxca^a l.AK't mtk -:o caicti xb« tsaemy," 
«-&» zht frncrft. « #\prrA«.iMi m tut ttrtfi. U»Mif1i do oar knrn ibctf bi 

The deftat of Dieskao was coosdend M a 
ftD of Bnddockyby the English govermneDt: and I Sad 
willing 10 Honijo Gates, who, with a wound in Us flMNildav wis 
Bniaed bj a relative of Cobnel Waahingtoot that happily fiv As 
lemains of Braddock^s armj, Dieskau had been pie i euiul 
peneiraiiog to the wesL 

On the 2d of September, 1765, Sir Chailes Haidj. 
adflunl, arrived at New York, commissioned as goremoor Al* 
thengh ignorant of the province, and of civil affina gencsaDf , ks 
waa gyided by De Laocey, who, b eflfect, continned 
Oliver De Lancey was brother 10 James, and employed by 
the coneems of the province. 

In October, the remains of Braddock's army passed New ToA 
city* in thirty-three transport vessels, from New Jersey, 00 thnr 
way to Albany. 

General Shirley, the commander-in-chief of the 
in America, summoned the govemours of the colonies to a 
greaSf* at New York, which met on the 12th of December, and 
agreed to raise 10,000 men, to reduce Ticonderoga, Crown Poia^ 
and the French forts on Lake Ontario. It was then proposed is 
mdnce Doquesne, and conquer Canada. Of all this, nothing was 
done ; and the French IndisiiS proceeded, as usual, to diancs^ 
bum, and ravage the frontiers of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
New YorL 

Though hosttliues had been carried on during the year 17-S4. it 
was not until 1760, that England and France form?ir,y declared 
war — both sending L-oops to tizht in America. Shiriej. m'cose 
plans had ail failed, was removed, and Abercrombie sent to succeed 
him, as confimandcr-in-chief, ad ijuerimy of his firitannick majesn-'i 

forces in America. 
1756 Lord Loudon, the permanent commander-in-chief, ar- 
rived at New York, on the 23d of Juh*, snd proceeded to 
Albany, where Governour Hardy then was; but Hardy retujced 
to the metropolis, 15ih August, displeased that Loudon ccctroUed 
him in military anairs. 

The French who had prenously, is has been mentioned, ure 

Eired to attack Osvejo. ha i been vi^rously opposed. Colonel 
radstreet bad defeated tlieir parties, in several skirmishes, 00 the 
borders of the Onondaga Rirer, which (alls into Lake Ontario, at 

The force of the enemv, on the lake, made i: necessarv to coa- 
vey supplies to Oswego, by ascending the Mohawk River to the 

CoBcmi confined of Shiriej. Hanfr. De Lukct. G 
nd, Cf ovtmoor Morm, of P«iuMTlruuL Filek, ^ ton 
Sctajltr. Majon Cnvce, St Ckir, sad ReikHfcH 


carn-inc piacc. and uCireridir-: Woo,^ Creek to Lake 0:ieida. and 
L" e ^. ) ."s o n /I r. -.'. 1 i : V c r. : ."» : ': c : r ." : . 1 1 : ;. r : ■ ". ^ ; . .'. : ? ;; ." :t n o ^'^ :: v i^ y w:: s 

^ ;.^ I* : » » .1.1 A . ..^ •."» . ..I. .. '•.-.* .s. ... .. 1' • I.. . 1 . », .jx . !. I » I • . « V *...'Tl~ 

««^. ,^- ., 

^ I • - . . * 

who.'*:'* of :..•: Vtc: r i.-.;....>. n:": : ^ i:!> .^;i:^c o:* :i:w?'Nt;rv. He 


•dC^.. <«••' !•(... .^ik. .-. ••■• •~... _ •••• X k . ••.kV..%«(.V* t-w <4*V4 lU 

A. w k ••..»■. ... ...... N • .'• .. i > • . .. . 1 . . ... «* N. I. V >'.. t .v.L \. iv* Ov. ..C 

■ . . . ■ 4 ■ 

vTi . t ;•. i .^.:. I ».. ■» i »,'«^ '■..-* , .»■.»..■. {.'A ...: C..*.'. r.i >!'';? 01 

• ■ ... . • « 

^ • .-. . _,^ .. i.^. . ^. ....... ........ ^« . . , . .....,.,...._.. «- ^ i. ,-y^ 

«4 .. . . .t .* ..'^ .^.., ....Avw^i. ^..K...«« *.•'•• A ^*A^ 

• •'•■•V. v'.t ■ V V..r. ^ a^ K I ' ^.a Ik. 'v.* «*..^i >. .• •li>K.**.iO a.M A 

2 or: .-.: i^.-'^f ,.>. 

0.-.vv::o. L.^r.: L >.:..■»; .-.:;..... ..: .\.. ."..*;. , .■.:.: .'.>.•::• v.:! :::o com- 


ir:>o:^5. A: 0?-.*::v'» \»-:': :^.::::\:: : ;:.' :-;.: .::i':i. i:-c>:.;f> work.nen 
a n li >.i . '. v^ ."5. r : . t t .'. •: . " ^ , i ••; - . .i i* ^ ; . . > :V r: •; o n I - .1 k i' C . ui n r»l ai n. 
h a i : . . > . : f > : :••: :\: : . ■. r: .1 r! y :". • r .: .' : . ."^ r. :: : K o r: V ro v:. ~r. .^ c .on t he 

« 1 . . • ^ 

Ti^^ -. .«> ; . ..•,.., .!> ..? \ .. ..,...: .0..' ■*. !....:...>. * » i rt* led 

« \ f - > t " • 

»■ . . » (". V. — * •• : , I . . a^a-. ■..>..■. .. .^ . ..-^ .'.-'. K> Oi ine 

n . ■ .: :■ .": >" e . II .' ■ . •; • ;. * .. "^** i" .^/, v.' : v- f n , v • .-. w ; . . . -^ rv^ ./.r- i i f :: . W c ob 

. .«...■ '..'•If. ^v.. .1 • '. .. l.'':*?v\« t.L ..Nt*i'. .'li... ..l.v.lli.19 

\. . . . 

. .. *^*'. ■' . ** 

..L .'.^■. . :. > : :* . . . i I -.'. . * • V. I .. a. I i «.. Oi .A .... ,J>I « 

^ * \. k. . « ■ ; .;.".,. ... .1'. . «»...... I' . 1 '>.. .1 '. . ...I i..-j . .>i,iii 

Fc:: \.'.*.::..x M. .v....:-; ^--::. C: :.: . • .\f';:r'r :: e K:"; >.: forrc. bv 

t .: r : • ■ r ■." * : . " :^ ■ » ■, • ".■ k '^ : ' v * ■-;•.•* H ' ^ ■ * :■ r.: y ..: t" .:'..*> : Gcrrj e 

,\ ... :>!•:•.■.:...*.. •.:-..-■■.■■ v 1»-<k-. : .-.i :.*.^ :-.--r~ir».-!<r ;*'':> f Prcnph 

ar.T.. .r. \ :\ T : M .- : * .: M :.-.' -.r. & *.-.*• cLvf Kz:i crcrrfjfJs. col- 
' kr. :.rrTt ::" :"\< •.:..-^;:*^ri rf;.: .•.r :::*fr*. tk.'Jj n:l.i.a &ad ladiaBft. and 

which was cftcaed oa die I4di — ihe gurooa 
of war, to be exempted fnm 

I'be lenK of apiaibiioQ 

afiefwvd* made^ thii ifae IndaM coold doc he 
ihcT fiwchi ibr, end bad beeo pnmited pl nad ei ; 
of ^tKir TOiiooK haTU£ been killed, tfaer woald 
hfaiodofdie pffimoo? in letnra. British offioen and 
and ibear dodws tarn boin diem. 
dutnctkjtf on die fourade. vefe naaaacred ; and a 
irim kj «Mmi«d ia bb im^ ara$ killed, and viA oihen ( 
dHahlcd) scalped. FinaUr, Mooicalm cave op tncij oMn i 
Indjanr lo be snnifired. ia lieu of a« mainr that tber bad 
finch aie die cjarfe^ miJe afiiost die Fnmcb coQunaodtf ; 
tfarr bare die nwffv i»ve trocn die subsequent traaaactkms at F 
^iKam UcsiT. 

The priMNMS wcie aiieraaid& according to capitnlatian, 
t» MoncreaL and bid no reaion io compbin of 
Tni^ Tirso» demolished the fores, and remor e d ihet^* 
dkrr and aamaajbon. tibe has Jrcd and tventr one cannon ftl 
iatn lieir hmii^ (vaneen mo«tir«. vddi warlike Aoies of cverr kiai 
and abnniaai pnniMon. Two «ioop» and tvo batteaox 
pnK» ; ani x^pe ioh;$ oe" ui« pmst caused ceneral 

Tr-;* »•** 'TK x^ »■ ..">.vn~: V"£-:?sr::oa of uie camriaim. Lord 

die c\^:>c.x>>: vV Ct\-^«»*- IV.-T i: i ;'-:.: re *:aT. which nerer arrirad. 
Fctft Wi^ii't; HtfT"**. i: :^Tf rK*i of Likf lie»>rre, wi* eiecied. or 

T&f rv^ le *vtrl « r: Ki»a' of :-* :r»*;.i* :o our cinr. and l e yair ed 
ihidief ^i."jw»f .i. Tr^e i3:^'::-t^ rv^-.^w-i-^r quaner* ibr the oSceis. 
ma« be >e<z :o'i ;r "J>f wi^ri* t>f C: lef J-jike Smith : " ifae mt- 

and jric \>t \.\f^rtjr<^ i>i>^: f f:v, lo ar.ii iivii^nr? ior ibcm^ehes. 
Wbec use <\ir. ci""?* c-ow:: is IVif*-n3>cr. ije #^n: fcc Mr. Cromer, 
the a-i*v>T. Ar\: :7t>A«£if>: u^i ibe o5^"*t* of e^err rank $ixM«kl be 
eseccMv>f fi^Tc: ff .\;«r»< : 1::^:. :o ^oo^Uff t.izi* ^Ije^red dial Uixs va» 
ewrfe «r»^re ix •c^.iisix^x. : ar^d i:^: :>e £.xi. ia conshieiatioQ oi* ocr 

hi«4 KA«t i» ihr tfnf4 •fXbmmt. 

LORD LOUDON cnmmander-in-<:hisp. 383 

efforts, put the array to imcpnveniences by so wide a dispersion ; 
but signified, that if he made difficulties, he would convene all his 
troops here and billet thein himself. 

" The mayor desired time lo consult the body over which he 
presided. The death of his siiter made it necessary to apologize 
for the delay of the. answer, until her funeral obsequies were per 
formed. But his lordship insisted upon a speedy compliance, and 
told the committee he would meet them on the subject ; and to 
convince them that free quarters were every where usual, he would 
assert it upon his honour, * which (says he) is the highest evidence 
you can require.' The demand took air ; the citizens raved, and 
the corporation, consisting generally of elective officers, were at 
their wit's ends, concerning the course to be pursued. They flew 
to the governour, but he answered them with reserve, caution, and 
duplicity : they called a meeting widi the judges and city members : 
— Mr. De Lancey did not attend till the second convention, and 
excused himself from giving an extra judicial opinion, but it was 
supposed that Mr. Watts spoke his mind in favour of tlie people. 
The act lately passed, gave authority to billet first Upon inns, and 
the surplus upon private houses ; but supposing the inhabitants 
were to be paid, authorized the magistrates to rate the allowance : 
beyond that, the magistrates durst not interfere through dread of 
prosecution. A committee was appointed to his lord!>hip, and ano- 
ther to present a memorial to the governour, imploring his medi- 
ation, and asserting that free quarters were against the common 
law, and the petition of rights, the stat. 21. Car. II. and the muting 
and desertion act ; and that the colonists were entitled to all the 
rights of Englishmen. The governour escaped, for as soon as the 
earl saw the opinion of the corporation, he re])lied to the maypr» 

who alone was admitted to his presence, *God d n my blood! 

if you do not billet my officers upon free quarters, this day, I'll 
order here all the troops in North America under my command, 
and billet them myself upon this city.' The magistrates, counte- 
nanced by the conscious dread and impotency of the citizens, pro- 
moted a subscription to defray the expenses, and a calm ensued ; 
but with a general abhorrence of the o|)pressor, who soon after pro- 
ceeded through Connecticut to Boston." 
1757 On the IGth of February, 1757, Sir Charles Hardy met 
his assembly at Flatbush, and told them that reinforce- 
ment^ were coming out ; that the people of the Massachusetts Bay 
were to contribute, and pressing the immediate levying of our 
quota, renewed his importunity for money to settle the partition 
Hne with New Jersey and the Massachusetts Bay, blood having been 
lately spilled in the manour of Livingston ; and pursued his object 
for the vacating of the patents, which he was pleased to call exo]> 
bhant grants. They promised their proportion for the prosecution 

oflbte wir« to troid the impotitioD of hang i 

ovo ruin by tedioas delajsaod resolutions, or ill-dmed 

but waired any provision for the settlelneDt of likies* tiD diqr 

Btj with propriety that we hid lands to divide ; iotimatad dm lit 

qoit-rents were a proprr fund to defray that expwae ; and* 

in^ the grants, informed him that they were purchased bjr 

nble sums-, paid not only to the Indians, but the olBcci a of lit 

government, in fees equal often to the valoe of the had gnunl; 

that what he urged was a proceeding harsh and danymt, 

BOW not necessanr, as die Indians were not obstmded in die 

of the land ; and that they thought it of consequence to lay 

line of townships on the frontiers, to be given to setders 

fee or reward ; and. as the small-pox then compelled them to 

out of town, diey wi^h to attend only to what respected the 

Sir Charles having been appointed to command the 
against Louisburg, hoisted his flag as rear-admiral of the blue, 
embarked on the 2d of July, leaving the government to James Dt 
Lancey. The admiral-govemour had been the fortunate captaia of 
die yacht which brought his sacred majesty safely to Engbnd ; far 
which aervice, the captain had been knighted, made a go > » ef n oar, 
and now commander of a fleet. We turn from Sir Charles to aaih 
dier noble. Lord Loudon, the commander of the king^s army, lAt 
was to drive the French into (and from) Canada. 

His lordship summoned the Govemours of New England It 
meet him in New York : and aitribuied the dijastei? of last rear lo 
their supineness or ne::!i2ence, at the $ame time demanding addi- 
donal troops. Tlie prounre? overlooked his insolence, and con»- 

})Iied with his demand?. They were not to be dispirited by mis- 
ortnnes caused by the government of Enirland. or the incapaciry of 
the men sent to command them. A respectable army was cbecp- 
fully raised by the colonies, and placed at the disposal of the British 
general. New York furnished 1.000 soldiers; New Jersey and 
New England their full prop^jrtion. and when his lordship departed 
for Halifax, he left an army of 6.000 men, under General Webb, 
prepared for operation? azainst the enemy. Webb, with 2,300, 
was posted at the south end of Lake George ; 1,500 were at die 
carrying place, on the Hudson, called Fort Edward ; and the 
remainder scattered at various posts of the prorince. This dirided 
force did not look like an attack upon the Freneh ; and, in hcL as 
we shall soon see. Montcalm was preparing on Lake Cham- 
plain, of which he had the full command, as well as of Ontario, to 

* A long memoritl. drafted bj Mr. Scott, to urge tbe mmemkij to 

tnmsj witfa New Jtraej % proviDcial cfauxe. and wtmtmnmd iW laih •fFd^vaj* 
1756. wmi sow printed, on the motion of Mr. OWr Dc i«Doer, who «V Sit 
'*'— become m tertrt cd m a proprietor of New Jervej. 


ben^trate Lake George, aud act on the offensive. He collected tt 
St. John's, an army, and 300 batteaux to transport them; and in 
July, Webb had intelligence that the French army were daily filing 
off from Crown Point to Ticonderoga, and he. let Mr. De Lancey 
know that he was in expectation of an attack. Lord Loudon's 
ittention, and that of tlie English commanders in America, was 
atdracted towards Louisbourg, now deemed of great importance i 
and M. Montcalm seized the opportunity to advance by the strait 
near Ticonderoga, and by traversing Lake George from north to 
•duth, to fall upon Fort William Henry. 

This fort had been erected on the spot where Dieskau had been 
defeated i but appears to have been on ground, otherwise, unmil^ 
tiiry. It is described as being a square structure, with regular bas- 
tions at the angles — bordered on the east and on the southsides by a 
swamp — on the west by a valley — and oti the riorih by the lake, to 
the waters of which, it was almost on a level. It was overlooked 
by the lauds in the neighbourhood, and commanded by the emi- 
nence on which Fort George was aftenvards built. 

On the 3d of August, De Lancey learned, by express, that the 
enemy were, on the 30th of July, within twelve miles of Fort Wil- 
liam Henry ) and the govemour set out for Albany, ordering de- 
tachrtients of militia to follow, and collecting when arrived, m^hich 
Was dot till the 8th of September, forces for defence. The New 
York militia marched on the 13th. 

In the meantime, Montcalm bad been forwarding troops toward 
t'ort William Henry. Three attacks had been made by his advance 
parties, and repulsed. On the other hand, 400 men, provincials 
Imd Indians, had, under Colonel John Parker, proceeded down 
the lake to attack a post near Ticonderoga, wliich the French had 
established. The enenry, having intelligence from prisoners, of 
Parker's design, lay in ambush for him, and succeeded in cutting 
off the whole detachment — only two officers and seventy men 
returning to William Henry. 

Lord Loudon and the other British commanders at HaliiaXf 
having ascertained, As they Concluded, that the French force at 
Louisbourg was too great for the assembled armies which they had 
drawn from the colonies, and navies from England, gave up all 
thoughts of action : and Montcalm seized the opportunity given 
him, by Loudon's carrying a portion of the strength of New York 
on this fruitless errand to Halifax, and advanced rapidly with a 
force of 9,000 men, from his lake fortresses and Canada, to the 
siege of Fort William Henry and its garrison of about 3,000 men, 
under Colonel Monroe. This post had another in its vicinitjN— 
Fort Edward, with a force of 4,000 men, under General Webb. 
But Webb i^mained inactive at Fort Edward, within fourteen miles 

VOL. 1 *9 


^ Monroe, and gave neither asdstance nor advioei cxoepC Iq^t 
letter, tdiwng him to surrender. 

The French general summoned Monroe to the eune eflbctt wi 
told him that humanity prompted him to desire the surreoder oTlhi 
fort before, by a vain reaiaunce, the Indians of hb army abodldhi 
provoked beyond his power to restrain. " I hare it* yet, in wf 
power," he said, ** to restrain them, (the savages) and c4>lige iImb 
to observe a capitulation ; as hitherto none of them have been UM; 
which will not be in my power, in other cibeumstances; and ]ra« 
insisting on defending your fort, can only retard the loss of it a fiw 
dajrs, and most of necessity expose an unlucky garrison, who caa 
receive no succour, considering the precautions I have takcni"* 

The answer of the colonel was verbal ; that be would defaai 
the fortress to the utmost : and he did his duty feithfully ; but hii 
ammunition being nearly expended, and all hopes of succour fros 
Fort Edward at an end, he capitulated : agreeing for bimaelf and 
carrison, not to serve against the Frencli for eighteen moiidii: 
Montcalm, on his part, allowing the garrison to march out with Ai 
honours of war— their baggage secured — and an escort for saielj 
from the allies of France, until their arrival at Fort Edward. 

Montcalm knew that Webb lay, with 4,000 men, within feoiteea 
or fifteen miles of him, and granted good terms, as he molt 
have expected that aid would arrive to the besieged from Fort 
Edward. We must believe that he intended to fulfil bis engage- 
ments ; but when the savage is armed for murder, and his expecta- 
tions of plunder disappointed by the avowed intentions of the 
general to protect the baggage of the garrison, we can easily imagine 
that the passions of the Indians would be aroused to fury ; and 
probably he felt as if cheated, by the collusion of the whites, both 
of his feast of blood, and his much desired militar}' equipments, 
arms, ammunition, glittering dresses — all wrested from his grasp, 
by tlie terms of capitulation. But, certain ii is, that Montcalm and 
his troops did not risque the displeasure of the Indians, by defend- 
ing those who had trusted to the sacredness of a treaty ; and what 
makes his conduct appear more atrocious, is, that at Oswego, he 
had yielded to the demands of his Indians, and had given up to the 
hatchet or torture, twenty of his prisoners, to be immolated to the 
manes of twenty of their comrades, slain by their enemies. We 
know, likewise, that on former occasions, the French officers had 
rather encouraged than repressed the murderous ferocity of their 
allies ; and the conduct of the commander at Michilimackinack, in 
1693, is well known— when the Iroquois were invited to (east on 
the flesh of a prisoner, taken from a tribe at enmity with tbem. 

* 8«« Dwif ht*t ThiTels, toI. 3, p. 377. 


The details of tortures inflicted on the captive, as given by Golden, 
tre disgusting; and the example set by men, called civilized and 
christian, makes us doubt the intention of Montcalm, in the present 
instance, to repress the cruehy of his allies. That his disciplined 
European soldiers. could have protected the prisoners, cannot be 
doubted; that they did not, is equally certain. It is to be feared, 
that this accomplished general sacri&ced honour and humanity to 
the policy which told him, that he must not shed tlie blood of tlie 
Indian warriours in defence of what should have been dearer to him 
than any aid such friends could afford, or any political advantage 
that could be gained to his country by their alliance. 

Again : the conduct of Monroe and his garrison ought to have 
excited the respect, if not the admiration, of a soldier— ^nd a brave 
one — as Montcalm certainly was. The place defended, was i 
wretcbf^d, untenable fortiQcation ; and the enemy was kept at bay 
six days; ten of tlie largest cannon of tlie English had burst; and 
Monroe's means of defence were exhausted, before he called a 
council to consider of terms or surrender. 

Certain it is, that Montcalm knew the danger that the prisoners 
would be exposed to, from the Indians; his letter proves it; his 
conduct at Oswego, and all his experience prove it : yet he did 
not furnish an escort sufficient to protect the men he was in honour 
bound to secure from injury, or even insult ; and the troops de- 
tached for the service, made no effort to resist the attack of the 
Indians upon the defenceless captives, they were, as we are to hope, 
ordered to guard from harm. It is to be feared, that the guard was^ 
a mere mockery. 

No sooner did the Indians see the troops divested of their arms, 
than they rus